Ch 8 workshow

260 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Design
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
260
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Need to have pre/post to see if this is worth having when they read the same example in the book. Having them just read the book alone with instructions not to give a shaping-up example as one procedure to compare to them going through this program. Then see which results in better original examples. Malott: Lean it down. Make it faster. 1 one-to-one testing in W02 Students mistakes in original shaping examples: too large of response units in each stage: touch keys—play scales—playing whole song; each response is a component in a chain, not same response class being shaped.
  • May be too busy. One font color and design may be better.
  • Go with one or the other graphic, not mixing design styles. Or have separate slides with corresponding text-image. Should let them know that we know they’ver read the story, but we’re going to use the example to give you practice and to integrate some terms you’re already familiar with.
  • Go with one or the other graphic, not mixing design styles. Or have separate slides with corresponding text-image. Should let them know that we know they’ver read the story, but we’re going to use the example to give you practice and to integrate some terms you’re already familiar with.
  • May want to have them do this before reading the book, to the extent they do not need the book’s instruction to do well here. But with the example the same as the book, then this will be less monotonous than after knowing the example.
  • Assuming that they’ve read the book because there’s no instruction before this question.
  • Review from previous chapter
  • Added parenthetical material because students weren’t getting topography (the next question was just testing rather than training). Bullet these
  • W02, many students miss this one—usually rate. For Sum02, added “ , not how fast or loud or long he croaks.”
  • New for W03 b/c this was a mistake in some original examples (fading too I think, but couldn’t fit that into this example specifically)
  • Was 8 in F02
  • Students in W02 put B. N=7/34. I think this is because we talked about croaking sounds before this, and might have seemed like that was the initial behavior and moving lips was the intermediate. For Sum02 I’ll change some of those earlier slides. For W03, added “remember… Was #9 before W03
  • About 6/34 in W02 put A or B. Changed “begin shaping” to “shape” for sum02
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers. For W03, added She couldn’t stop… to prime the next question which had errors in F02.
  • Some confusion about why we have the old moving lips in the behavior box when it should be in the extinction box.
  • Some confusion about why we have the old moving lips in the behavior box when it should be in the extinction box.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • Feedback is not automatic.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • Added last sentence specifying lack of physical capability because of errors on 39, typing example.
  • Students missing this W02 N=13/34. Added last sentence to clarify not building muscle. Also because a one-to-one testing feedback student said the running time example made her think getting faster is shaping up, I revised that one too. Maybe we should get rid of this because student argue.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • These diagrams take a long time to fill in. Have all the choices at the bottom and have the boxes with the multiple choices in them, with the other non choice boxes dimmed. Don’t give feedback for correct answers.
  • Need instructions to arrow forward when done with diagram.—added after W02. Also bolded/underlined master transparency because so few did this W02.
  • Need instructions to arrow forward when done with diagram.—added after W02. Also bolded/underlined master transparency because so few did this W02.
  • Ch 8 workshow

    1. 1. Mick NeedhamJason Otto39 Questions. Approximately 40 minutes to complete.ShapingHomework
    2. 2. Alright. You must have pushed theenter key or the right arrow key.When you push the  key youadvance through the show. Push itnow.When you’re prepared to go on, push the key. When you see a button or multiplechoice question, you will left click toselect your answer.A. Left-click me
    3. 3. Alright. You must have pushed theenter key or the right arrow key.When you push the  key you advancethrough the show. Push it now.When you’re prepared to go on, push the key. When you see a button or multiplechoice question, then you will use the TABkey to select your answer.When you get the right answer, you willcontinue by hitting the  key again. Dothis now.Good.
    4. 4. you will mark your answer on thepaper form for this homework.There’s one more thing or two.When you see a question and thispicture,FormQuestion #1You will mark your answer before youclick the answer here on the screen.
    5. 5. So when you see this picture, youmark your paper form first, thenyou click your answer on thescreen second. (This time youwon’t mark your homework.)A. TrueB. False FormQuestion #Left-clickyour answer
    6. 6. So when you see this picture, youmark your paper form first, thenyou click your answer on thescreen second. (This time youwon’t mark your homework.)A. TrueB. False FormQuestion #
    7. 7. So when you see this picture, youmark your paper form first, thenyou click your answer on thescreen second. (This time youwon’t mark your homework.)A. TrueB. FalseFormQuestion #Right on. Nowdive in by hittingthe right arrowkey.
    8. 8. Welcome to the Computer-based ProgrammedInstruction onThis program willhelp you increaseyour knowledgeand understandingof behavioranalysis andSHAPING.
    9. 9. You may have already readabout Andrew inElementary Principles ofBehavior, but we’re goingto use his story to giveyou some practice and tointegrate some termsyou’re already familiarwith.In the nineteen yearsthat Andrew lived in BigState Hospital hehadn’t spoken a singleword.
    10. 10. He attended grouptherapy sessions where hewas typically unresponsiveto the externalenvironment.
    11. 11. One day at therapy,Dawn, the grouptherapist dropped apiece of gum.Andrew tookimmediate noticeof the piece gum,which was a ratherunusual reactionfor him.
    12. 12. Dawn wasshocked byAndrew’sreaction.She thoughtthat gummight be areinforcer forAndrew.
    13. 13. A reinforcer is defined as a stimulus, event, orcondition whose presentation immediately followsa response and the frequency of theresponse.A. DecreasesB. IncreasesC. Has no effect onLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerPlease your answeron your answer sheet.Question #1#1(38 total)Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    14. 14. A. DecreasesB. IncreasesC. Has no effect onLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerGood effort!Give itanother try.A reinforcer is defined as a stimulus, event, orcondition whose presentation immediately followsa response and the frequency of theresponse.Question #1
    15. 15. Left-clickyour answerA. DecreasesB. IncreasesLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerNope, presenting areinforcer doeshave an effect onthe frequency ofthe response.A reinforcer is defined as a stimulus, event, orcondition whose presentation immediately followsa response and the frequency of theresponse.Question #1
    16. 16. A reinforcer is defined as a stimulus, event, orcondition whose presentation immediately followsa response and the frequency of theresponse.A. DecreasesB. IncreasesC. Has no effect onLet’s keep going!NiceJob!Question #1
    17. 17. Dawn gave Andrewa piece of gumeach time helooked at the gumshe was holdingnear her face.We know the sightof the gum was areinforcer forAndrew because itincreased thefrequency oflooking at the gum.
