Time & Travel by Karl Hoenke


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Time-lines, weather lines, ocean travel...during earth and climate changes... Here's some well researched data to help see the broader picture over thousands of years of travel and commerce over the globe.

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Time & Travel by Karl Hoenke

  1. 1. 1<br />Musings on Dark Ages, Climates and ConnectednessContext & Perspectives<br />Presented to Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS)<br />by Karl Hoenke<br />26 September 2009<br />Marquette, Michigan<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Why’d it take us so long?<br />Dust Veils & Dark Ages<br />Things “out of place” <br />Glance at prehistoric Copper Industry <br />Introduce a few pre-Columbian maps<br />Recommended reading<br />
  3. 3. Average World Temperatures °F<br />Younger--Dryas<br />Toba Eruption – Mankind reduced to ~3,000 individuals (bottleneck)<br />Nashville<br />Chicago<br />Calgary<br />Nome<br />Comet Hit – End Ice Age<br />+9<br />Average Today = 57 °F<br />0<br />-9<br />48 °F<br />-18<br />39 °F<br />-27<br />30 °F<br />-36<br />21 °F<br />50<br />100<br />90<br />80<br />70<br />10<br />60<br />40<br />30<br />20<br />0<br />Thousands of Years Before Present (kBP)<br />
  4. 4. Stability<br />Average Today = 57 °F<br />± 2.5°F !!!<br />48 °F<br />39 °F<br />30 °F<br />21 °F<br />30<br />20<br />0<br />10<br />Thousands of Years Before Present (kBP)<br />Average World Temperatures °F<br />
  5. 5. Temperature Perspectives<br />+2 °F<br />-3 °F<br />
  6. 6. Selected, but Key Dates<br />11,000 BC Comet struck N.A.<br /> 5,500 BC Black Sea Inundated<br />2,354 BC<br /> 1,628 BC<br /> 1,159 BC Dust Veil Events<br /> 207 BC<br /> 540 AD<br />
  7. 7. 11,000 BCComet strikes Upper Midwest Ice Sheet<br />Approximate End of cave painting era in Europe<br />Megafauna disappear from North America<br />World ocean levels rose 300 feet, episodically, over next 6,000 years, inundating coastal settlements world-wide<br />Signs of recovery in Europe:<br />Ćatalhüyük & Göbekli Tepe, Turkey (9,000 BC)<br />Jericho, Israel (9,000 BC)<br />Woodhenges, Britain (8,000 BC)<br />Megalithic Culture, Atlantic Europe, (5,000 BC)<br />Signs of recovery in North America<br />Archaic (& Red Paint) cultures begin ~5,000 BC<br />Mound cultures begin ~3,000 BC<br />Old Copper Culture begins ~3,500 BC<br />
  8. 8. 5,500 BCMediterranean Floods Black Sea<br />Indo-Europeans disperse<br />Farming begins penetrating Europe EW<br />Major shift from Matriarchal to Patriarchal societies in Mediterranean region<br />Possible event remembered as Gilgamesh and Biblical Flood<br />
  9. 9. World-Wide “Dust Veil” EventsTree Rings Show 5-10 Year Effects<br />Chinese, Roman, Mayan, Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian:<br />“Sun has no warmth”<br />Crops fail due to extended draughts<br />Wide-spread famines<br />“Sun casts no shadow”<br />“Stars not seen”<br />Summer frosts kill crops<br />Irish bog oaks, California bristlecones, German & Turkish trees show no-growth rings<br />Ice cores may show sulfur signals, narrow bands<br />Synopsis made from Baillie’s Exodus to Arthur<br />
  10. 10. Three Candidates for Disturbances<br />Volcanoes<br />May produce Sulfur signal in ice cores<br />Effects last 2-3 years at most<br />Marine “Outgassing”<br />Effects local or regional<br />Effects may imitate plagues<br />Comet &/or Bolide Strikes<br />Effects differ for marine or land hits<br />Can vary from local to world-wide<br />Can have prolonged effects<br />Effects captured in myth imagery<br />
  11. 11. 2,354 BCEruption of Hekla IV<br />Chinese floods & famine<br />Sudden water level rises in Irish lakes<br />Weak link to Egyptian 1st Intermediate Period<br />
  12. 12. 1,628 BCProbable date of Thera/Santorini eruption<br />Stonehenge abandoned<br />Hyksos rule of Egypt (2nd Intermediate period) <br />Three fourths of “men” of Ireland die<br />End of Minoan hegemony, power shifts to Greece<br /><ul><li>End of Xia Dynasty in China
  13. 13. Biblical Exodus?
  14. 14. Recovery begins ~ 200 yr later in Egypt</li></li></ul><li>1,159 BC<br />End Mediterranean, Aegean, Egyptian, Syrian Cultures<br />Trojan War, “Sea Peoples”<br />Irish King list cites “Catastrophes” <br />End Shang dynasty in China<br />Bronze Age ends in Europe<br />Recovery begins with rise of Classic Greece, 800 BC<br />1100 BC, Chou dynasty begins 900 year run<br />
  15. 15. 207 BC<br />Chinese lose “Mandate of Heaven”, dynasty change amid famines<br />“Stones fall from sky” in Mediterranean<br />Roman famines, epidemics<br />California tree rings extremely narrow<br />Rapid recovery in Mediterranean<br />
