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A PARADIGMATIC SHIFT in CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT

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How do we move forward, together...? Smart and sustainable city plans often face a deficit of engagement from citizens. IRIS Smart Cities is working to address this and sharing insights from their work on the ground.

Willem-Jan Renger of HKU and Arno Peekel of Utrecht Sustainability Institute take us through the 4 stages of citizen engagement, design systems thinking in cities, touchpoints and influencers.

Discover the good, the bad and even the ugly of citizen engagement in sustainable district development!

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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A PARADIGMATIC SHIFT in CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT

  1. 1. Case: WP5 Lighthouse Demonstration Utrecht A PARADIGMATIC SHIFT in CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT Willem-Jan Renger (HKU) / Arno Peekel (USI/UU) This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 774199
  2. 2. General introduction Citizen engagement in perspective w
  3. 3. • what is your local tradition? when do you apply it? Citizen Engagement small citizen impact substantial citizen impact major citizen impact autocratic leadership no citizen engagement democratic leadership citizen information democratic leadership citizen dialogue democratic leadership citizen co-creation democratic leadership citizen orchestration IRIS AMBITION w
  4. 4. General introduction Citizen engagement in the Netherlands A
  5. 5. • Long history of involving citizens • Common to every vision/project/approach in public space • Anchored in legislation and regulations • Professions in environmental management and stakeholdermanagement • Procedures and protocols for stakeholder engagement • Market and stakeholder consultations to collect input on area development Prime-Minister of the Netherlands: ‘Mature democracy’ A
  6. 6. Expanding City Centre Decades strategic urban planning Stakeholder interaction Research City talks to involve citizens Masterplan for development Administrative agreement of the municipality of Utrecht and stakeholders Example: Transforming Utrecht Central Station district A
  7. 7. Schiphol Airport CO2 storage Barendrecht Groningen gas production Onshore wind Shale gas dialogue • Distrust citizens towards government/science/stakeholders • Lack of response and slow process due to long procedures • Lack of involvement of citizens leading to ‘feeling a victim’ • Disbalance costs/benefits: shifting loss to society • Timing of citizen involvement is crucial but also difficult Few lessons from this and other examples A
  8. 8. Citizen engagement approach in IRIS - Short recap More info available in Deliverable D1.7 w
  9. 9. Citizen Engagement - four stages Design systems thinking (notes on co-creation) Touchpoint: passive versus active Infuencer WORKING DEFINITIONS 2 3 4 w
  10. 10. IRIS citizen engagement LADDER approach w
  11. 11. Iterative process of fault finding and improvement with low-risk low-cost implications @2: DESIGN PROCESS METHODOLOGY IDEATE DESIGN HKU EMPATHISE DEFINE HKU AWARENESS DEFINE HKU PROTOTYPE DESIGN HKU EVALUATE DESIGN HKU TEST DESIGN HKU ITERATE DESIGN HKU DEVELOP DEVELOP HKU IMPLEMENT DEVELOP HKU MAINTAIN DELIVER HKU UPDATE DELIVER HKU SUPPORT DELIVER HKU UPSCALE DELIVER HKU w
  12. 12. example of traditional ‘Prince2’ or waterfall project management modelling USER ACCEPTANCE TESTING AND REWORK w
  13. 13. @3: TOUCHPOINT ‘Touchpoint’: IRIS project work definitions TOUCH POINT SERVICEUSER w
  14. 14. @3: TOUCHPOINT TOUCH POINT PASSIVE TOUCHPOINTS ACTIVE TOUCHPOINTS APP CONTROLLABLE WEB INTERFACE CONTROLLER BUTTONS/SCREEN LETTERS BROCHURES INFO SCREENS w
  15. 15. @4: INFLUENCERS CITIZEN CHILDREN FRIENDS LEADERS NEIGHBOURS examples w
  16. 16. About our demo area A
  17. 17. THE CITY OF UTRECHT A
  18. 18. IRIS WP5 – Introduction Utrecht demonstration area 2 DEMONSTRATION AREA • Multi-cultural • Low-income • Social housing • Low-energy profile building stock Densily populated district in Utrecht A
  19. 19. IRIS WP5 – Introduction Utrecht demonstration area 3 DEMONSTRATION AREA: POOR ENERGY PROFILE A
  20. 20. CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT: FROM CHALLENGE TO RESULTS Multi-cultural district High unemployment rate Low-income level High level of social housing Low-energy profile building stock Densily populated Safety issues Mismatch Smart city Sustainability Energy transition Shared mobility solutions Solar panels A
  21. 21. IRIS Utrecht examples w