    18. 18. Before:Andrew has no gumBeforeAndrew looks at thegum near Dawns FaceAfter:Andrew has gumReinforcement
    19. 19. What procedure wasDawn using when shepresented Andrew witha piece of gumimmediately after helooked at the gum?A. PunishmentB. EscapeC. ReinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerPlease your answeron your answer sheet.Question #2#2Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    20. 20. A. PunishmentB. EscapeC. ReinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerPlease your answeron your answer sheet.Question #2What procedure wasDawn using when shepresented Andrew witha piece of gumimmediately after helooked at the gum?No. Punishment isused to decreasethe frequency of aresponse
    21. 21. A. PunishmentB. EscapeC. ReinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerPlease your answeron your answer sheet.Question #2What procedure wasDawn using when shepresented Andrew witha piece of gumimmediately after helooked at the gum?No. Escape is theresponsecontingentremoval of anaversivecondition .
    22. 22. A. PunishmentB. EscapeC. ReinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerPlease your answeron your answer sheet.Question #2What procedure wasDawn using when shepresented Andrew witha piece of gumimmediately after helooked at the gum?No, tryagain.
    23. 23. A. PunishmentB. EscapeC. ReinforcementPlease your answeron your answer sheet.Question #2What procedure wasDawn using when shepresented Andrew witha piece of gumimmediately after helooked at the gum?That’s Right!!Dawn was usingreinforcement toincreaseAndrew’s lookingat the gum!
    24. 24. Dawn had establisheda reinforcer to beginshaping Andrew’sbehavior.But what behaviorshould she chooseto shape?She should choose a behaviorthat will hopefully increaseAndrew’s quality of life,happiness, and ability tointeract with other people!
    25. 25. A. Initial behaviorB. Intermediate behaviorShe pickedspeaking asthe goal.What do wecall the goalof theshapingintervention?Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerQuestion #3#3Write your first choice onyour homework now
    26. 26. A. Initial behaviorB. Intermediate behaviorC. Terminal behaviorShe pickedspeaking asthe goal.What do wecall the goalof theshapingintervention?Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerNo, the initialbehavior is thecurrent behavioroccurring atsome minimalfrequency.Question #3
    27. 27. A. Initial behaviorB. Intermediate behaviorC. Terminal behaviorShe pickedspeaking asthe goal.What do wecall the goalof theshapingintervention?Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerNo, theintermediatebehavior in thebehavior thatmore closelyresembles thegoal (speaking).Question #3
    28. 28. A. Initial behaviorB. Intermediate behaviorShe pickedspeaking asthe goal.Yes. The goalof the shapingintervention isthe terminalbehavior.Question #3
    29. 29. In deciding the goalof the shapingintervention,Dawn had to figureout the physicalproperties ofspeaking.
    30. 30. A. Response dimensionsB. Response classWhat arethe physicalpropertiescalled?Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerWhen we talkabout theindividual physicalproperties ofmoving lips,making smallcroaking sounds,and speaking weare talking aboutwhat?Question #4#4Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    31. 31. A. Response dimensionsB. Response classNo, with aresponse classwe’re talkingabout theresponsenecessary forreinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerWhen we talkabout theindividual physicalproperties ofmoving lips,making smallcroaking sounds,and speaking weare talking aboutwhat?Question #4
    32. 32. A. Response dimensionsB. Response classYes, thedimensionsof aresponse arethe physicalproperties.When we talkabout theindividual physicalproperties ofmoving lips,making smallcroaking sounds,and speaking weare talking aboutwhat?Question #4
    33. 33. When we talkabout moving lips,making smallcroaking sounds,and speaking allresulting in gum,we are talkingabout what?A. Response dimensionsB. Response classLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerQuestion #5#5Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    34. 34. A. Response dimensionsB. Response classNo, a responsedimension istalking aboutjust thephysicalproperties of aresponse.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerWhen we talkabout moving lips,making smallcroaking sounds,and speaking allresulting in gum,we are talkingabout what?Question #5
    35. 35. A. Response dimensionsB. Response classYes, theresponse classshares theeffects ofreinforcement.When we talkabout moving lips,making smallcroaking sounds,and speaking allresulting in gum,we are talkingabout what?Question #5
    36. 36. Response dimensions can involve the• form, sequence or location of aresponse (topography),•the time from the beginning tothe end of a response (duration),•how often a response occurs (rate), or•how much effort the response requires(force or intensity),•and several other physical properties.
    37. 37. Along what responsedimension is Dawn shaping?Remember she is shapingAndrew’s speaking behavior,or how he moves his lips andvocal cords, not how fast orloud or long he speaks.What’s theresponsedimension?A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerQuestion #6#6Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    38. 38. Along what responsedimension is Dawn shaping?Remember she is shapingAndrew’s speaking behavior,or how he moves his lips andvocal cords, not how fast orloud or long he speaks.No, if Dawnwere shapingintensity orforce she’d bereinforcinghigher andhigher volumesof speaking,for example.A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerQuestion #6
    39. 39. Along what responsedimension is Dawn shaping?Remember she is shapingAndrew’s speaking behavior,or how he moves his lips andvocal cords, not how fast orloud or long he speaks.A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerNo, if Dawnwere shapingrate she’d bereinforcingfaster andfaster speedsof speaking,for example.Question #6
    40. 40. Along what responsedimension is Dawn shaping?Remember she is shapingAndrew’s speaking behavior,or how he moves his lips andvocal cords, not how fast orloud or long he speaks.A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerNo, if Dawnwere shapingduration she’dbe reinforcinglonger andlonger speechsounds, forexample.Question #6
    41. 41. Along what responsedimension is Dawn shaping?Remember she is shapingAndrew’s speaking behavior,or how he moves his lips andvocal cords, not how fast orloud or long he speaks.Correct.Dawnreinforcesthe formofAndrew’sspeech.A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyQuestion #6
    42. 42. Just for fun, let’s say thatAndrew can already speakbut he speaks really quietly.Dawn, in this case, wantshim to speak loudly.What response dimensionwould be shaped in thissituation?A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyWhat’s theresponsedimension?Question #7#7Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    43. 43. Just for fun, let’s say thatAndrew can already speakbut he speaks really quietly.Dawn, in this case, wantshim to speak loudly.What response dimensionwould be shaped in thissituation?A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyNo, shapingrate wouldbe shapingoften hesays gum.Question #7
    44. 44. Just for fun, let’s say thatAndrew can already speakbut he speaks really quietly.Dawn, in this case, wantshim to speak loudly.What response dimensionwould be shaped in thissituation?A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyNo, shapingtopographywould beshapinghow clearlyhe saysgum.Question #7
    45. 45. Just for fun, let’s say thatAndrew can already speakbut he speaks really quietly.Dawn, in this case, wantshim to speak loudly.What response dimensionwould be shaped in thissituation?A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyNo, durationwould be theamount oftime fromthebeginning tothe end theword “gum.”Question #7
    46. 46. Just for fun, let’s say thatAndrew can already speakbut he speaks really quietly.Dawn, in this case, wantshim to speak loudly.What response dimensionwould be shaped in thissituation?A. Intensity or forceB. RateC. TopographyCorrect. It’simportant to knowwhat responsedimension alongwhich you areshaping because ifyou aren’tchanging behavioralong a responsedimension thenyou are notshaping.Question #7
    47. 47. Let’s also say that Andrewcan already speak but hespeaks only with Dawn andothers living with him.Dawn then works with himso that he speaks with allsorts of people (i.e., in thepresence of other stimuli)Is this shaping?A. YesB. No#8
    48. 48. Let’s also say that Andrewcan already speak but hespeaks only with Dawn andothers living with him.Dawn then works with himso that he speaks with allsorts of people (in thepresence of other stimuli)Is this shaping?A. YesB. NoThe stimuli and contingenciespresent when Andrew speaksmay change, but speaking isn’tchanging along some responsedimension, so it’s not shaping.