  16. 16. 540 ADLikelyComet Impact<br />Chinese lose “Mandate of Heaven”, suffer famines<br />“Failure of bread” in Ireland<br />Justinian plague & Collapse of Roman Empire<br />Gupta dynasty ends in India, 540 AD<br />Brief Mayan “intermediate” period<br />Coldest summer, including frosts, in 1500 yr<br />Recovery appears with <br />Classic Mayan (600 AD)<br />Beginning of Medieval Europe (~1,000 AD)<br />After 500 yr of brief dynasties, Song stabilized China, 960 AD<br />
  17. 17. 16<br />Short-List of “Things out of Place” - 1<br />Excerpted from “Biological Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages” by John Sorenson and Carl Johannessen, 2006<br />CiS = carved in stone<br />
  18. 18. 17<br />Short-List of “Things out of Place” - 2<br />Excerpted from “Biological Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages” by John Sorenson and Carl Johannessen, 2006<br />CiS = carved in stone<br />
  19. 19. 18<br />Short-List of “Things out of Place” - 3<br />Excerpted from “Biological Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages” by John Sorenson and Carl Johannessen, 2006<br />CiS = carved in stone<br />
  20. 20. 19<br />Copper Removal from Keweenaw Region<br />Roger Jewell Model<br />Bronze Age Begins<br />Minoan Civilization<br />Level of Mining Activity<br />Collapse of Bronze Age<br />Old Copper Culture<br />3,000 BC<br />2,400 BC<br />600 BC<br />1,200 BC<br />1,800 BC<br />
  21. 21. 20<br />Some pre-Columbian Maps<br />
  22. 22. 21<br />Recommended Reading<br />Roger L. Jewell, Ancient Mines of Kitchi-Gummi, 2004<br />Victor H. Mair (ed), Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World, 2006 (paper by Sorenson and Johannessen)<br />Charles Mann, 1491, 2006 (Pre-Columbian conditions)<br />Gavin Menzies, 1421, 2002 (Chinese world tour)<br />Gavin Menzies, 1434, 2008 (Chinese visit to Europe)<br />Firestone, Allen & West, Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes, 2006 (comet theory)<br />Mike Baillie, Exodus to Arthur, 1999 (Dust Veil Events)<br />Mike Baillie, New Light on the Black Death, 2006<br />
  23. 23. QUESTIONS ???<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Average World Temperatures<br />
  26. 26. 80<br />Timeline of Selected Events<br />kBP = Thousand Years Before Present<br />Early Modern Sapiens Moves “Out of Africa” (~100 kBP)<br />75<br />70<br />Modern Sapiens Bottleneck to Approximately 3,000 Individuals<br />65<br />60<br />55<br />Modern Sapiens Successfully Leaves Africa <br />50<br />Modern Sapiens (Cro-Magnon) Occupies Europe, Paints Caves!<br />45<br />40<br />35<br />30<br />S<br />25<br />Australia colonized by sea (~40-50 kBP)<br />20<br />Americas 1st populated by sea, estimated 18-30 kBP<br />15<br />Younger-Dryas (12.8-11.5 kBP)<br />10<br />Earliest “City” -- Catalhuyuk<br />5<br />Bering Land Bridge Opens<br />25<br />Today<br />Stonehenge<br />
  27. 27. Topper Site, South Carolina (19-16 kBP, to 50 kBP?)<br />16<br />15<br />Many Sites (Meadowcroft, Cactus Hill, Monte Verde, etc)<br />14<br />13<br />Bering Land Bridge Opens<br />Bering Land Bridge Opens<br />12<br />Clovis Culture (11.0-10.8 kBP)<br />11<br />Comet strikes N.A. Ice Sheet<br />10<br />Maximum Ice Sheet<br />(18-14 kBP)<br />9<br />8<br />7<br />Virtually Blank N.A. Slate<br />6<br />Japan Current Route<br />5<br />Textbook Paradigm denies any contact between N.A. & rest of World for 10,000 years!<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />Timeline of Selected Events<br />kBP = Thousand Years Before Present<br />1<br />26<br />Today<br />
  28. 28. Bronze Age (Europe, E Med.)<br />Using the World’s Oceans<br />Events in Americas<br />11<br />Clovis Culture (11.0-10.8 kBP)<br />Bering Land Bridge Opens<br />Folsom Culture<br />10<br />Indian Ocean trading<br />Black Sea floods at Bosporus<br />9<br />Plainview Culture<br />Polynesians Leave Taiwan <br />(5.7 kBP)<br />8<br />7<br />East Coast “Red Paint” Culture<br />Fengtien jade trade Taiwan to Asia (5.2 kBP)<br />Copper Mining in Keweenaw (7-3.2 kBP)<br />Most intense period 4.5-3.2 kBP<br />6<br />Egyptians import cedars & obelisks (5-2 kBP)<br />East Coast “Megalithic Culture<br />5<br />Adena, Hopewell & Mississippian Mound Builders<br />Uluburun ship sinks w/10 tons of copper (3 kBP)<br />4<br />3<br />Chinese Explore N.A. West<br />Hittite, Egyptian, Levant cultures Collapse, Trojan War (1,200 BC)<br />2<br />Greek, Persian & Roman Navies, & Trading<br />African trade to Central America<br />1<br />Vikings, L’Anse Aux Meadows<br />Timeline of Selected Events<br />kBP = Thousand Years Before Present<br />Columbus<br />27<br />Today<br />