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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees

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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2012: Training and Pruning Fruit Trees

  1. 1. PV orchard aerial view 03
  2. 2. TRAINING AND PRUNING FRUIT TREES Michael G. Janik ISA Certified Arborist www.michaelsapples.com
  3. 3. Training vs. Pruning
  4. 4. My Favorite Pruning Books
  5. 5. Right tool for the right job Loppers Pruners Saws Clean Sanitized Sharp
  6. 6. Anvil vs. Bypass Shears
  7. 7. Pruning The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
  8. 8. Firewood pruning ‘03
  9. 9. Firewood Pruning ‘04
  10. 10. Firewood Tree ‘05
  11. 11. Firewood Tree ‘08
  12. 12. Firewood Tree 2010
  13. 13. Shade Apple Open to allow sunlight and airflow
  14. 14. Starling Special Dwarfing Rootstocks Genetic Miniatures
  15. 15. Upright growth Acute limb angles Spring Bare root trees Horizontal Scaffold Limbs
  16. 16. Scaffold limbs, fruiting shoots
  17. 17. HUH??? Need low, horizontal scaffold limbs Do not plant on easements
  18. 18. Garden, Orchard or Yard?
  19. 19. Topping x 3
  20. 20. Natural Target Pruning
  21. 21. Proper pruning cut, before
  22. 22. Proper pruning cut, after
  23. 23. Well-sealed pruning scar
  24. 24. Cut back to a branch or bud
  25. 25. Open to infection
  26. 26. Natural Target Pruning II • Always cut back to a bud or branch • Always angle the cut away from the bud • Choose growth direction
  27. 27. Angle cut away from bud
  28. 28. Select bud growth direction
  29. 29. Cut to a Branch, Bud, or Fruiting Spur
  30. 30. Apical Dominance • Apical dominance is a tree’s response to a pruning cut • All pruning cuts cause the same reaction in a tree • Proper pruning uses apical dominance to shape trees
  31. 31. Apical Dominance
  32. 32. Size control using rootstocks • Standard—25 ft and up • Semi-Dwarf or half-standard – 8 to18 ft apples, pears – 15 to 20+ ft stone fruits (cherries, plums, etc • Genetic Dwarf/Miniatures—5-8 ft • Varietal vigor
  33. 33. Standard Semi-Dwarf
  34. 34. Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
  35. 35. Easy access to harvest
  36. 36. Pruning Forms for Fruit Trees
  37. 37. Training a Horizontal Espalier • Suitable for apples and pears • Recommend 24-16-16-16 inches • Opens tree to sunlight and air flow • Easy to prune • Easy access to spray, thin, and pick • Easily covered with bird netting • Aesthetically attractive
  38. 38. Pear espalier on south-facing wall
  39. 39. Training Anything’s Possible
  40. 40. 1st Year Horizontal Espalier
  41. 41. Summer
  42. 42. Winter before pruning
  43. 43. Winter after pruning
  44. 44. 2nd Year Horizontal Espalier
  45. 45. Water sprouts and fruiting shoots
  46. 46. Water Sprouts After Pruning
  47. 47. Before
  48. 48. After
  49. 49. 3rd Year Espalier
  50. 50. Apple Espaliers Third year
  51. 51. Mature Horizontal Espalier
  52. 52. Espalier Pear Ohio
  53. 53. Mature Horizontal espalier
  54. 54. End of Row
  55. 55. Apple Espalier early summer
  56. 56. PV Orchard 2005
  57. 57. Informal or Fan Espalier
  58. 58. Candelabra
  59. 59. Training a Fan Espalier • Suitable for all fruits • Locate against a south facing wall or as a hedge or fence • Easy to prune, easy to care for • Aesthetically beautiful
  60. 60. 1st Year Fan Espalier
  61. 61. 2nd Year Fan Espalier
  62. 62. Mature Fan Espalier
  63. 63. Plum Espalier
  64. 64. Renewing a plum espalier, before
  65. 65. Renewing a plum espalier, after
  66. 66. Training A Central Leader Tree • Apples, Pears, plums, and cherries • Dwarf Pyramid or Pyramid • French Axe • Spindle Bush
  67. 67. 1st Year
  68. 68. Training Horizontal Limb Growth
  69. 69. Training using Clothespins 1st year
