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COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
&
COASTAL REGULATION ZONE
Dr. M. Baba
Centre for Earth Science Studies
Diversity of coastal hazards
Narrow sandy beaches of Kerala
Lagoons of Lakshadweep
Extensive tidal flats of Gujarat
DIVERSITY OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS
Mumbai
− Mangroves
− Sand dunes
− Turtle breeding grounds
− Coral reefs
− Uninhabited small islands
− Areas of outstanding natura...
Filtration pond
Fish habitat
Ground water
Inter-tidal system
Rocky cliff
Sandy beach bordering cliff
Tidal flat Lateritic cliff
Tidal inlet
Beach
Backwater/KayalTidal marsh
Coastal forest
Coastal Uses
Coastal Uses
Damages to coastal systems
Integrated
Coastal
Zone
Management
Plan
District Coastal Management Plan
Ashtamudi Estuary, Kollam, India
Proposed tourism and marine park zoning map
Produced by:...
WEST KALLADA
EAST KALLADA
THRIKKARUVA
MUNDROTHURUTHU
PERAYAM
PERINAD
ASHTAMUDI KAYAL
CENTRAL KAYAL
KUNDRA
BOAT BERTHING
AN...
Coastal Zone boundaries for different countries
COUNTRY INLAND BOUNDARY OCEAN BOUNDARY
Brazil
China
Costa Rica
India
Israe...
Areas included by different countries in the
Coastal Management Zone
• All coastal lands that are subject to storms and fl...
Economic/Development
Pressure
Societal/Environmental
Pressure
I C Z M
Environmental
Conservation
Equitable Benefit Sharing...
NATIONAL COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
POLICY
• Issues due to resource overuse,
• Degradation of ecosystems,
• Conflicts among s...
Why regulated development of the
coast?
• Protection of fishery
• Protection of coastal ecosystems
• Protection of life an...
Coastal Regulation Zone
• Intertidal zone- area
between HTL & LTL
• Defined regulation zone
landward of the HTL on
sea coa...
CRZ Notification - Genesis
1981 – Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s letter: Keep 500 m from the
HTL free from development act...
How it progressed……
• Vohra Committee
• Saldhana Committee
• Balakrishnan Nair Committee
• Saldhana Committee
• Babu Paul ...
Benefits of CRZ
• Awareness on coast
• Traditional rights
• Industries controlled
• Natural hazard
protection
• Livelihood...
Failures of CRZ
• Arbitrary zone
• Mainly violated
• No participation
• Too restrictive
• Goals undefined
• No incentives
...
Terms of Reference of Swaminathan Committee
1. Review reports of various Committees & international
practices
2. Suggest s...
COASTAL ISSUES
• Social and economic development of the
country
• Bring together a unique collection of natural
resources
...
MSS Committee
GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF CZM
• Ecological and cultural security, livelihood security
and national security
• Te...
MSS Committee
GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF CZM
• Coastal policy and regulations should be guided by the
principles of gender and ...
MSS Committee
A NATIONAL COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
ACTION PLAN
• To protect with peoples participation the
livelihood securi...
DEFINITION
The coastal zone is defined as an area from the
territorial waters limit (12 nautical miles) including its
sea ...
ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE AREAS (ESA)
• Mangroves
• Coral reefs
• Sand beaches and sand dunes
• Inland tidal water bodies, i....
AREAS OF PARTICULAR CONCERN
• Coastal municipalities / corporations (the entire notified
area)
• Coastal panchayats with p...
FACILITIES / ACTIVITIES REQUIRING ACCESS
TO THE SHORELINES
• Port and harbours, including refueling facilities, and dredgi...
A comparison of the CRZ &
MSS recommendations
Item CRZ MSS Report
Approach Regulatory
(top down)
Participatory management
...