    49. 49. Let’s also say that Andrewcan already speak but hespeaks only with Dawn andothers living with him.Dawn then works with himso that he speaks with allsorts of people (in thepresence of other stimuli)Is this shaping?A. YesB. NoCorrect, the stimuli andcontingencies present whenAndrew speaks may change,but speaking isn’t changingalong some response dimension,so it’s not shaping.
    50. 50. After severalweeks ofreinforcingAndrew’s behaviorof looking at thegum near her face,one day he slightlymoved his lips.Dawn immediatelygave Andrew a pieceof gum.
    51. 51. BeforeBefore BehaviorBehavior AfterAfter? Andrewhas gumAndrewhas nogumHere’s the first criterion for reinforcementin the shaping procedure. What is Andrewdoing now that resembles speaking?A. Andrew looks at the gumB. Andrew moves his lipsC. Andrew speaksLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#9Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    52. 52. BeforeBefore BehaviorBehavior AfterAfter? Andrewhas gumAndrewhas nogumA. Andrew looks at the gumB. Andrew moves his lipsC. Andrew speaksLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerHere’s the first criterion for reinforcementin the shaping procedure. What is Andrewdoing now that resembles speaking?No, that’s aprerequisite totraining; but it’snot similar tospeaking in theresponsedimension.
    53. 53. BeforeBefore BehaviorBehavior AfterAfter? Andrewhas gumAndrewhas nogumA. Andrew looks at the gumB. Andrew moves his lipsC. Andrew speaksLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerHere’s the first criterion for reinforcementin the shaping procedure. What is Andrewdoing now that resembles speaking?No, that’s notoccurring forDawn toreinforce.
    54. 54. BeforeBefore BehaviorBehavior AfterAfterAndrewmoves hislipsAndrewhas gumAndrewhas nogumA. Andrew looks at the gumB. Andrew moves his lipsC. Andrew speaksHere’s the first criterion for reinforcementin the shaping procedure. What is Andrewdoing now that resembles speaking?Correct, it’s thebehavior that’soccurring at someminimal frequency andresembles speaking insome way.
    55. 55. BeforeBefore BehaviorBehavior AfterAfterAndrewmoves hislipsAndrewhas gumAndrewhas nogumA. Initial behaviorB. Intermediate behaviorC. Terminal behaviorLeft-clickyour answerWhat do we call this behavior?Remember, eye contact was notin the speaking response class (soit wasn’t the initial behavior, justa prerequisite).#10Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    56. 56. BeforeBefore BehaviorBehavior AfterAfterAndrewmoves hislipsAndrewhas gumAndrewhas nogumA. Initial behaviorB. Intermediate behaviorC. Terminal behaviorLeft-clickyour answerNo, we’ve juststarted shapingspeaking behavior.
    57. 57. BeforeBefore BehaviorBehavior AfterAfterAndrewmoves hislipsAndrewhas gumAndrewhas nogumA. Initial behaviorB. Intermediate behaviorC. Terminal behaviorNo, the terminalbehavior is thegoal, speaking.Left-clickyour answer
    58. 58. BeforeBefore BehaviorBehavior AfterAfterAndrewmoves hislipsAndrewhas gumAndrewhas nogumA. Initial behaviorB. Intermediate behaviorC. Terminal behaviorRight, Andrew’s movinghis lips is the firstbehavior resemblingspeaking.
    59. 59. Although lip movementis a long way fromactually speakingit was a behavior thatresembled speaking insome way.And it gave Dawn aplace to begin shapingAndrews speech.Saving the worldwith behavioranalysis
    60. 60. Remember that Dawn started outreinforcing Andrew’s looking behavior.This behavior does not resemblespeaking like the initial behavior ofmoving lips.Remember that Dawn started outreinforcing Andrew’s looking behavior.This behavior does not resemblespeaking like the initial behavior ofmoving lips.But she needed to start with lookingbecause she needs Andrew’s attention(he must look at her) to begin shapinghis speech.Remember that Dawn started outreinforcing Andrew’s looking behavior.This behavior does not resemblespeaking like the initial behavior ofmoving lips.But she needed to start with lookingbecause she needs Andrew’s attention(he must look at her) to begin shapinghis speech.Now when Andrew just looks at thegum, Dawn will not give him the gumbecause she wants to increase onlybehaviors that more closely resemblethe terminal behavior (speaking).
    61. 61. So if Dawn wants to shapespeaking but also keep Andrew’sattention, then what mustAndrew do before she deliversthe gum.A. Look at the gum onlyB. Move his lips onlyC. Look at the gum and move his lipsLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#11Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    62. 62. A. Look at the gum onlyB. Move his lips onlyC. Look at the gum and move his lipsSo if Dawn wants to shapespeaking but also keep Andrew’sattention, then what mustAndrew do before she deliversthe gum.No. Looking at the gum nearDawn’s face (beingattentive) is necessary totrain speaking, but it doesnot resemble the terminalbehavior.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    63. 63. A. Look at the gum onlyB. Move his lips onlyC. Look at the gum and move his lipsSo if Dawn wants to shapespeaking but also keep Andrew’sattention, then what mustAndrew do before she deliversthe gum.No. Looking at the gum nearDawn’s face (beingattentive) is necessary totrain speaking, even thoughit does not resemble theterminal behavior.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    64. 64. A. Look at the gum onlyB. Move his lips onlyC. Look at the gum and move his lipsSo if Dawn wants to shapespeaking but also keep Andrew’sattention, then what mustAndrew do before she deliversthe gum.Correct. Looking atthe gum near Dawn’sface (being attentive)is necessary to trainspeaking, but it doesnot resemble theterminal behavior.
    65. 65. When shapingbehavior, it’ssometimes difficult toknow when to stopreinforcing a particularresponse thatapproximates theterminal behavior.
    66. 66. Dawn needs toreinforce successiveapproximations tospeaking, but she mustbe sure not to getstuck on anapproximation.Keep theproceduremoving.
