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Basis ifpri pres oct 2011 deere rev

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Basis ifpri pres oct 2011 deere rev

  1. 1. IN HER NAMEThe Gender Asset Project: Comparative Results Carmen Diana Deere Workshop on Gender and Assets International Food Policy Research Institute Washington, D.C. October 13, 2011
  2. 2. IN HER NAME: The Gender Asset ProjectA three-country comparative study, funded by theDutch Foreign Ministry MDG3 Fund5 co-PI’s:Ecuador – Carmen Diana Deere, University of Florida, with FLACSO-EcuadorGhana – Abena Oduro, University of GhanaIndia – Hema Swaminathan, Indian Institute of Management, BangaloreComparative - Cheryl Doss, Yale University Caren Grown, American University
  3. 3. Measures of the Gender Asset Gap1. Distribution of assets by form of ownership2. Incidence of asset ownership (% of men and women who own)3. Distribution of asset owners by sex (% of owners who are male or female)4. Distribution of households by form of ownership
  4. 4. Distribution of assets by form of ownership• Unit of analysis is the asset• Data is presented by type of asset (dwelling, agricultural parcels, animal, cell phone, etc.)• Forms of ownership include individual and joint• Joint ownership broken down by: – Couple – All household members together – Other household members (a mother & son, etc.; also includes a household member(s) with non-household members)
  5. 5. Distribution of Principal Residence by Form of Ownership•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap Project
  6. 6. Distribution of Agricultural Parcels by Form of Ownership•Excludes Bangalore** Agricultural land in Ghana does not include family land The Gender Asset Gap Project
  7. 7. Distribution of Livestock by Form of Ownership•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap Project
  8. 8. Distribution of Savings by Form of Ownership•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap Project
  9. 9. Incidence of OwnershipFor each asset: No. of women who are owners/all women No. of men who are owners/all menGives the percentage of women or men who are owners either individually or jointlyData presented is for adults (18 and over)
  10. 10. Incidence of ownership – Principal Residence (adults)•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap ProjectPercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding
  11. 11. Incidence of ownership - Agricultural Parcels (adults)•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap Project
  12. 12. Incidence of ownership - Businesses (adults)•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap Project
  13. 13. Incidence of ownership - Jewelry (adults)•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap Project
  14. 14. Incidence of ownership – Savings (adults)•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap Project
  15. 15. The Gender Wealth Gap
  16. 16. Valuing Physical Assets• Market (or sales) value: For how much could you sell this asset?• Replacement cost: How much would it cost to purchase this same asset today?• Present value: rental rate x discount rate
  17. 17. Wealth Data Presented:• Market value• Gross rather than net (Have not yet analyzed debt)• Based on responses to Household Inventory (Have not yet analyzed disagreements among couples which appear in the individual questionnaires)• Weighted• Truncated (Ecuador & Karnataka, India)
  18. 18. COMPARATIVE: Share of Women’s Gross Physical Wealth• Ecuador: 52.5%• Ghana: 30.2%• Karnataka: 19.0%IMPLICATIONS:Marital & inheritance regimes make adifference!
  19. 19. COMPARATIVE: Share of Women’s Wealth by Quintile70%60%50% I--Poorest40% II III30% IV V--Richest20%10%0% Ecuador India Ghana
  20. 20. ECUADOR: Distribution of Male and Female Heads across Total Household Wealth Quintiles30%25%20%15% Non partnered Male Non partnered Female10%5%0% Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
  21. 21. COMPARATIVE: Composition of Wealth by Quintile Ecuador Ghana100% Financial Assets90% Consumer Durables80% Business70%60% Ag Equipment50% Livestock40% Other Real Estate30%20% Ag Land10% Principal Dwelling 0%
  22. 22. Comparing the Gender Asset and Wealth GapsHere use the third measure of the Gender Asset Gap: Distribution of asset owners by sex (% of owners who are male or female)Compare to Gender Wealth Gap: Distribution of asset wealth by sex (% of gross physical wealth that corresponds to men or women)
  23. 23. COMPARATIVE: Share of Female Homeowners and Women’s Share of Housing Wealth 54.6% 53.8% 39% 37% 29% 23% Ecuador India Ghana Womens share of wealth Proportion of owners who are women
  24. 24. COMPARATIVE: Share of Female Parcel Owners and Women’s Share of Ag Land Wealth Womens share of wealth Proportion of owners who are women 51% 48% 38% 24% 20% 12% Ecuador India Ghana
  25. 25. COMPARATIVE: Share of Female Business Owners and Women’s Share of Business Wealth 70% 54% 38% 31% 28% 5% Ecuador India Ghana Womens share of wealth Proportion of owners who are women
  26. 26. Tentative Conclusions1. It is possible to collect individual-level wealthdata by sex!2. Wealth adds a new and important dimensionto the study of gender and social inequality3. For most assets, the Gender Wealth Gapexceeds the Gender Asset Gap4. Across our 3 countries, greatest disparity inrelative shares is with respect to businesses
  27. 27. Tentative Conclusions5. Troubling that highest share of women’shousehold wealth concentrated in poorestquintile6. Differing composition of wealth by quintilesuggests new avenues for research and policyinterventions to reduce asset poverty andhence household vulnerability
  28. 28. MIND THE GAP!Thank you….For the country studies and further information:http://genderassetgap.iimb.ernet.in

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