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  1. 1.  A PowerPoint Presentation  BY- K.Hamprishan
  2. 2. What is culture ? Culture is the way of life of a group of people.
  5. 5. Identification.  Gallia Belgica was the Romans' name for the northern part of Gaul, the northern limit of their empire. In early modern times, the name was used as an erudite synonym for the Low Countries. After the 1830 revolution and the establishment of an independent kingdom, Belgium became the official name of the country.
  6. 6. Location and Geography  Location and Geography. The country is located at the western end of the northern European plain, covering an area of 11,780 square miles (30,510 square kilometers); the neighboring states are France, Luxembourg, Germany, and the Netherlands. The two main rivers are the Schelde and the Meuse, both of which begin in France and flow toward the Netherlands.
  7. 7. The land rises progressively toward the south. Flanders (northern part of the country) is less hilly than Wallonia (southern part). The German-speaking population lives at the borders with Germany and Luxembourg. Discoveries of coal in the hills of northern Wallonia led to the early industrialization of the area. Location and Geography Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands
  8. 8. Belgium
  9. 9. three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France Yellow - a symbol of generosity Red - hardiness, bravery, strength & valour Black - Determination
  10. 10. BRUSSELS THE CAPITAL Antwerp City Hall in the center of Grote Market
  11. 11. Independence: 4 October 1830 (a provisional government declares independence from the Netherlands); 21 July 1831 (King Leopold I ascends to the throne) The independence of Belgium received the approval of the European powers at the London Conference of 1830-31. The Independence Day of Belgium commemorates the formal establishment of the independent kingdom and the crowning of Leopold I of Saxe-Coburg. Prince Leopold I of Saxe-Coburg was appointed king of the Belgians on his willingness to support the constitution drawn up by the National Congress.
  12. 12. Executive branch: chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July 1999) cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and then approved by parliament
  13. 13. temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy Climate:
  14. 14. Belgium  Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organizations such as NATO.  Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups, the Dutch speakers, mostly Flemish, and the French speakers, mostly Walloons, plus a small group of German-speakers.
  15. 15. Belgium  Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political and cultural conflicts are reflected in the political history and a complex system of government.  The name 'Belgium' is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northern most part of Gaul that, before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples.
  16. 16. Population The population of Belgium is 10,403,951 as of July 2008. The capital city Brussels contains 1,019,022 people.
  17. 17. Belgium classes as well as along the linguistic border and around Brussels. The presence of important Francophone minorities in some parts of Flanders has been the source of political conflicts and led in the 1980s to the resignation of several central governments.
  18. 18. Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830 and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the Dutch- speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy. History
  19. 19. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Although the name of the modern state refers to the original Celtic inhabitants after the Roman conquest in 44 B.C.E. , the population was Romanized and adopted the Latin language. Latin gave rise to a series of dialects including, in the southern part of the country, the Walloon dialects. The name "Walloon" derives from a Germanic word meaning "foreign," and refers to the Roman Empire. Flemish culture came to northern Belgium as a consequence of the Germanic invasions of the fourth century. In the central and southern regions, the Germanic invaders formed small kingdoms and adopted their subjects' culture. Until the eighth century, conquests and divisions modified the borders of these kingdoms. The last division took place at the treaty of Verdun (843) between the grandsons of Charlemagne, who divided the Holy Roman Empire into three parts, of which the central part, Lotharingia, encompassed the territories between the Netherlands and Italy, including present-day Belgium. However, Lotharingia was absorbed into the German Empire, and the idea of a state between France and the German Empire did not resurface until the fourteenth century. The Burgundian princes inherited, conquered, bought, or received in dowry most of the fiefs constituting the Netherlands, Belgium, and northern and eastern France. They established their court in Brussels and brought the French language to their states. The possessions of the dukes of Burgundy were inherited by the Habsburg dynasty in 1477. In the middle of the sixteenth century, a religious civil war led to the division of the Low Countries into two parts. The north became the Netherlands, a Dutch-speaking, Protestant state. The south remained Catholic and was associated with the Habsburg dynasty until the French conquest in 1794. Under the Habsburg rulers, the use of Flemish progressively declined, but the position of French was reinforced during the French administration (1794–1814).