    67. 67. BeforeBeforeBehaviorBehaviorBehaviorA.Andrew moves his lips, and looks at thegumB.Andrew only looks at the gumBehaviorA.Andrew moves his lips, and looks at thegumB.Andrew only looks at the gumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will result in thedelivery of the gum reinforcer?Complete the diagramfor the initial behavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#12Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    68. 68. BeforeBeforeBehaviorBehaviorBehaviorA.Andrew moves his lipsB. Andrew onlylooks at the gumBehaviorA.Andrew moves his lipsB. Andrew onlylooks at the gumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will result in thedelivery of the gum reinforcer?Complete the diagramfor the initial behavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerHe must look at the gum,then move his lips. Dawnwill reinforce lipmovement now thatlooking at the gum isoccurring at a high rate.TryAgain.
    69. 69. BeforeBeforeBehaviorA.Andrew moves his lipsand looks at gumB.Andrew only looks at the gumBehaviorA.Andrew moves his lipsand looks at gumB.Andrew only looks at the gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will no longer bereinforced?Complete the diagramfor the initial behavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#13Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    70. 70. BeforeBeforeBehaviorA. Andrew moveshis lips and looksat gumB.Andrew only looks at the gumBehaviorA. Andrew moveshis lips and looksat gumB.Andrew only looks at the gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lipsBehaviorAndrew moveshis lipsAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will no longer bereinforced?Complete the diagramfor the initial behavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    71. 71. BeforeA.Andrew has no gumB.Andrew has gumBeforeA.Andrew has no gumB.Andrew has gumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the beforecondition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#14Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    72. 72. BeforeA.Andrew has no gumB. Andrew hasgumBeforeA.Andrew has no gumB. Andrew hasgumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the beforecondition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    73. 73. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumAfterA.Andrew has no guB.Andrew has gumAfterA.Andrew has no gumB.Andrew has gumAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#15Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    74. 74. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumAfterA. Andrew hasno gumB.Andrew has gumAfterA. Andrew hasno gumB.Andrew has gumAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.
    75. 75. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterA.Andrew has no guB.Andrew has gumAfterA.Andrew has no gumB.Andrew has gumReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#16Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    76. 76. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lips andlooks at gumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterA.Andrew has no guB. Andrew hasgumAfterA.Andrew has no gumB. Andrew hasgumReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    77. 77. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew onlylooks at thegumBehaviorAndrew moveshis lipsBehaviorAndrew moveshis lipsAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew has nogumAfterAndrew has nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementSince Dawn had seensome lip movementshe was able todifferentiallyreinforce lip movingand stop reinforcingsimply looking at thegum. She couldn’tstop reinforcingsimply looking at thegum until there weresome furtherapproximationsoccurring at somefrequency.
    78. 78. After Dawn reinforced lipmovement for just a fewminutes, she decided to stopreinforcing lip movements andwait for his first sounds.After all, Dawn knew he coulddo it, even though he has notmade a sound in 19 years.A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing lip movements.B. No, let’s continue reinforcing lip movements.BeforeAndrewhas nogumBeforeAndrewhas nogum Behavior?Behavior?BehaviorAndrewmoves hislips and looksat gumBehaviorAndrewmoves hislips and looksat gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas nogumAfterAndrewhas nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementIs it probably a good time to nolonger reinforce lip movementsand wait for croaking sounds? Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#17Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    79. 79. A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing lip movements.B. No, let’s continue reinforcing lip movements.BeforeAndrewhas nogumBeforeAndrewhas nogum BehaviorAndrewmoves his lipsBehaviorAndrewmoves his lipsBehaviorAndrewmoves hislips and looksat gumBehaviorAndrewmoves hislips and looksat gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas nogumAfterAndrewhas nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementIs it probably a good time to nolonger reinforce lip movementsand wait for croaking sounds?After Dawn reinforced lipmovement for a few minutes,she decided to stopreinforcing lip movements andwait for his first sounds.After all, Dawn knew he coulddo it, even though he has notmade a sound in 19 years.If Dawn hasn’t heard anysounds from Andrewlately, then she has tocontinue to reinforce whatapproximates it. If Dawndoesn’t continue toreinforce lip movement,she is even less likely tohear sounds.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    80. 80. A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing lip movements.B. No, let’s continue reinforcing lip movements.BeforeAndrewhas nogumBeforeAndrewhas nogum BehaviorAndrewmoves his lipsBehaviorAndrewmoves his lipsBehaviorAndrewmoves hisLips and looksat gumBehaviorAndrewmoves hisLips and looksat gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas nogumAfterAndrewhas nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementIs it probably a good time to nolonger reinforce lip movementsand wait for croaking sounds?After Dawn reinforced lipmovement for just a fewminutes, she decided to stopreinforcing lip movements andwait for his first sounds.After all, Dawn knew he coulddo it, even though he has notmade a sound in 19 years.
    81. 81. Currently, Andrew is moving his lips only once in awhile. He is not making any croaking sounds yet.Before Dawn moves on to the next criterion, thecurrent behavior must occur at a high frequencyand the next step in the shaping procedure mustoccur at some minimum frequency.What should Dawn do?A. Stop reinforcing his lip movements and reinforce hisB. Continue reinforcing his making lip movements whileLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#18Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    82. 82. Currently, Andrew is moving his lips only once in awhile. He is not making any croaking sounds yet.Before Dawn moves on to the next criterion, thecurrent behavior must occur at a high frequencyand the next step in the shaping procedure mustoccur at some minimum frequency.What should Dawn do?A. Stop reinforcing his lip movements and reinforcehis making croaking soundsB. Continue reinforcing his making lip movements whileLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerNo. If we stop reinforcinglip movements before wesee some furtherapproximation to speaking,then we will extinguish allbehavior resemblingspeaking.
    83. 83. Currently, Andrew is moving his lips only once in awhile. He is not making any croaking sounds yet.Before Dawn moves on to the next criterion, thecurrent behavior must occur at a high frequencyand the next step in the shaping procedure mustoccur at some minimum frequency.What should Dawn do?A. Stop reinforcing his lip movements and reinforce hisB. Continue reinforcing his making lip movementswhile looking for croaking sounds to reinforceCorrect. Since croakingsounds are not occurringat all, and lip movementsare not very frequent, wecan’t move on yet.
    84. 84. At the beginning ofthe fourth week Dawnheld a piece of gum infront of Andrew.Andrew looked at thegum. And Andrewmoved his lips.But Dawn did not givehim the gum as shehad before.
    85. 85. Then Andrew emitted asmall croaking sound.And Dawn immediatelygave him the gum!Because Dawnneeded Andrew tospeak, sherequired him tomake a responsethat more closelyresembledspeaking.Gum“Uuh.”
