S5 4 dr neelima alam - water and women presentation
Empowering women through affordable and sustainable technological solutions to address various water challenges in the country. 5th Nov 2012 Water and Women Conference: SM Sehgal Foundation, Gurgaon Neelima Alam, D.R. Prasadaraju, Sanjay Bajpai, Vineet Saini Technology Mission Cell DST Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
• Is water a women’s question?• Why is it so? Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
• Women are home makers, nurturers and carers of natural resources and hence they should be seen in those very roles in the water sector.• Women’s domain therefore remains that of domestic water sector- collecting and using that water for the welfare of the family.• Men’s domain is seen in the productive sphere or the irrigation sector. This is considered as a natural extension of their work of value addition and surplus generation. Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
How are women visualised• Women first seen as the victims affected by the environmental crisis• Then seen as the solution because of their natural roles as care takers and nurturers Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
• In rural areas, up to one-third of a woman’s time can be spentfetching water and traversing physically a rough terrain Women maycarry up to 20 kg of water on their heads and/or side below arms oneach excursion (The Right to Water is a Woman’s right, Global WaterCrisis, Blue Planet Project http:blueplanetproject.net).• Indian women can make up to six trips a day to collect andtransport water for the household requirement. These trips in ruralregions can aggregate upto ten kilometers a day, carrying up tofifteen liters every trip.(Water, Work and Women in Rural India, byAditi Kapoor, World Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA).• The women load vessels (jars or buckets) on their heads to carrywater. The pressure, added with the distance to water sources,creates back ache, swelling in the feet, discomfort in the body andposture problems. the time spent on collecting water and lack ofsanitation facilities increases women’s inequality thus continuing thecycle of not able to pursue desired level of education and poverty.• girls in rural India drop out of school, so as to help the mother forcarrying out the burden of collecting water for entire household.Girls as young as ten or even below this age, contribute to householdtasks and fetching water is one of important tasks. Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
• The tragedy is that, having spent so much time and effort in reaching a source ofwater, the water itself is often dirty, polluted and contaminated posing a health hazard.• Unsafe water causes many ailments and it is reported that consumption of such waterand unhygienic sanitation account for nearly 80% of common ailments, such as,diarrhoea and dysentery, which are responsible worldwide for mortality ofconsiderable number of children under the age of five (WHO Report on Water relatedDiseases-Diarrhoea, Fact sheet (http:www.who.int).• Women and girls collecting water are also susceptible to diarrhoea, hepatitis A, andleptospirosis, a bacterial infection from water that is polluted by urine of animals,which many a times are brought to this very source of water for consuming water (TheWater Project, Water in Crisis-Spotlight on Women in India, by AlexandraBarton(http:thewaterproject.org) Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
DST’s Techno-based Initiatives for Pure Drinking Water Security• Water Technology Initiative (WTI)-a) Promoting R &D in WaterSector for development of cost effective solutions for domestic applicationsfor ensuring safe portable water. & b) WAR for Water Action Plan-Started in 2009 under the H’onble Supreme Court directives-enabling transfer of technology as the solution for the identified problems at the field level to address various water challengesfacing the country. Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
Methodology of Implementation for WAR for Water • Based on interactions with various States/UTs- TMC identified 26 challenges in 89 clusters for mounting challenges. • Technical bids for solving diff water challenges were invited to have pilot trials in a village of 10,000 people. • 23 projects have been taken up so far for implementation in various parts of the country (AP-2, Assam/Bihar/UP/WB-1, Gujarat-4, Haryana-2, Kerala-1, Mizoram-1, Nagaland-1, Rajasthan-6, TN-3, Tripura-1, and Uttarakhand-1) during the last 2 years, out of which 9 are commissioned (AP-1, Assam/Bihar/UP/WB-1, Gujarat-1, Rajasthan-3, TN-2 and Uttarakhand-1) so far. Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
Location Key Water Challenges Process Adopted Deliverables BeneficiariesBuja Buja, AP Low per capita Conventional treatment 125 Kl domestic 3000 families (drinking availability, high levels of domestic water and water and domestic water) of salinity, dissolved RO for drinking water; 75 Kl drinking 2000 farmers (irrigation solids, bacteria, Wastewater treatment water of lands through treated fluorides, seawater 1 MLD treated wastewater) intrusion, etc waste waterTantigaon+3 villages in High levels of Arsenic, Zero Valent Iron Arsenic Removal plant 6000 families in 42Assam, Arak+20 villages bacteria each 600-100 LPH villages (drinkingin Bihar, water)Bajhraja+12 villages inUP,andBikrampur+3 villages inWBPacheri Kalan and Low per capita Rain Water Harvesting Rain water harvesting 465 families in 2Pacheri Kurd, Rajasthan availability, over structures each 20 KL villages (drinking exploitation of ground water) waterMamsapuram, Tamilnadu Low per capita Conventional treatment 125 Kl domestic 5500 families (drinking availability, high levels of domestic water and water and domestic water) of salinity, total dissolved RO for drinking water; 75 Kl drinking 2000 farmers (irrigation solids, iron, bacteria, Wastewater treatment water of lands through treated fluorides, etc 1 MLD treated waste waste waterAugstmuni, Low per capita River Bank Filtration 300-900 LPH 5800 families in 4Karnaprayag, Satpuli and availability, high levels villages (drinking andSrinagar, Uttarakhand of suspended solids, domestic water) bacteria, etc Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
Transparency and Stakeholder InvolvementS.No Activity Stake holders involved 1 Preparation of project proposal, submission and Solution Provider, Experts, Community, related preparatory project- related including women self help groups, and organizational aspects officials of DST 2 Selection of sites for construction of facility District& Panchayat authorities, Solution Provider, Community, including women self help groups, and officials of DST 3 Construction of plant and installation of Solution Provider, Experts, and officials of equipment DST 4 Field investigations, monitoring and review of Solution Provider, Experts, and officials of project DST 5 Capacity building, operation of plant Solution Provider, Community including women self help groups, Panchayat, village youth and officials of DST 6 Information, Education and Communication Community including women self help tools for the scheme groups, Panchayat, Solution Provider, and officials of DST Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
