S3 3 pradeep mehta exploring gender dimension of water


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S3 3 pradeep mehta exploring gender dimension of water

  1. 1. Exploring Gender Dimension ofWater: A Case Study of Mewat Pradeep K. Mehta and Niti Saxena
  2. 2. Background• Multiple uses of Water • Food and livelihood (agriculture, livestock) • People (drinking water, domestic use, hygiene and sanitation) • Environment (nature and wildlife)• Men and women have different tasks, rights, and knowledge about water for different uses• In the context of developing countries, women and water are closely inter-related as women are the main users of local water sources• Women have a greater responsibility and suffer more than man from water scarcity
  3. 3. Gender and Water• Gender points to relation between men and women as a social construction through which they organize their work, rights, and responsibilities• Gender approach to water means that all decisions regarding the design, management and use of water resources must take into account the needs of both men and women through an equitable approach.• Gender differs across culture, time and place
  4. 4. Framework Gender Approach to Water WORK ALLOCATION OWNERSHIP DECISION MAKING (Who Does What)(Who owns what) (Who Decides) •Domestic • Ownership •Which water source •Livestock •Access •How to use resource •Agriculture
  5. 5. Objectives and Methodology of the Study Objectives  Extent and nature of women participation in water related issues in Mewat district of Haryana Methodology  Sweet and Saline Villages  180 respondents (90-male and 90-female)
  6. 6. Water Sources and its cost Distribution of Water Sources 80% 70% 60% 50% Open Well 40% Hand Pump 30% Tubewell/Borewell 20% Purchase Water 10% 0% Sweet Water Villages Saline Water Villages Economics of Water AspectAnnual Expenditure on purchasing water Rs. 6476Expenditure on Water as a proportion of total 10 % – 18 %family expenditureCost of Construction of Water source (Hand Rs 30,000-50,000pump/Tubewell)
  7. 7. Women Drudgery in Mewat• 88% of the women above 6 years are involved in water fetching activities• Women drudgery does not only depend on distance to water source but also on water supply, family size and number of women at home• On an average, a women spends 2 to 5 hours per day on fetching water for domestic purposes• No ownership of assets by women
  8. 8. Women role in Water ActivitiesDecision Making Powers related to choice Priorities in Choice of Water Source of Water Source 100% 90% 80% 70% Quantity 60% Distance 50% 40% Sweetness 30% 20% 10% 0% Female Male Allocation of Water Related Tasks Sweet Water villages Saline Water Villages Involvement of Drinking water Livestock related Drinking water Livestock related tasks tasks Males 1 5 1 16 Females 161 155 140 121
  9. 9. Impact on Diseases and Education Incidence of Water borne diseases Sweet Water Saline Water Villages Villages Incidence of Water borne 5.8% 8.8% diseases* * Statistically significant at 0.05% level of confidence No direct link between drop-out among girls with their involvement in water-related activities, but link with rate of absenteeism : in 28% of the households, school going girl child are also involved in water-fetching activities that also takes place during school hours.
  10. 10. Major Conclusions Women drudgery is massive as they spend around 6-8 hours in a day in water-related activities Major chunk of domestic water related activities are performed by women but women are not involved in its decision making Women are more concerned about water quality but overlooking their preferences by men resulted in high incidence of water-borne diseases Water scarcity has an adverse impact on women’s education in the region