  70. 70. 2 year, etc; before nd
  71. 71. 2nd year, etc; after
  72. 72. 2nd Year
  73. 73. 2yr dwarf pyramid pear
  74. 74. 3rd and Subsequent Years
  75. 75. Cut out vigorous growth
  76. 76. Vigorous growth removed
  77. 77. Regrowth Next Summer
  78. 78. Always remove one of any split shoots
  79. 79. Split Trunk
  80. 80. Thin forked branch growth
  81. 81. Mature dwarf pyramid
  82. 82. Central leader pear in bloom
  83. 83. Semi-dwarf Central Leader
  84. 84. Supported French Axe
  85. 85. Central Leader Pears Oregon
  86. 86. Central Leader Pears
  87. 87. Summary Training a Central Leader
  88. 88. Training an Open Center Tree • Stone fruits, esp. peaches, nectarines • Lowest limb 12-18 inches • 3-5 limbs at low angle form a vase shape • Allows sunlight needed to ripen fruit
  89. 89. Training an Open Center Tree
  90. 90. 1yr Open Center Cherry
  91. 91. 2yr Open Center Cherry
  92. 92. Open Center oriental pear
  93. 93. Open center peach
  94. 94. Texas peach orchard
  95. 95. Texas peach tree
  96. 96. Peach tree at Monticello
  97. 97. Winter vs. Summer Pruning • Winter (Dormant) Pruning – Promotes vegetative growth in the spring – Use to train young trees • (Late) Summer and Fall pruning – Reduces food storage in roots and hence reduces tree growth in spring – Use on older, overgrown trees to open and rejuvenate the tree. – Use to establish fruiting spurs
  98. 98. Restoring a Neglected Fruit Tree
  99. 99. Rejuvenating Neglected Trees • Always – Remove dead, diseased, and damaged wood – Remove crossing/rubbing branches – Remove water sprouts at limb junction – Remove suckers at the root junction • Never – Remove more than 20% green wood each year – Never fertilize
  100. 100. Arroyo 2004
  101. 101. Arroyo 2008
  102. 102. Arroyo Before After
  103. 103. 90 yr old Delicious
  104. 104. Quincy, CA apple tree Heading Back, Apple Tree, Quincy, CA
  105. 105. Standard pear
  106. 106. Apple
  107. 107. Before After
  108. 108. After After 2nd year 3rd year
  109. 109. Semi dwarf, before
  110. 110. Semi dwarf, after
  111. 111. Red Del 09 Before
  112. 112. Apple, before
  113. 113. Apple, after
  114. 114. Pruning for Fruit • Apples and Pears – Spur bearing – Tip Bearing • Plums and Cherries • Nectarines and Peaches
  115. 115. Pear flower buds on spurs
  116. 116. Peach flower on last year’s growth
  117. 117. Pruning for spur fruit
  118. 118. Fruiting spurs on mature tree
  119. 119. Renewal Pruning of Spurs
  120. 120. Pruning for Peaches & Nectarines
  121. 121. Peach flower and leaf buds
  122. 122. New and old growth on peach
  123. 123. Summary • Apical Dominance • Cut to a branch or bud • Choose bud/growth direction • Training vs. Pruning • References, Google It! • Buy a Pruning Book and Use It!

Editor's Notes

  • Make cuts on branch bard ridge so collar heals over itself. Do not paint or seal cuts. Make proper top cuts. Do not top trees ; control height with variety and rootstocks. Control growth direction; generally, prune to downward facing buds for horizontal limb growth. Prune to buds or branches. Do not leave stubs. Prune roots as you would and should a limb or branch.
  • Plant a whip and orient the buds! Cut back to about 18” above the ground. When branches begin to emerge, rub off buds oriented perpendicular to the plane of the fan. When branches are about a foot long, select two and prune all others to the trunk. When branches are about 18-24 in long, prune to a downward pointing bud. Select branches growing in the espalier plane to keep, prune others to about 6 buds.
  • Dormant Pruning: Do in Jan/Feb apples; at pink tip for stone fruits. Prune to a bud going in the direction you want the limb to go.

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