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Some archeological dating techniques....

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  1. 1. Time and Western WeltanschauungAttenuatedof Time: the past (4004BC) The Abyss view of Unraveling the Mystery of the Earth’s AgeTo James Ussher (1581-1656), Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland, andVice-Chancellor of Trinity College in Dublin. Of his many works, his treatise onchronology has proved the most durable. Based on an intricate correlation of Middle by Claude C. AlbrittonEastern and Mediterranean histories and Holy writ, it was incorporated into anauthorized version of the Bible printed in 1701, and thus came to be regarded withalmost as muchfor the American Book Award in Science in Having established the Nominated unquestioning reverence as the Bible itself. 1981, "The Abyss offirst day of creation as Sunday 23 Octobergeological sciences: How old setthe in the Time tackles the primary question of the 4004 BC, by the arguments is forthpassage below, accessible and entertaining to nonscientific readers, concluding, for Earth? Easily Ussher calculated the dates of other biblical events, it reflects theexample, that Adam thinking were driven from Paradise andMonday about the passionate, lifelong and Eve of a distinguished scientist on teacher 10 November metaphor and reality of time.4004 BC, and that the ark touched down on Mt Ararat on 5 May 2348 BC `on aWednesday.
  2. 2. Dating TechniquesRelativeAbsolute
  3. 3. Dating Techniques RelativeStratigraphyFluorine analysis Nicholas Steno’s (1638-1686) Law William Smith (1769-1839) 1911 - first skull fossils found analysis found in a 1912 - discoveries publicised observed that the fossils of Superposition section of sedimentary rock were 1915 - Charles Dawson diesSeriation order from the 1949 -- Piltdown ages queried always in a certain 1953 Fossil fakes unmasked bottom to the top of the section.
  4. 4. 5,450+/-500BP (TX97) Dating Techniques AbsoluteRadioactive Carbon (C-14, Carbon 14)Potassium-Argon (K-Ar)DendrochronologyVarve Analysis
  5. 5. THE PLEISTOCENEEvidence for the Ice Age Louis Agassiz - Swiss/American Naturalist. Charles Lyell - English Geologist. Principles of Geology The Doctrine of Uniformity….the processes we can see shaping the earth today are the same ones that worked in the past.
  6. 6. THE PLEISTOCENEEvidence for the IceAge Erratic Boulders. Moraines. U-Shaped Mountain Valleys. Eskers, Drumlins. Scratched and Polished Bedrock. Dry Lakes and Drowned River Valleys
  7. 7. Erratic Boulder THE PLEISTOCENE Along the road to Inspiration Point in Yellowstone National Park there are many erratics. One is this house-sized granite boulder sitting in the pine forest alongside the road. It was plucked from the Beartooth Mountains by a glacier and dropped on the north rim of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone nearly 80,000 years ago.
  8. 8. Glacial Moraine When a glacier moves down a drainage or a valley, it pushes ahead of itself a large burden of debris, known as glacial till. This debris is completely unsorted by the long term geological processes that usually separate materials and is composed of gravels, dirt and clay, and large and small boulders call glacial erratics. The maximum advance of a glacier is marked by a terminal moraine. Later stages in the recession of the glacier are marked by end moraines. Lateral moraines may mark the height reached by the glacier up the sides of the glaciers path. These moraines hold more water than the surrounding glacial gravels in their soil and are therefore more heavily timbered than the surrounding area. In Grand Teton National Park a number of lakes, including Jenny and Jackson Lakes, are formed by glacial moraines.
  9. 9. U-Shaped MountainCanyons The “Beartooth” North of Inspiration Point. The U- Shaped canyon walls indicate a glacier once flowed in this valley and carried debris creating erratic boulders and moraines.
  10. 10. A Drowned River Valley Chesapeake Bay on the eastern seaboard of the United States is an excellent example of a drowned river valley. (Image courtesy of NASA.)
  11. 11. Pleistocene Sequence Years Ago 10,000 - End of most recent glacial episode. Upper Paleolithic 100,000 - Wurm, Wisconsonian Middle Paleolithic 300,000 - Riss, Illinoian Lower Paleolithic 1 MBP - Elster, Kansan 2 MBP - Tiglian, Jersian Villafranchian (pre-Pleistocene)