  20. 20. Belgium's cultural heritage includes the paintings of Pieter Breugel the Elder (c. 1515 or 1530–69), Jan van Eyck (1395– 1441), and Peter Paul Rubens (1577– 1640), and the music compositions of Orlando di Lasso (1532–94) and César Franck (1822–90). Modern Belgians writers include the Nobel Prize-winning dramatist Maurice Maeterlinck (1862–1949), and the popular detective novelist Georges Simenon (1903–89), who was born in Liège. Prominent modern painters include expressionist James Ensor (1860–1949) and surrealist René Magritte (1898–1967). CULTURAL HERITAGE
  21. 21. Belgian Family Values . Family plays a central role in most Belgians' lives. . The obligation to the family is a person's first priority. . Many people remain in the town in which they were raised, which creates close extended families. Appearances Matter . Appearances are important to Belgians. . They can often be seen washing the pavement or steps in front of their house or even sweeping the street. . Cleanliness is a matter of national pride. . Belgians take great pride in their houses. To have overgrown hedges or untidy gardens would disgrace the family and insult their neighbours. . Belgians take pride in their personal appearance too. They dress well and are concerned with the impression they make on others.
  22. 22. Equalities in Belgian Society . Belgium is on the whole an egalitarian society. . Women are not expected to change their name when they marry. . There are laws governing paternity as well as maternity leaves and laws forbidding sexual harassment in the workplace
  23. 23. Linguistic Affiliation. The main languages are Dutch and French; they are also the joint official languages. Although German is also recognized as the third national language, it is not used frequently in the national administration. French was introduced as the language of the political elite by feudal lords of French origin, particularly the dukes of Burgundy, who choose Brussels as their main city of residence. In the eighteenth century, French was widely adopted by the bourgeoisie, and in 1830, it was adopted as the official language. Through education and social promotion, French replaced the local dialects in Wallonia and Brussels, but it was not as widely adopted in Flanders. In Wallonia, a series of Romance dialects rather than a single language were widely spoken but never had official status. Brussels was originally a Flemish city, but the influence of French has always been strongest here, and only a tenth of the population speak Dutch. Language The language spoken in Flanders is Dutch, which is commonly called Flemish. The Taalunie, an official institution, guarantees the international unity of the Dutch language. There is a great diversity of Flemish dialects which differ in vocabulary and pronunciation. French is still spoken in Flanders by some people in the upper and upper middle
  24. 24. Language  French, Dutch, and German are the official languages.  There are hundreds of different dialects coming from French and Dutch.
  25. 25. FOLKLORE Many of Belgium's colorful festivals are based on local myths. One is the famous Cat Festival of Ypres. According to legend, medieval Ypres was overrun by rats, and cats were brought in to kill them. But the cats multiplied too fast, and people took to throwing them off the tops of buildings. (Today this action is imitated during the festival with toy cats.) Folklore also surrounds Belgium's traditional puppet theater, whose marionettes are based on characters from the tales of their particular cities.
  26. 26. RITES OF PASSAGE (Religion)  Belgium is 75 % Roman Catholic and 25% Protestant.  Religion has been another source of division in Belgium's history.
  27. 27. Catholicism is the main religious faith. The government financially supports the Catholic and Protestant churches as well as the Jewish and Muslim faiths. The Catholic Church controls an important network of schools with 70 percent of the pupils in secondary education and two main universities. Religious beliefs and practice declined during the twentieth century, but approximately 65 percent of Belgians believe in God. Many people who say they do not believe in God take part in religious rituals for major events such as baptisms, weddings, and funerals. Minority faiths include Muslims, Jews, and Protestants. Religious Beliefs.
  28. 28. This modern private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt is nearly 100% of GDP. On the positive side, the government has succeeded in balancing its budget, and income distribution is relatively equal. Belgium began circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply because of the global economic slowdown, with moderate recovery in 2004. Economy - overview:
  29. 29. Etiquette There are not many interactions in the streets, as residential, working and leisure areas tend to be distinct. Among young people, especially Francophones, A stone bridge crossing a canal in Bruges. The north part of Belgium consists of isolated farms between villages, while the south tends to contain larger groups of farms. girls rarely shake hands but kiss other girls and boys.
  30. 30. Meeting Etiquette Greetings entail a degree of formality. A brief handshake is the common greeting among people who do not know each other. . Once a relationship is developed, three kisses on the cheek may replace the handshake. This is more a kissing of the air near the person's cheek. Start with the left cheek and alternate. . Men never kiss other men; they always shake hands. Gift Giving Etiquette . If you are invited to a Belgian's house, bring flowers or good quality chocolates for the hostess. . Older Belgians may expect flowers to be unwrapped. . Do not give white chrysanthemums as they signify death. . Flowers should be given in an odd number, but not 13. . Liquor or wine should only be given to close friends. . Gifts are opened when received.