    86. 86. What behavior more closelyresembles the goal of speakingthan lip movements.A. SpeakingB. Looking at the gumC. Lip movementWhatbehavior iscloser tothe goal?Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#19Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    87. 87. A. SpeakingB. Looking at the gumC. Lip movementNo. Croakingresembles lipmovementmore thanspeaking does.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerWhat behavior more closelyresembles the goal of speakingthan lip movements.
    88. 88. A. SpeakingB. Looking at the gumC. Lip movementNo. Looking atthe gum is aprerequisitebehavior fortraining.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerWhat behavior more closelyresembles the goal of speakingthan lip movements.
    89. 89. A. SpeakingB. Looking at the gumC. Lip movementNo. Lipmovementis theinitialbehavior.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerWhat behavior more closelyresembles the goal of speakingthan lip movements.
    90. 90. A. SpeakingB. Looking at the gumC. Lip movementCorrect. Asmall croakingsound is thebehavior thatmore closelyapproximatesspeaking.What behavior more closelyresembles the goal of speakingthan lip movements.
    91. 91. Left-clickyour answerThe behavior of making smallcroaking sounds approximates thefinal behavior of speaking. What isthis middle step called in a shapingprocedure?A. Initial behaviorB. Terminal behaviorLeft-clickyour answer#20Left-clickyour answerWrite your first choice onyour homework now.
    92. 92. Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerThe behavior of making smallcroaking sounds approximates thefinal behavior of speaking. What isthis middle step called in a shapingprocedure?A. Initial behaviorB. Terminal behaviorC. Intermediate behaviorNo, the initialbehavior is thefirst step notthe middle stepin the shapingprocedure.Left-clickyour answer
    93. 93. Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerThe behavior of making smallcroaking sounds approximates thefinal behavior of speaking. What isthis middle step called in a shapingprocedure?A. Initial behaviorB. Terminal behaviorC. Intermediate behaviorNo, the terminalbehavior is thegoal of theintervention andnot the middlestepLeft-clickyour answer
    94. 94. The behavior of making smallcroaking sounds approximates thefinal behavior of speaking. What isthis middle step called in a shapingprocedure?A. Initial behaviorB. Terminal behaviorCorrect. Croakingsounds approximatespeaking.
    95. 95. After Dawn reinforced lipmovement over several days,Andrew also began makingcroaking sounds as often asmoving his lips alone.A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing just lip movements.B. No, let’s continue reinforcing just lip movements.BeforeAndrewhas nogumBeforeAndrewhas nogum Behavior?Behavior?BehaviorAndrewmoves hislipsBehaviorAndrewmoves hislipsAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas nogumAfterAndrewhas nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementIs it probably a good time tobegin reinforcing croakingsounds and no longer reinforcelip movements without croaking?Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#21Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    96. 96. A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing just lip movements.B. No, let’s continue reinforcing just lip movements.BeforeAndrewhas nogumBeforeAndrewhas nogum Behavior?Behavior?BehaviorAndrewmoves hislipsBehaviorAndrewmoves hislipsAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas nogumAfterAndrewhas nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementIs it probably a good time tobegin reinforcing croakingsounds and no longer reinforcelip movements without croaking? Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerAfter Dawn reinforced lipmovement over several days,Andrew also began makingcroaking sounds as often asmoving his lips alone.No. If we continue to reinforceonly lip movements then theywill be the behaviors thatoccur in the future. RememberDawn wants Andrew to speaknot just move his lips.
    97. 97. A. Yes, let’s stop reinforcing just lip movements.B. No, let’s continue reinforcing just lip movements.BeforeAndrewhas nogumBeforeAndrewhas nogum BehaviorAndrewmoves his lipsBehaviorAndrewmoves his lipsBehaviorAndrewmoves hislipsBehaviorAndrewmoves hislipsAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas gumAfterAndrewhas nogumAfterAndrewhas nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementIs it probably a good time tobegin reinforcing croakingsounds and no longer reinforcelip movements without croaking?After Dawn reinforced lipmovement over several days,Andrew also began makingcroaking sounds as often asmoving his lips alone.
    98. 98. BeforeBeforeBehaviorBehaviorBehaviorA.Andrew only moves his lipsB.Andrew makes croaking sounds while movBehaviorA.Andrew only moves his lipsB.Andrew makes croaking sounds while moviAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will result in thedelivery of the gum reinforcer?Complete the diagramfor the intermediatebehavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#22Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerWrite your first choice onyour homework now.
    99. 99. BeforeBeforeBehaviorBehaviorAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will result in thedelivery of the gum reinforcer?Complete the diagramfor the intermediatebehavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerBehaviorA. Andrew onlymoves his lipsB.Andrew makes croaking sounds while movBehaviorA. Andrew onlymoves his lipsB.Andrew makes croaking sounds while moviNo, now that he iscroaking while movinghis lips, Dawn will stopreinforcing lipmovements occurringwithout sounds.
    100. 100. BeforeBeforeBehaviorA.Andrew only moves his lipsB. Andrew speaksBehaviorA.Andrew only moves his lipsB. Andrew speaksBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will no longer bereinforced?Complete the diagramfor the intermediatebehavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#23Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    101. 101. BeforeBeforeBehaviorA.Andrew only moves his lipsB. Andrew speaksBehaviorA.Andrew only moves his lipsB. Andrew speaksBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will no longer bereinforced?Complete the diagramfor the intermediatebehavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    102. 102. BeforeA.Andrew has no gumB.Andrew has gumBeforeA.Andrew has no gumB.Andrew has gumBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the beforecondition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#24Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    103. 103. BeforeA.Andrew has no gumB. Andrew hasgumBeforeA.Andrew has no gumB. Andrew hasgumBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the beforecondition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    104. 104. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterA.Andrew has no guB.Andrew has gumAfterA.Andrew has no gumB.Andrew has gumAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#25Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    105. 105. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterA. Andrew hasno gumB.Andrew has gumAfterA. Andrew hasno gumB.Andrew has gumAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.
    106. 106. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterA.Andrew has no guB.Andrew has gumAfterA.Andrew has no gumB.Andrew has gumReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#26Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    107. 107. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterA.Andrew has no guB. Andrew hasgumAfterA.Andrew has no gumB. Andrew hasgumReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    108. 108. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew onlymoves his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsBehaviorAndrew makescroakingsounds whilemoving his lipsAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew has nogumAfterAndrew has nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementNice job!Here’s the differentialreinforcement diagramyou just completed forthe intermediate behavior.