  22. 22. Smart Streetlighting Illuminated pedestrian crossing w
  23. 23. PROCESS: DESIGN THINKING APPROACH w
  24. 24. IN THREE SESSIONS CAPTURE CAPTURE DEMANDS, ISSUES DREAMS DRAGON’S DEN DESIGN Citizens share their stories, dreams, problems and experiences in the neighbourhood; these are captured in a series of Narratives (1 pagers) We pitch all concepts to the citizens and offer them the choice to pick the most relevant solution Technical experts, designers, government officials team up to ideate solutions connected to the Narratives captured in the first session IDEATE SOLUTIONS CONNECTED TO NEIGHBOURHOOD NARRATIVES 1 2 3 w
  25. 25. FROM CONCEPT TO LOCATION FOURTH SESSION: SIX MONTHS LATER LOCATIO N PICK THE OPTIMAL LOCATION 4 Citizens used a map of the neighbourhood to decide on the optimal location for the smart street crossing to have maximum impact w
  26. 26. EVALUATION GOOD BAD UGLY proper use of design methodology process no continuity in participating citizens too few participants : 0.5% of inhabitants active participation of citizens length of process disengages citizens NOT representative for population (age/background ethnic composition) positive atmosphere in collaboration with emerging feeling of trust lack of process feedback Passive contribution; no behaviour change (one-off effect) w
  27. 27. GETTING CITIZENS TO VISIT OUR TOUCHPOINT SESSIONS BASED ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION PASSIVE TOUCHPOINT: ‘magnet’ model w
  28. 28. TOON SMARTMETER FIELD EXAMPLE #2 w
  29. 29. FAILED: 70% consent on refurbishment plan for APPARTMENT BUILDING CONTEXT PLAN B: FREE OFFER to citizens for SMART METER and data service plan Value: 400€ AIM: to capture baseline data on energy consumption w
  30. 30. DOOR TO DOOR CONTACT TO ENGAGE CITIZENS IN TOON ADOPTION ACTIVE TOUCHPOINT modelcontact w
  31. 31. LOW EFFORT DESIGN • AIM: eliminate disengagement moments per household • Engage in conversation per individual household • Use “Aesthethics cards’ to identify citizen emotions/feelings (NOTE: the aesthetics card deck can be obtained @ HKU!) email: willem-jan.renger@hku.nl w
  32. 32. LOVE ADMIRATION DREAMINESS RESPECT To experience a tendency to regard someone as worthy, good or valuable. It arises when a praiseworthy character of someone conforms to internal or external standard. To experience an urge to be affectionate and care for someone. It arises when an appealing character of someone provides a likelihood of mutual affection or something facilitates associations with a loved one. To enjoy a calm state of introspection and thoughtfulness. It arises when something facilitates a stepping outside of the current experience and leads to associations with an experience (either in the past or future). To experience an urge to idolize, honor, and be devoted to someone. It arises when an appealing character of someone surpasses one’s internal or external standard or when something facilitates associations with an idolized one. To experience an urge to prize and estimate someone for their worth or achievement. It arises when someone’s praiseworthy behaviour surpasses internal or external standard. To experience a strong attraction to enjoy or own something It arises when something potentially beneficial for personal concerns is expected to be reachable. To experience a sexual appeal or appetite. It arises when someone’s sexual appeal corresponds to one’s appetite or facilitates associations with an erotic interaction. CONDUCIVE, SUPPORTIVE SYMPATHY KINDNESS To experience an urge to identify with someone’s feeling of misfortune or distress It arises when one recognises that someone is suffering a distress and is motivated to be helpful. To experience a tendency to protect or contribute to the well- being of someone. It arises when one finds relatedness with someone and is motivated to be conducive to his/her goal achievement. ALTRUISTIC, CONDOLENT ACCEPTANT, APPRECIATIVE INTIMATE, TENDER APPLAUDING, REGARDFUL MEDITATIVE, REFLECTIVE LUST DESIRE WORSHIP EROGENOUS, SEDUCTIVE ATTRACTED, WISHFUL ADULATORY, PRAISEFUL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SKILLS VS CHALLENGE RELUCTANCE potential causes: Daunting tasks that are too hard to master; steep learning curve; difficulty level too high; stuck in repetitive recoverable loss; play potential high risk missions (fear of losing assets); serious challenge; boss level Unmotivation - Look into: FAIRNESS BALANCING ANGER potential causes: Experience of injustice in game; balancing problem; unrecoverable loss Personal provocation - CONTENT INDIGNATION potential causes: Provocative subject in game; moral values being questioned; social boundaries being crossed - Look into: Look into: FAIRNESS BALANCING RESENTMENT potential causes: Undignified loss or sudden unexpected loss; unethical opposite play; unfair rules; unfair rewards (too little, too much) - Look into: FAIRNESS BALANCING HATE potential causes: Extreme cases of loss of extremely valuable asset; sudden obstruction of play; loss of serious amount of hours invested in play (data loss); sudden intervention by outsiders disruption game flow (parents!) Antipathy - Look into: CONTENT CONTEMPT potential causes: Lack of respect for creators; stupid actions of fellow players; blocked in their play by others (dark play) Antipathy - Look into: CONTENT DISGUST potential causes: Unethical actions in game; depictions of violence, torture or other gross depictions in game; too much gore in game; taboos being broken in game. Repulsion - Look into: SKILLS VS CHALLENGE BOREDOM potential causes: Lack of game control; lack of one’s impact on progress; repetition without aim; slow pacing; lack of obstacles; lack of autonomy Unmotivation - Look into: + SKILLS VS CHALLENGE SADNESS potential causes: Losing an object/character in game with emotional value; provocative storytelling; relatable experiences; content issue or fairness balancing issue play potential meaningful loss in game; creation of emotional attachment Misfortune - Look into: + Personal provocation Personal provocation1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 POSITIVE AESTHETICS NEGATIVE AESTHETICS w
  33. 33. DESIGN SKETCH PARADIGM SHIFT CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT FIRST LETTER APPOINTMENT FOR INSTALLER HOUSE VISIT 1 HOUSE VISIT 2url -> NAW Yvette - DOOR2DOOR (1) (2) FIRST LETTER laptop/NAW FORM FLYER BEHIND ONLINE ACTIVATION APPOINTMENT INSTALLER EMAIL ADDRESS FOR USE IN IRIS GOODIE BAG SCRIPT (IRIS) PROCESS INFORMATION EVALUATION USAGE TOON TOON INTRODUCTION anouk TOON flyer 22-11 29-11 6 - 9 - 13 - 20 - 23 - 30 december INSTALLING DATES 2 - 3 - 6- 10 januari “No Plan Survives Contact With The Enemy” Field Marshal Karl Bernhard von Moltke A w
  34. 34. EVALUATION GOOD BAD UGLY detailed social map of the building proper use of design methodology process no power plugs @ installment detailed overview of yes/no and why / why not per household active personalised CONVERSATION with citizens hired installer; not from TOON provider identifying potential change agents increased building of trust Installing took far too much time eliminating disengagement points in acceptance process too labour intensive 40% conversion versus 3% just letter w
  35. 35. SECOND ITERATION AIM: ELIMINATE THE BAD ELEMENTS FROM FIRST ATTEMPT > support for after care with cheaper solution > uncoupling of installment from house visit > elimination of second house visit > improved manual and support material w
  36. 36. RETROFITTING APARTMENT BUILDINGS Common approach of housing corporation Bo-Ex worked fine for years Last years more time needed for interaction with tenants Leading to a.o. discontent and delay in schedule FIELD EXAMPLE #3 A
  37. 37. Same approach: different outcome Tactics prepilot ‘Livingstonelaan III’ Tactics ‘Columbuslaan III’ Outcome Result: enough consent among tenants to retrofit building Result: not enough consent among tenants to retrofit building Language Communication in Dutch Communication in Dutch Type of meeting Two plenary informative meetings with Bo-Ex presenting retrofit plans Two plenary informative meetings with Bo-Ex presenting retrofit plans Role of tenant committee Small role tenant committee in engaging other tenants Small role tenant committee in engaging other tenants Chairman of meetings Bo-Ex is chairman of meetings with tenants committee Bo-Ex is chairman of meetings with tenants committee Agreement document No Project Agreement Document with tenants committee A Cooperation Agreement Document with tenants committee Communication material Bundling of loose information in multomap as information to residents Bundling of loose information in multomap as information to residents Collective/individual approach No individual information provision Individual house visits to provide information on retrofit plan No individual information on impact on personal level No individual information on impact on personal level Direct/indirect contact points Direct contact points with tenants Direct contact points with tenants Showcase A starkly model house to show the activities / changes A furnished model house to show the activities /changes, just before the consent measurement A
  38. 38. • Despite the same approach the retrofitting of ‘Columbuslaan III’ could not proceed. • Lack of enough consent rate (legally obliged) • Time to evaluate and change tactics Change of tactics A