Buja Buja Cluster … SolutionTechnology-RO provider-WSI Pvt Ltd • Water Issues-Low per capita availability, Salinity, sea water intrusion, Iron, TDS • The Solution addresses all the water issues in a holistic manner. • Waste Water treatment Plant –to reuse it for irrigation and to recharge the Ground water table. • Sustainability and Replicability- Each household pays an amount of Rs 60- 90 per month for use of drinking water and a card system is put in place for keeping a check on the quantity of water delivered. The unique approach for the low per capita water availability and water quality problem can be easily replicated anywhere in India where similar problem exists. Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
Mamsapuram Cluster… Technology-RO Solution provider- WSI Pvt Ltd• Water Issues-Low income availability, TDS, Salinity, Iron , Flourides• Due to hydrogeological formation of hard rock up to 30 -150 m, in Mamsapuram,availability and extraction of sub surface water has been extremely difficult. The solutionaddresses all the water issues in holistic manner by using both surface water duringmonsoon season and ground water in summer period for production of drinking water.• Waste Water treatment Plant –to reuse it for irrigation and to recharge theGround water table. Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
River Bank Filtration Technology in Uttarakhand…Process of River Bank Filtration technology-Bank filtration describes pumping of ground water through drinkingwater supply wells (tube wells) from aquifers that are in hydraulicconnection to adjacent rivers or lakes. Pumping induces seepage fromthe surface water into the aquifer and results in quality improvementsenroute to the well by natural processes such as filtration,biodegradation, adsorption, redox reactions and mixing. RBF can alsooccur under natural conditions as a result of an influent river. Recent experiences have been incorporated into a new concept comprising methodological stage-wiseRegional Significance-In case of River Bank Filtration, the production phases of visual site reconnaissance,of water from near-riverside wells was not favoured in the hills of geodetic surveys, field and laboratory investigations, parameter determinationIndia due to the belief that the aquifer thickness was insufficient to and groundwater modeling to plan newyield sufficient quantity of water. RBF sites in hills. Use of fast and economical overburden drilling with excentric bit, Percussion drilling method technique found to be suitable for construction of production wells in high- energy fluvial environments typically encountered at RBF sites in hills in India, were adopted, leading to good yield of water free from turbidity. 25% of the Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water project cost has been met by the &Women Conference Uttarakhand Jal Sansthan (UJS).
Improvement in measurable indicators• The water now supplied in the villages/towns covered by WAR for Water programme get 5 lpcd pure water on regular basis, compared to supply of contaminated water, that too in an erratic manner. In case of villages with RBF facility, 70 LPCD water, free from all contaminants, is supplied daily.• Based on the initial sample survey, it was found that there has been improvement in terms of digestion, cold, fever, urinary infection, kidney stones, dental fluorosis, typhoid, cholera, diarrhea, etc. The women also reported that using the treated water for cooking of rice gives pleasing colour and a better taste. Further, ease of access and consumption of pure water saves the villagers from buying packaged drinking water, which they often resort to for serving the guests, patients, and consumed during festivals/functions.• As water source is created at a central location or in the household, most people are collecting water from the plant itself, saving the effort and time that can be put to other gainful purposes.• Infrastructure to treat and supply safe water created lead to gainful employment during construction (10,000-20,000 mandays) and thereafter to maintain the facility (4-6 persons) within the village.
• Though various types of arsenic removal filters have been installed by Public Health Engineering Dept in the affected areas, their utility is limited due to poor maintenance, difficulty in access, lack of awareness on on its working. ARUs are designed such that the daily lifestyle of the villagers is not affected and the simple design and maintenance allows them to install and use the filter wherever they wish.• In case of RWH, wastage of roof water is sorted out and with the help of technology the rain water is captured for proper storage. With the help of advanced filter and chamber, fresh rain water is carried to the tanks easily, making filter or chamber very easy and simple for use at household level.• Conventional surface water treatment involves coagulation, sedimentation, filtration through couple of stages, and finally disinfection. In comparison, RBF provides sufficiently pre-treated water needing disinfection, that too in small dosage, through chlorination, a simple and conventional procedure, for eliminating any bacteria.
Conclusions• Department of Science & Technology, through its Water Technology Initiative, isactively involved in development of solutions for various water challenges facingthe country.• this initiative has made some notable achievements towards addressingchallenge related to safe drinking water by providing sustainable and affordabletechno-economic and social solutions for potable drinking water in the identifiedproblem clusters.• These interventions have benefitted all stakeholders, in general and women, inparticular. Considering the role of women as the epicentre in the rural India invarious aspects of water management, technology solutions have demonstratedpotential to reduce drudgery of rural women besides improving their healthstatus leading to their economic and social empowerment. Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference
AcknowlegdementsThe authors wish to express gratitude to Department of Science and Technology, inparticular Dr T Ramasami, Secretary to the Government of India for the guidance andencouragement provided in implementation of Water Technology Initiative and WAR forWater Programme. The authors also convey thanks to Programme Advisory Committee onWater Technology Initiative, experts, Principal Investigators, Solution providers and othersinvolved in implementing the projects in various parts of the country. Neelima Alam 5th Nov 2102 Water &Women Conference