    109. 109. By the way, what do wecall the procedure ofreinforcing oneresponse class whilenot reinforcing anotherresponse class?A. Differential PunishmentB. EscapeC. Differential ReinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#27Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    110. 110. By the way, what do wecall the procedure ofreinforcing oneresponse class whilenot reinforcing anotherresponse class?No, differentialpunishment involvespunishing oneresponse classallowing the otherto recover!A. Differential PunishmentB. EscapeC. Differential ReinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    111. 111. By the way, what do wecall the procedure ofreinforcing oneresponse class whilenot reinforcing anotherresponse class?No, escape isthe contingentremoval of anaversivecondition!A. Differential PunishmentB. EscapeC. Differential ReinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    112. 112. A. Differential PunishmentB. EscapeC. Differential ReinforcementD. ReinforcementLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerBy the way, what do wecall the procedure ofreinforcing oneresponse class whilenot reinforcing anotherresponse class?No, this is notplain vanillareinforcement!
    113. 113. A. Differential PunishmentB. EscapeC. Differential ReinforcementD. ReinforcementBy the way, what do wecall the procedure ofreinforcing oneresponse class whilenot reinforcing anotherresponse class?Nice Job! Thisprocedure iscalleddifferentialreinforcement!
    114. 114. After several days ofdifferentially reinforcingAndrew’s behavior of makingcroaking sounds he wasfrequently making croakingsounds each time he movedhis lips.“Smallcroakingsounds.”
    115. 115. When shaping behavior it’s sometimes difficultto know when to move on to the nextbehavioral criterion and no longer providereinforcers for the previously reinforcedresponse.Currently, Andrew is frequently making croakingsounds (while moving his lips) but has not saidgum.What should Dawn do?A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds (while movinghis lips) and reinforce spoken words.B. Continue reinforcing croaking sounds (while movinghis lips) and start looking for fragments of spokenwords to reinforce.Left-clickyouranswerLeft-clickyouranswerLeft-clickyouranswer#28Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    116. 116. When shaping behavior it’s sometimes difficultto know when to move on to the nextbehavioral criterion and no longer providereinforcers for the previously reinforcedresponse.A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds (while movinghis lips) and reinforce spoken words.B. Continue reinforcing croaking sounds (while movinghis lips) and start looking for fragments of spokenwords to reinforce.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerCurrently, Andrew is frequently making croakingsounds (while moving his lips) but has not saidgum.What should Dawn do?No. Even though, croakingsounds are occurring at ahigh frequency Andrewhas not said ga or gum yetand we need have Andrewsaying ga or gum at aminimal frequency beforewe no longer reinforcecroaking sounds .
    117. 117. When shaping behavior it’s sometimes difficultto know when to move on to the nextbehavioral criterion and no longer providereinforcers for the previously reinforcedresponse.A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds (while movinghis lips) and reinforce spoken words.B. Continue reinforcing croaking sounds (while movinghis lips) and start looking for fragments of spokenwords to reinforce.Currently, Andrew is frequently making croakingsounds (while moving his lips) but has not saidgum.What should Dawn do?Correct. We need to haveAndrew saying gum at someminimal frequency beforewe no longer reinforcecroaking sounds.
    118. 118. By differentially reinforcingAndrew’s croaking behaviorfor several dayshe began frequently makingcroaking sounds.One day afterAndrew made acroaking soundDawn hesitated givingAndrew the gumreinforcer and said“Say, ‘gum, gum’”.“Say‘gum’….‘Gum’.”
    119. 119. At first the croakingsounds were like thoseheard before.Dawn waited until thecroaking sound slightlyresembled the word gumbefore she would giveAndrew the reinforcer.“Gaagaa…mmmmm”
    120. 120. Next, Dawn waiteduntil Andrew’s soundeven more closelyapproximated gum,and reinforced thatresponse.Finally, Andrew clearlysaid, “Gum” when Dawnasked him to and sheimmediately gave him thegum.“Guummm…Gum”
    121. 121. Currently, Andrew is frequently making croakingsounds and is saying the word gum at a moderatefrequency.What should Dawn do?A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds and reinforcespoken words.B. Continue reinforcing his croaking sounds whilelooking for fragments of spoken words toreinforce.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#29Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    122. 122. A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds and reinforcespoken words.B. Continue reinforcing his croaking sounds whilelooking for fragments of spoken words toreinforce.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerCurrently, Andrew is frequently making croakingsounds and is saying the word gum at a moderatefrequency.What should Dawn do?No. Now that Andrew issaying gum at a moderaterate we can stopreinforcing his croakingsounds and reinforce hisspeaking behavior.
    123. 123. A. Stop reinforcing his croaking sounds and reinforcespoken words.B. Continue reinforcing his croaking sounds whilelooking for fragments of spoken words toreinforce.Currently, Andrew is frequently making croakingsounds and is saying the word gum at a moderatefrequency.What should Dawn do?Correct. Now thatAndrew is saying gum ata moderate frequencywe no longer have toreinforce his croakingsounds and we can focuson reinforcing hisspeaking behavior.
    124. 124. Great Job at making thosedifficult decisions for Dawn,she appreciates your help!Now that you’vedecided what to do,let’s get busy fillingthe diagram for theterminal behavior.Thanks foryour help!
    125. 125. BeforeBeforeBehaviorBehaviorBehaviorA. Andrew makes acroaking soundB. Andrew saysgumBehaviorA. Andrew makes acroaking soundB. Andrew saysgumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will result in thedelivery of the gum reinforcer?Complete the diagramfor the terminalbehavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#30Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    126. 126. BeforeBeforeBehaviorBehaviorAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will result in thedelivery of the gum reinforcer?Complete the diagramfor the terminalbehavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerBehaviorA. Andrew makes acroaking soundB. Andrew saysgumBehaviorA. Andrew makes acroaking soundB. Andrew saysgumNo, Dawn is notcurrently tryingto increase onlylip movements.
    127. 127. BeforeBeforeBehaviorA. Andrew makesa croaking soundB. Andrew saysgumBehaviorA. Andrew makesa croaking soundB. Andrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will no longer bereinforced?Complete the diagramfor the terminalbehavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#31Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    128. 128. BeforeBeforeBehaviorA. Andrew makesa croaking soundB. Andrew saysgumBehaviorA. Andrew makesa croaking soundB. Andrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementWhat behavior will no longer bereinforced?Complete the diagramfor the terminalbehavior.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    129. 129. BeforeA. Andrew hasgumB. Andrew hasno gumBeforeA. Andrew hasgumB. Andrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the beforecondition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#32Write your first choice onthe scan-tron form now.Left-clickyour answer
    130. 130. BeforeA. Andrew hasgumB. Andrew hasno gumBeforeA. Andrew hasgumB. Andrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the beforecondition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    131. 131. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterA. Andrew hasgumB. Andrew hasno gumAfterA. Andrew hasgumB. Andrew hasno gumAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#33Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    132. 132. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterA. Andrew hasgumB. Andrew hasno gumAfterA. Andrew hasgumB. Andrew hasno gumAfterAfterReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.
