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Overview of COVID-19 vaccines: efficacy and priority group

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Overview of COVID-19 vaccines: efficacy and priority group

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Webinar Series on COVID-19 vaccine: Jointly organized by Malaysian Society of Infection Control and Infectious Diseases (MyICID) & Institute for Clinical Research (ICR), NIH
Speaker: Dr.Benedict Sim Lim Heng is a Consultant Infectious Disease Physician at the Sungai Buloh Hospital, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

Webinar Series on COVID-19 vaccine: Jointly organized by Malaysian Society of Infection Control and Infectious Diseases (MyICID) & Institute for Clinical Research (ICR), NIH
Speaker: Dr.Benedict Sim Lim Heng is a Consultant Infectious Disease Physician at the Sungai Buloh Hospital, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

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Overview of COVID-19 vaccines: efficacy and priority group

  1. 1. Vaccines in COVID-19 Dr. Benedict Sim Infectious Disease Physician
  2. 2. Disclaimers •This slide was prepared for the Webinar Series on COVID-19 session on 7th April 2021, by Dr. Benedict Sim, Infectious Disease Physician, Sungai Buloh Hospital, Malaysia. •This is intended to share within healthcare professionals, not for public. •Kindly acknowledge “Clinical Updates in COVID-19 http://www.nih.gov.my/covid-19” should you plan to share the information obtained from this slide with your colleagues. Jointly organized by Malaysian Society of Infection Control and Infectious Diseases (MyICID) & Institute for Clinical Research, NIH 2
  3. 3. Content/Outline 1. Are vaccines really needed? Is covid-19 a hyped-up disease? Let nature take its course. Isn’t it another flu? 2. What is the efficacy of the vaccines? Can it prevent against getting infected? How long will they last? 3. Who should we prioritize for vaccines? 4. What about the impact of viral variants? 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Ranges of mortality by country: Yemen – 19.8% Singapore 0.05% 5
  6. 6. Case fatality rates – what it doesn’t tell us • Death lags behind • Cause of death classified differently • Death but not tested • Died at home after discharged • Indirect cause of death • Does not take into account the morbidity of covid 19 • The perspective of the patient 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Not the same for everyone….. % deterioration <40 yrs NO Comorbid 0.48 <40 yrs + Comorbid 4.15 40-60 yrs NO Comorbid 4.95 40-60 yrs + Comorbid 9.36 >60 yrs + NO Comorbid 6.21 >60 yrs + Comorbid 16.19 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Is the vaccine effective against COVID-19? 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 3 levels of protection •The vaccinee •Family •Community (herd immunity) 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. CanSino 30
  31. 31. CanSino 31
  32. 32. CanSino 32
  33. 33. Coronavac (Sinovac) 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Oxford-AstraZeneca 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. Not the same for everyone….. % deterioration <40 yrs NO Comorbid 0.48 <40 yrs + Comorbid 4.15 40-60 yrs NO Comorbid 4.95 40-60 yrs + Comorbid 9.36 >60 yrs + NO Comorbid 6.21 >60 yrs + Comorbid 16.19 38
  39. 39. Priority groups (adapted from Green Book, Public Health England, Chapter 14a, Covid-19 39
  40. 40. COVID-19 variants 40
  41. 41. Potential Consequences of Emerging Variants 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. Summary of Potential Implications for mRNA Vaccine Efficacy 44
  45. 45. Summary •Do not look solely at case fatality rates when assessing the clinical impact of COVID-19 •Naturally allowing COVID-19 to run its course is dangerous •Current vaccines are effective against deaths, severe disease and even transmission •Prioritize the elderly and those with comorbidities •Not out of the woods yet despite vaccination •Viral variants are of concern – but current vaccines protect against severe disease 45
  46. 46. Thank you 46

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