  31. 31. Dining Etiquette . Belgians socialize in their homes and restaurants. . If you receive a written invitation, the response must be written as well. . Wait for your host or hostess to introduce you to the other guests. Arrive on time. Punctuality demonstrates respect. . Wait for your host to tell you where to sit. . Women take their seats before men. . Table manners are Continental -- the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right while eating. . Keep your wrists above the table when eating. . Wait to see if your host offers a toast before sipping your drink. . The guest of honour may also give a toast. . Women may offer a toast. . It is polite to stand for a toast. . The Flemish raise their glasses twice during a toast. The glass is initially raised during the toast and then at the completion of the toast. . Never leave food on your plate. It is seen as both rude and wasteful. . Indicate you have finished eating by laying your knife and fork parallel on your plate, tines facing upwards, with the handles facing to the right. . Belgians take pride in their cuisine, so praising a meal is a sincere compliment.
  32. 32. "Belgian musical instruments and music" B Baritone saxophone D Doedelzak M Muchosa P Pipasso S Saxophone Schäferpfeife The music of Belgium is a cultural crossroads where Flemish Dutch-speaking and Walloon French-speaking traditions mix with those of German minorities and of immigrant communities from Democratic Republic of the Congo and other distant countries. 1 Classical Music 2 Blues and jazz 3 Folk and other traditional music 4 Chanson 5 Hip-hop 6 Pop and Rock 6.1 Indie Rock 6.2 Punk 6.3 Metal 7 Trip-Hop 8 Electronic Music 9 African music
  33. 33. Baritone saxophone Doedelzak Muchosa Pipasso Saxophone Schäferpfeife
  34. 34. . Men should wear dark coloured, conservative business suits with white shirts and silk ties. . Women should wear business suits or conservative dresses. . Men should only wear laced shoes, never loafers or other slip- ons, as they are too casual. . Polished shoes are an integral part of a professional image. Dress Etiquette Belgians, especially those in the cities, wear modern Western-style clothes. Men who work in offices are expected to wear suit jackets to work. It is generally acceptable for women to wear slacks to work. The ethnic costumes of the Flemings and Walloons are seldom worn today. On some farms women still wear the traditional dark-colored clothing and white aprons, and men wear the old-fashioned caps.
  35. 35. Ancient Belgium Dressing Style Modern Belgium Dressing Style
  36. 36. Modern Wedding in belgium Ancient Wedding in Belgium
  37. 37. BELGIAN ARCHITECTURE Parliamentarium Brussels The Cube Brussels Cheval Noir Brussels Rue de la Loi Brussels Mormont House Grand Hotel Casselbergh Atomium
  38. 38. Government  Its government is a federal parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy.
  39. 39. Ethnicity  Belgium is divided ethnically into the Dutch-speaking Flemings and French- speaking Walloons Ethnic groups: Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%
  40. 40. Festivals Centuries of tradition make for great festivals. Belgium is home to hundreds of festivals, pageants and carnivals throughout the year. In fact, it would be difficult to find a time in Belgium when there isn't some kind of organized revelry taking place whether it be themed on music, art, film or exuberant historic processions that have taken place yearly since medieval times. A few are simple, but most are elaborate, with old customs re-enacted and locals dressed in ornate costumes. At the end of the day, however, they're all about having a great time. Below are a few Festival Highlights that take place throughout Belgium. Some festivals: Ommegang Festival -Brussels Carnival de Binche – Binche , Stavelot (Mid-lent Carnival) - Stavelot Zinneke Parade - Brussels .
  41. 41. Arts  Belgium enjoys its fine arts and it has many historical museums  Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique is one of the most famous museums located in Brussels.  The Royal Museum contains over 20,000 drawings, sculptures, and paintings, which date from the early 15th century to the present.
  42. 42. Sports  Belgium has a great soccer team.  It has a produced many Olympians which have done well  Cycling is also very popular in Belgium
  43. 43. Food  Belgium Cuisine is very popular in Europe.  The most famous dish in Belgium is the Belgian Waffle.
  44. 44. Bread and potatoes are the traditional staple foods. Most meals include, pork, chicken, or beef, and Seafood is popular in the northern part of the country. The national drink is beer, but wine is imported in large quantities. In northern cities, popular dishes include mussels with fries and waterzooi a broth of vegetables and meat or fish. Throughout the country, French fries are eaten with steaks or minced raw meat. Cooking is traditionally done with butter rather than oil; there is also a high consumption of dairy products. Immigration has ensured a diversity of "ethnic" restaurants and is gradually changing the eating habits of the residents in culturally mixed areas. Christmas is an occasion for large family meals with grandparents and cousins. There are many other occasions for long meals at public and private celebrations, such as weddings, funerals, and the days devoted to city and parish saints. Pastries are associated with religious and civil occasions. At Christmas, people eat sweet bread in the form of the child Jesus; at Easter, children are told that eggs are dropped in the gardens by flying churchbells; and sugar beans are distributed to those who visit a young mother. Food in Daily Life. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions.
  45. 45. End  Belgium culture is very unique and Belgium is a great tourist attraction.  If you are looking for something new you should go there.