    133. 133. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterA. Andrew hasno gumB. Andrew hasgumAfterA. Andrew hasno gumB. Andrew hasgumReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.#34Write your first choice onyour homework now.Left-clickyour answer
    134. 134. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterA. Andrew hasno gumB. Andrew hasgumAfterA. Andrew hasno gumB. Andrew hasgumReinforcementNo ReinforcementComplete the diagramfor the after condition.Please your answeron your answer sheet.Left-clickyour answer
    135. 135. BeforeAndrew hasno gumBeforeAndrew hasno gumBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew makesa croakingsoundBehaviorAndrew saysgumBehaviorAndrew saysgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew hasgumAfterAndrew has nogumAfterAndrew has nogumReinforcementNo ReinforcementNice job!Here’s the differentialreinforcement diagramyou just completed forthe terminal behavior.
    136. 136. Nice job! You havesuccessfully completedthe last successiveapproximation in theshaping procedure Dawnused to get Andrew tospeak.Thanksagain foryour help!
    137. 137. Now, just a quick testto check your razorsharp behavior analyticskills at shaping.These next couple ofquestions may be tough,but hang in therebecause we want to besure you don’t identifymuscle-building, shaping-up examples asbehavioral shaping.We’re almostthrough with thetraining and on tobigger and moreexciting things!
    138. 138. Jimmy, the scrawny kid in class,has just taken up weight lifting.Currently he can barely benchpress 100 lbs. But when he’sfinished training he’ll be muchstronger and able to lift 300 lbs.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer#35Write your first choice onyour homework now.
    139. 139. Jimmy, the scrawny kid in class,has just taken up weight lifting.Currently he can barely benchpress 100 lbs. But when he’sfinished training he’ll be muchstronger and able to lift 300 lbs.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoNo, this is not anexample of shapingbecause we are talkingabout physically buildingmuscle tissue. Thisdiffers from behavioralshaping which is used todevelop or improve anorganism’s repertoire .Left-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answerLeft-clickyour answer
    140. 140. Jimmy, the scrawny kid in class,has just taken up weight lifting.Currently he can barely benchpress 100 lbs. But when he’sfinished training he’ll be muchstronger and able to lift 300 lbs.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoCorrect, this is not anexample of shapingbecause we are talkingabout physically buildingmuscle tissue. Thisdiffers from behavioralshaping which is used todevelop or improve anorganisms repertoire .
    141. 141. Now, not only was Jimmy weak he alsohad very poor form while benchpressing. His hands and arms werelocated in the wrong spot when hepushed the weights up off his chest.His personal trainer began teaching himhow to improve his bench pressing form.By the end of his training Jimmy lookedlike a weight training pro.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. No#36Left-clickyour answerWrite your first choice onyour homework now.
    142. 142. A. YesB. NoNow, not only was Jimmy weak he alsohad very poor form while benchpressing. His hands and arms werelocated in the wrong spot when hepushed the weights up off his chest.His personal trainer began teaching himhow to improve his bench pressing form.By the end of his training Jimmy lookedlike a weight training pro.Is this an example of shaping?No, this is and exampleof shaping because weare improving the formJimmy uses to benchpress weights. Thecorrect form of benchpressing is a skill thatwas not previously inJimmy’s repertoire.Left-clickyour answer
    143. 143. A. YesB. NoNow, not only was Jimmy weak he alsohad very poor form while benchpressing. His hands and arms werelocated in the wrong spot when hepushed the weights up off his chest.His personal trainer began teaching himhow to improve his bench pressing form.By the end of his training Jimmy lookedlike a weight training pro.Is this an example of shaping?Correct. This is andexample of shapingbecause we areimproving the formJimmy uses to benchpress weights. Thecorrect form of benchpressing is a skill thatwas not previously inJimmy’s repertoire.
    144. 144. Sara, the slow jogger, wants to be able torun the mile in less than 7 minutes.Unfortunately, right now she can barelybreak the 10 minute marker. But by theend of this year, after lots of hardcorerunning, she’ll be able to race through themile in less than 7 minutes. She justphysically can’t get down to 7 minutes.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. No#37Left-clickyour answerWrite your first choice onyour homework now.
    145. 145. Sara, the slow jogger, wants to be able torun the mile in less than 7 minutes.Unfortunately, right now she can barelybreak the 10 minute marker. But by theend of this year, after lots of hardcorerunning, she’ll be able to race through themile in less than 7 minutes. She justphysically can’t get down to 7 minutes.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoNo,this is not an exampleof shaping because weare talking about Seraphysically getting inshape which consists ofbuilding muscle tissueand reducing body fatwhich do not involve thealtering of an individualsbehavioral repertoire.Left-clickyour answer
    146. 146. Sara, the slow jogger, wants to be able torun the mile in less than 7 minutes.Unfortunately, right now she can barelybreak the 10 minute marker. But by theend of this year, after lots of hardcorerunning, she’ll be able to race through themile in less than 7 minutes. She justphysically can’t get down to 7 minutes.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoCorrect, this is not anexample of shapingbecause we are talkingabout Sera physicallygetting in shape whichconsists of buildingmuscle tissue andreducing body fat whichdo not involve thealtering of an individualsbehavioral repertoire.
    147. 147. Not only was Sara slow when she firststarted, she also ran like a chicken with itshead cut off. Arms and legs flailing allover the place. Her form was terrible.The track coach was appalled by the sightof her and gave her some training. By theend of training Sara was running with theform of a world class runner.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. No#38Left-clickyour answerWrite your first choice onyour homework now.
    148. 148. Not only was Sara slow when she firststarted, she also ran like a chicken with itshead cut off. Arms and legs flailing allover the place. Her form was terrible.The track coach was appalled by the sightof her and gave her some training. By theend of training Sara was running with theform of a world class runner.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoNo,this is an example ofshaping because we aretraining Sera on thecorrect form of running,a skill that was notpreviously in herrepertoire.Left-clickyour answer
    149. 149. Not only was Sara slow when she firststarted, she also ran like a chicken with itshead cut off. Arms and legs flailing allover the place. Her form was terrible.The track coach was appalled by the sightof her and gave her some training. By theend of training Sara was running with theform of a world class runner.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoCorrect,this is anexample of shapingbecause we are trainingSera on the correctform of running, a skillthat was not previouslyin her repertoire.
