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  2. 2. 2• Sir UsmanPervaizPRESENTED TO:• Kamran AsadL1F12BSEE2076PRESENTED BY:Topic: Wind Turbine
  3. 3. • A wind turbine is a device thatconverts kinetic energy from the wind,into mechanical energy , alsocalled wind energy; a process known3as wind power. If the mechanical energy is used to produceelectricity, the device may be called a wind turbine or wind powerplant
  4. 4. • The first automatically operated windturbine, built in Cleveland in 1887 byCharles F. Brush. It was 60 feet (18 m)tall, weighed 4 tons (3.6 metric tones) andpowered a 12 kW generator.• The first megawatt-capacity wind turbinein the USA, in 1941.4
  5. 5. Parts of a Wind TurbineNacelle56 tonsTower3 sectionsBlade112’ long5
  6. 6. •Anemometer: Measures the wind speedand transmits wind speed data to thecontroller.•Blades: Most turbines have either two orthree blades. Wind blowing over the bladescauses the blades to "lift" and rotate.•Brake: A disc brake, which can be appliedmechanically, electrically, or hydraulically tostop the rotor in emergencies.Part ofWind turbine•Controller: The controller starts up the machine at wind speeds ofabout 8 to 16 miles per hour (mph) and shuts off the machine atabout 55 mph.6
  7. 7. Gear box: Gears connect the low-speedshaft to the high-speed shaft and increasethe rotational speeds from about 30 to 60rotations per minute (rpm) to about 1000 to1800 rpm, the rotational speed required bymost generators to produce electricity.Generator: Usually an Induction generator7Is used that produces 60-cycle AC electricity. High-speed shaft:Drives the generator. Low-speed shaft: The rotor turns the low-speed shaft at about 30 to 60 rotations per minute.Part ofWind turbine
  8. 8. •Nacelle: The nacelle placed at top the tower andcontains the gear box, low- and high-speedshafts, generator, controller, and brake. Somenacelles are large enough for a helicopter to land•Pitch: Blades are turned, or pitched, out of thewind to control the rotor speed and keep the rotorfrom turning in winds that are too high or too lowto produce electricity.•Rotor: The blades and the hub together are called the rotor.•Tower: Towers are made from tubular steel (shown here), concrete, orsteel lattice. Because wind speed increases with height, taller towersenable turbines to capture more energy and generate more electricity8Part ofWind turbine
  9. 9. •Wind direction: According to wind directionthere is two types of turbine upwind ordownwind turbine, upwind is operates facinginto the wind and downwind turbine is facingaway from the wind .•Wind vane: Measures wind direction andcommunicates with the yaw drive to orientthe turbine properly with respect to the wind.Yaw drive: Upwind turbines face into thewind; the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the wind as thewind direction changes. Downwind turbines dont require a yaw drive,the wind blows the rotor downwind.•Yaw motor: Powers the yaw drivePart ofWind turbine9
  10. 10. Types of wind turbineHAWT: Horizontal Axis VAWT: Vertical Axis 10
  11. 11. How does it works??• A wind turbine works the opposite ofa fan. Instead of using electricity tomake wind, like a fan, wind turbinesuse wind to make electricity. Thewind turns the blades, which spin ashaft, which connects to a generatorand makes electricity.• Wind turbines can be used toproduce electricity for a single homeor building, or they can beconnected to an electricity grid(shown here) for more widespreadelectricity distribution11
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  13. 13. Types of Electricity Generating WindmillsSmall ( 10 kW)• Homes• Farms• Remote Applications(e.g. water pumping,telecom sites, icemaking)Large (250 kW - 2+MW)• Central Station Wind Farms• Distributed PowerIntermediate(10-250 kW)• Village Power• Hybrid Systems• Distributed Power13
  14. 14. 14Suitable location• To be considered a good location forwind energy, an area needs to haveaverage annual wind speeds of atleast 12 miles per hour.• Brockport:– 14.5-15.7 mph (6.0-6.5 m/s)• Offshore:– 16-20.1 mph (7.5-9 m/s)14
  15. 15. Advantages of Wind Power• Wind turbines do not produce anywaste, greenhouse gases, toxins orby-products that can harm theenvironment• No air pollution• Wind farms can be built offshore• A good method of supplying energyto remote areas• Land beneath wind turbines can beused for farming and grazing.• Wind turbines require no fuel.15
  16. 16. Disadvantage of Wind turbine• Cost high.• Wind turbines are noisy.• Usually large and clear location is used for wind turbine.• High maintenance.• Power density is very low.• Needs a very large number of wind mills to producemodest amounts of power.• Harm for birds.16
  17. 17. Transmission• A group of wind turbines canmake electricity for the utilitygrid.• The electricity is sent throughtransmission and distributionlines tohomes, businesses, schools, and so on.17
  18. 18. Large Wind Turbines• 450’ base to blade• Each blade 112’• Span greater than 747• 163+ tons total• Foundation 20+ feet deep• Rated at 1.5 – 5 megawatt• Supply at least 350homes18
  19. 19. Information• Efficiency varies by machine~ 40% of wind collected will be turned into electricity• The earth receives 1.74 x 1017 watts of power (per hour) fromthe sun• About one or 2 percent of this energy is converted to windenergy (which is about 50-100 times more than the energyconverted to biomass by all plants on earth• Pakistan is developing wind power plants in Jhimpir, BinQasim , Keti Bandar and Gharo in Sindh.• At 15° Celsius air weighs about 1.225 kg per cubic meter, butthe density decreases slightly with increasing humidity.19
  20. 20. Wind Turbines (flights of fancy)20
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