Coastal zone manangement & coastal regulation zone
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Coastal zone manangement & coastal regulation zone

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Coastal zone manangement & coastal regulation zone

  1. 1. COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT & COASTAL REGULATION ZONE Dr. M. Baba Centre for Earth Science Studies
  2. 2. Diversity of coastal hazards
  3. 3. Narrow sandy beaches of Kerala Lagoons of Lakshadweep Extensive tidal flats of Gujarat DIVERSITY OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS
  4. 4. Mumbai
  5. 5. − Mangroves − Sand dunes − Turtle breeding grounds − Coral reefs − Uninhabited small islands − Areas of outstanding natural beauty − Heritage/archeological sites − Areas likely to be inundated by sea level rise Sensitive coastal ecosystems
  6. 6. Filtration pond Fish habitat Ground water Inter-tidal system
  7. 7. Rocky cliff Sandy beach bordering cliff Tidal flat Lateritic cliff
  8. 8. Tidal inlet Beach Backwater/KayalTidal marsh Coastal forest
  9. 9. Coastal Uses
  10. 10. Coastal Uses
  11. 11. Damages to coastal systems
  12. 12. Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan
  13. 13. District Coastal Management Plan Ashtamudi Estuary, Kollam, India Proposed tourism and marine park zoning map Produced by: M. Muralikrishna Project Directors: Prof. Kerry Black and Dr. M. Baba Project leaders:ASR Ltd., Marine and Freshwater Consultants, New Zealand Counterpart: Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS), India Sponsor: Asia Development Assistance Facility (ADAF), Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, New Zealand WEST KALLADA EAST KALLADA THRIKKARUVA MUNDROTHURUTHU PERAYAM PERINAD ASH TAMU D I KA YAL CEN TR AL KAYAL KUNDRA BOAT BERTHING AND NATURE PARK MARINE RESERVE (FISHING NO T ALLOWED) TOURISM CENTRE HOUSEBOAT MOORING MARINE RESERVE RESEARCH CENTRE TOURISM AREA ÊÚ KANJIRAKOTTU KAYAL FISHING ZONE FISHING ZONE Î KUMBALATTU KAYAL FISHING ZO NE KAL LA DA R N PROPOSED TOURISM AND MARINE PARK ZONES - ASHTAMUDI ESTUARY Km s1 0 1
  14. 14. WEST KALLADA EAST KALLADA THRIKKARUVA MUNDROTHURUTHU PERAYAM PERINAD ASHTAMUDI KAYAL CENTRAL KAYAL KUNDRA BOAT BERTHING AND NATURE PARK MARINE RESERVE (FISHING NOT ALLOWED) TOURISM CENTRE HOUSEBOAT MOORING MARINE RESERVE RESEARCH CENTRE TOURISM AREA ÊÚ KANJIRAKOTTU KAYAL FISHING ZONE FISHING ZONE Î KUMBALATTU KAYAL FISHING ZONE KAL LA DA R N PROPOSED TOURISM AND MARINE PARK ZONES - ASHTAMUDI ESTUARY Kms1 0 1
  15. 15. Coastal Zone boundaries for different countries COUNTRY INLAND BOUNDARY OCEAN BOUNDARY Brazil China Costa Rica India Israel Philippines Queensland South Australia Spain Sri Lanka Sweden United Kingdom U.S.A 2 km from MHW 10 km from MHW 200 m from MHW 500 m from HTL 1 – 2 km variable Flexible 400 m from MHW 100 m from MHW 500 m from highest storm or tide line 300 m from MHW 100 – 300 m Flexible Flexible 12 km from MHW 15 m isobath (depth) MLW LTL 500 MLW Continental Shelf 3 NM from the CB 3 NM from the CB 12 NM (limit of territorial sea) 2 km from MLW 2 NM 12 NM 12 NM
  16. 16. Areas included by different countries in the Coastal Management Zone • All coastal lands that are subject to storms and flooding by the sea • All intertidal areas of mangrove, marsh, deltas, salt flats, tidal flats and beaches • All permanent shallow coastal water areas such as bays, lagoons, estuaries, deltaic waterways, and nearshore than include seagrass meadows, coral reefs, shellfish beds or submerged bars • All small coastal islands and other important nearshore features
  17. 17. Economic/Development Pressure Societal/Environmental Pressure I C Z M Environmental Conservation Equitable Benefit Sharing Conflict Resolution SUSTAINABLE COASTAL RESOURCE UTILISATION EQUITABLE SOCEITAL & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Legislative intervention - CRZ Action Plans Coastal Resources Incorporation into Local body Plans Spatial planning
  18. 18. NATIONAL COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT POLICY • Issues due to resource overuse, • Degradation of ecosystems, • Conflicts among stakeholders • Coastal hazards • Livelihood security • Sustainable development
  19. 19. Why regulated development of the coast? • Protection of fishery • Protection of coastal ecosystems • Protection of life and property • Maintain the scenic beauty of coast • Encourage sustainable tourism • Ensure public access to beach
  20. 20. Coastal Regulation Zone • Intertidal zone- area between HTL & LTL • Defined regulation zone landward of the HTL on sea coast and on the banks of estuaries creeks and backwaters • 500 m along sea & estuary coast • 100 0r 150 m on banks of backwater, river
  21. 21. CRZ Notification - Genesis 1981 – Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s letter: Keep 500 m from the HTL free from development activities 1982- Working Group on beach development guidelines 1983- Guidelines for the development of beaches (Tourism, Industrial development, Urban and rural development Special areas – mangroves, scenic areas, corals, oceanic islands) 1986 – Environmental Protection Act 1989 – Draft CRZ Notification 1991 – CRZ Notification 1994 – Supreme Court direction asking for strict implementation of CRZ 1996 – Approval to State CZMPs 1997 – Constitution of Aquaculture Authority 1998 – National and State Coastal Zone Management Authorities
  22. 22. How it progressed…… • Vohra Committee • Saldhana Committee • Balakrishnan Nair Committee • Saldhana Committee • Babu Paul Committee • Swaminathan Committee