  39. 39. Biggest issue: obtain support of tenants 37IRIS WP5 – Transition Track 1 – Utrecht Measures to change tactics (iterative process) • Improved communication • Communication in different languages • More moments of contact with the tenants • Better collaboration with a delegation of the tenants (committee) • Better start-up with the committee and a Project Agreement Document • Independent chairman who leads the meetings • Better understanding of the plans amongst tenants • Individual house visits by an independent consultant • Individual energy saving calculations • Decouple IRIS activities from the refurbishment (if possible) • Implementation of the HEMS Eneco Toon® in anticipation of the refurbishments • Pre-selection of involved tenants • Involvement of children • Lessons about the refurbishments at the primary schools in Kanaleneiland-Zuid Good story Positive vibe Trust A
  40. 40. Same approach: different outcome A Tactics ‘Columbuslaan III’ Tactics ‘Alexander de Grotelaan II & III’ Outcome Result: not enough consent among tenants to retrofit building Result not yet known. Consent measurement planned in June 2020 Language Communication in Dutch Communication in different languages (Dutch, English, Turkish, Arabic) Type of meeting Two plenary informative meetings with Bo-Ex presenting retrofit plans Several contact moments with tenants, plenary and smaller porch meetings Role of tenant committee Small role tenant committee in engaging other tenants More responsibility tenant committee in communicating retrofit plans to other tenants Chairman of meetings Bo-Ex is chairman of meetings with tenants committee Independent chairman leading meetings with tenants committee and Bo-Ex Agreement document A Cooperation Agreement Document with tenants committee A Cooperation and Project Agreement Document with tenants committee Communication material Bundling of loose information in multomap as information to residents Newly produced brochure with coherent information on retrofit plans Collective/individual approach Individual house visits to provide information on retrofit plan Individual house visits to provide information on retrofit plans, also with translators No individual information on impact on personal level Individual energy calculations showing ‘energy situation’ before and after retrofit activities Direct/indirect contact points Direct contact points with tenants Direct contact points with tenants plus indirect contact through children of primary schools by giving lessons on sustainability Showcase A furnished model house to show the activities /changes, just before the consent measurement A furnished model house to show the activities /changes, from the beginning of the design process
  41. 41. • Lessons at primary schools • Use of same persons (Yvette and Rianne) for continuity in approach • ‘Duursamen’ Bord game • XR-experience • Energy advice with use of TOON-data. Lots of more examples early prototype A
  42. 42. CHANGE OF PARADIGM COMMON PITFALLS IN CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT w
  43. 43. example of traditional ‘Prince2’ or waterfall project management modelling USER ACCEPTANCE TESTING AND REWORK w
  44. 44. DELAYS COSTS CANCELLATION decision making preparation without INITIAL citizen input mismatch!! PUBLIC CITIZEN MEETING prepared decision passive TOUCHPOINT little room for change formal language perception of arrogance PASSIVECITIZEN ENGAGEMENT w RESISTANCE ANGER DISTRUST
  45. 45. EVALUATION GOOD BAD UGLY relatively low effort in production often poor representation of entire target audience negative emotions as a result efficient in place and time extreme presence in the positive and the negative (strong supporters vs strong opponents) dissatisfaction and disengagement limited possibilities for citizens to influence / change / modification of the plans/decisions increasing distance citizen - government w
  46. 46. HOUSE VISITS preparing decision active TOUCHPOINTS realistic sphere of influence design citizen journey of acceptance AUTONOMY (Deci & Ryan) RESISTANCE ANGER DISTRUST listening to citizens ACTIVECITIZEN ENGAGEMENT UNDERSTANDING ACCEPTATION BEGINNING OF TRUST MODIFIED DECISION ITERATIVE PROCESS!! w DELAY CANCELLATION COSTS
  47. 47. CONCLUSION / VALUE OF NEW APPROACH PARADIGMATIC SHIFT from PASSIVE to ACTIVE means: ✓ more labour intensive ✓far more qualitative data ✓ higher impact (in one of the most difficult environments) ✓ rebuilding trust (using empathic design) CITIZEN-GOVERNMENT ✓ no absolute guarantee for engagement ✓ no absolute guarantee for behaviour change w

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