    150. 150. Amber is going to school to be a court reporter.In order to graduate she must be able to type 90words per minute. Unfortunately, right now shecan only type 20 wpm. But by the end of hertraining she’ll be typing away at speeds greaterthan 100 wpm. Amber’s finger muscles werealways strong enough to type a string of randomcharacters equal to 100 wpm, but now her typinghas formed a specific response class.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. No#39Left-clickyour answerWrite your first choice onyour homework now.
    151. 151. Amber is going to school to be a court reporter.In order to graduate she must be able to type 90words per minute. Unfortunately, right now shecan only type 20 wpm. But by the end of hertraining she’ll be typing away at speeds greaterthan 100 wpm. Amber’s finger muscles werealways strong enough to type a string of randomcharacters equal to 100 wpm, but now her typinghas formed a specific response class.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoNo, this is an example ofshaping because Amber’styping repertoire isbeing improved. We arenot building the tinymuscles in her fingersbut we are altering herexisting typing skill level(behavioral repertoire).Left-clickyour answer
    152. 152. Amber is going to school to be a court reporter.In order to graduate she must be able to type 90words per minute. Unfortunately, right now shecan only type 20 wpm. But by the end of hertraining she’ll be typing away at speeds greaterthan 100 wpm. Amber’s finger muscles werealways strong enough to type a string of randomcharacters equal to 100 wpm, but now her typinghas formed a specific response class.Is this an example of shaping?A. YesB. NoCorrect,this is anexample of shapingbecause the Amber’styping repertoire isbeing improved. We arenot building the tinymuscles in her fingersbut we are altering herexisting typing skill level(repertoire).
    153. 153. Another common mistakeis to identify examplesof behavioral chains asbehavioral shaping.
    154. 154. BeforeNo treatBeforeNo treatBehaviorSpot lays downBehaviorSpot lays downBehaviorSpot rolls overBehaviorSpot rolls overAfterTreatAfterTreatAfterNo treatAfterNo treatReinforcementNo ReinforcementThe process of teachinga dog to roll over is thebest erroneous exampleof shaping—it’s actuallya behavioral chain.Why isn’t this an example of shaping? Because sitting,laying down and rolling over are separate behaviors thatbuild on top of each other and occur one after the other.
    155. 155. BeforeNo treatBeforeNo treatBehaviorSpot lays downBehaviorSpot lays downBehaviorSpot rolls overBehaviorSpot rolls overAfterTreatAfterTreatAfterNo treatAfterNo treatReinforcementNo ReinforcementThe process of teachinga dog to roll over is thebest erroneous exampleof shaping—it’s actuallya behavioral chain.In the example with Andrew, moving lips, making croakingsounds and speaking don’t occur in a sequence. Moving lipsand making sounds occur while speaking.
    156. 156. BeforeNo treatBeforeNo treatBehaviorSpot lifts paw1 inchBehaviorSpot lifts paw1 inchBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesAfterTreatAfterTreatAfterNo treatAfterNo treatReinforcementNo ReinforcementThe trick is to look atyour whole responseclass, from the initialbehavior all the way tothe terminal behavior.#40A. YesB. NoLeft-clickyour answerAre these tworesponses in the sameresponse class (similaralong a meaningfulresponse dimension)?
    157. 157. BeforeNo treatBeforeNo treatBehaviorSpot lifts paw1 inchBehaviorSpot lifts paw1 inchBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesAfterTreatAfterTreatAfterNo treatAfterNo treatReinforcementNo ReinforcementThe trick is to look atyour whole responseclass, from the initialbehavior all the way tothe terminal behavior.#40A. YesB. NoLeft-clickyour answerLifting farther andfarther up involvesalmost the sametopography.
    158. 158. BeforeNo treatBeforeNo treatBehaviorSpot lifts paw1 inchBehaviorSpot lifts paw1 inchBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesAfterTreatAfterTreatAfterNo treatAfterNo treatReinforcementNo ReinforcementThe trick is to look atyour whole responseclass, from the initialbehavior all the way tothe terminal behavior.#40A. YesB. NoLifting farther andfarther up involvesalmost the sametopography. Good.
    159. 159. BeforeNo treatBeforeNo treatBehaviorSpot sitsBehaviorSpot sitsBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesAfterTreatAfterTreatAfterNo treatAfterNo treatReinforcementNo ReinforcementThe trick is to look atyour whole responseclass, from the initialbehavior all the way tothe terminal behavior.#41A. YesB. NoLeft-clickyour answerAre these tworesponses in the sameresponse class (similaralong a meaningfulresponse dimension)?
    160. 160. BeforeNo treatBeforeNo treatBehaviorSpot sitsBehaviorSpot sitsBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesAfterTreatAfterTreatAfterNo treatAfterNo treatReinforcementNo ReinforcementThe trick is to look atyour whole responseclass, from the initialbehavior all the way tothe terminal behavior.#41A. YesB. NoLeft-clickyour answerLifting the paw andsitting are two differentresponses that occur in asequence or chain. Theyaren’t similar on anyresponse dimension.
    161. 161. BeforeNo treatBeforeNo treatBehaviorSpot sitsBehaviorSpot sitsBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesBehaviorSpot lifts paw5 inchesAfterTreatAfterTreatAfterNo treatAfterNo treatReinforcementNo ReinforcementThe trick is to look atyour whole responseclass, from the initialbehavior all the way tothe terminal behavior.A. YesB. NoLifting the paw andsitting are two differentresponses that occur in asequence or chain. Theyaren’t similar on anyresponse dimension.
    162. 162. Congratulations!You have made it through thetraining session on shaping.Now it’s time to get yourcreative juices flowing andput those finely sharpenedbehavior analytic skills togood use.
    163. 163. I hope you’re ready for someexcitement because it’s time foryou to put together your ownoriginal example of shaping.We’ll help youout, don’tworry.
    164. 164. First, take a look atthe diagram forAndrew. It includes theinitial, intermediateand terminal behaviorsFill in your original example in yourdiagram just like the diagram forAndrew—unless you are using thePowerPoint Viewer (not the completeProgram), which will not allow you to fillin answers on your screen.
    165. 165. BeforeBeforeBehaviorInitialN/ABehaviorInitialN/ABehaviorInitialBehaviorInitialAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementExtinctionIntermediateTerminalTerminalIntermediateClick me tocomplete youroriginal example’sdiagram.
    166. 166. BeforeBeforeBehaviorInitialN/ABehaviorInitialN/ABehaviorInitialBehaviorInitialAfterAfterAfterAfterReinforcementExtinctionIntermediateTerminalTerminalIntermediateClick me toreview Andrew’sdiagram.Arrow key forward whenfinished filling in yourexample.Print out this slide orwrite out your answersonto your worksheet.Also, prepare a mastertransparency to showin the seminar.Final diagram! Typeeach of yourbehaviors andstimulus conditions inthe appropriatespots.
    167. 167. All done.

    ×