  23. 23. Benefits of CRZ • Awareness on coast • Traditional rights • Industries controlled • Natural hazard protection • Livelihood security • Fragile systems • Aesthetics
  24. 24. Failures of CRZ • Arbitrary zone • Mainly violated • No participation • Too restrictive • Goals undefined • No incentives • No enforcement
  25. 25. Terms of Reference of Swaminathan Committee 1. Review reports of various Committees & international practices 2. Suggest scientific principles for an ICZM best suited for the country 3. Define and enlist various coastal and marine resources 4. Recommend the methodology for their identification 5. Recommend the extent of safeguards required for conservation and protection 6. Revisit CRZ, Notification, 1991 in the light of above 7. Recommend necessary amendments to make the regulatory framework consistent with recommendations
  26. 26. COASTAL ISSUES • Social and economic development of the country • Bring together a unique collection of natural resources • Coast an economic base and physical location • Fast developing area in the country • Environmental degradation, resource reduction and user conflicts • Large scale destruction of life, property and natural resources due to natural hazards
  27. 27. MSS Committee GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF CZM • Ecological and cultural security, livelihood security and national security • Territorial sea and the landward administrative biological limits • Regulation, education and social mobilization • conformity with international laws • Regulation based on sound, scientific and ecological principles • Precautionary approach where there are potential threats or irreversible damage to ecologically fragile systems • Significant biological, cultural and natural assets should be considered incomparable
  28. 28. MSS Committee GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF CZM • Coastal policy and regulations should be guided by the principles of gender and social equity as well as intra- generational and inter-generational equity • ‘Polluter-pays’ principle(s) and ‘public trust’ doctrine • Concurrent attention to conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits • National coastal bio-shield movement • Short term commercial interests not be allowed to undermine the ecological security of our coastal areas • Cohesive, multi-disciplinary approaches
  29. 29. MSS Committee A NATIONAL COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT ACTION PLAN • To protect with peoples participation the livelihood security of the coastal fishers and others • To protect life and property • To protect the ecosystems which sustain productivity of the coastal areas • Promote sustainable development that contribute to nation’s economy and prosperity. Objectives
  30. 30. DEFINITION The coastal zone is defined as an area from the territorial waters limit (12 nautical miles) including its sea bed upto the landward boundary of the local self government abutting the sea coast. Coastal zone also includes inland water bodies influenced by tidal action including its bed and the adjacent land area upto the landward boundary of the local self-government abutting such water bodies. In case of ecologically sensitive areas, the entire notified area/biological boundary of the area will be included. MSS Committee
  31. 31. ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE AREAS (ESA) • Mangroves • Coral reefs • Sand beaches and sand dunes • Inland tidal water bodies, i.e. estuaries, lakes, lagoons, creeks • Mudflats • Marine wildlife protected areas under the Wildlife (Conservation) Act. • Coastal fresh water lakes • Salt marshes • Turtle nesting grounds • Horse shoe crabs habitats • Seagrass beds • Seaweed beds • Nesting grounds of migratory birds
  32. 32. AREAS OF PARTICULAR CONCERN • Coastal municipalities / corporations (the entire notified area) • Coastal panchayats with population density more than 400 persons per sq.km. (the entire notified area) • Ports and harbours • Notified tourism areas • Mining sites • Notified industrial estates • Special Economic Zones • Haritage areas • Notified archaeological sites under the Protected Monuments Act • Defence areas / installations • Power plants
  33. 33. FACILITIES / ACTIVITIES REQUIRING ACCESS TO THE SHORELINES • Port and harbours, including refueling facilities, and dredging and reclamation • Fish landing sides • Public toilets • Lighthouses and light-towers • Beach tourism and water sports facilities • Salt pans • Mining of minerals other than beach sand, rocks, gravel, and sea- shells • Ship building and repair facilities • Coastal protection structures • Hydrocarbon exploration and production • Defence installations • Discharge pipelines for treated effluent and sewage • Approach roads, railways, pipelines, power transmissions and distribution lines to service the above
  34. 34. A comparison of the CRZ & MSS recommendations Item CRZ MSS Report Approach Regulatory (top down) Participatory management (bottom up) Area Covered Only coastal land Land and water Boundaries Shoreline (LTL) to 500m Entire panchayat / municipality & territorial sea & coastal waters Coastal peculiarities Not fully accounted Fully accounted Development setbacks HTL, 200m, 500m Based on vulnerability to hazards Livelihood security Partial coverage Wider coverage Traditional rights Partially covered Fully covered Responsibility for implementation Central Govt. Local Self Governments Funding Nil Central funds available

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