第6讲 操作与配置Cisco Ios

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  • 第6讲 操作与配置Cisco Ios

    1. 1. 第六讲 操作与配置 Cisco IOS
    2. 2. 本章目标 <ul><li>通过本章的学习,您应该掌握以下内容 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>开启交换机和路由器并观察其启动过程 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>注意交换机的出厂初始配置情况,完成路由器的初始参数配置 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>在网络设备上进入并辨识不同的命令模式 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>在不同的用户界面下应用各种帮助和命令行编辑功能 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>查看并确认各网络设备的基本信息 </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Cisco 互连网操作系统 (IOS) 软件 Cisco IOS 软件提供多种网络服务进而支持各种网络应用 .
    4. 4. Cisco 设备的简单启动过程 <ul><li>硬件自检 </li></ul><ul><li>查找并加载 Cisco IOS 映象文件 </li></ul><ul><li>查找并运行配置文件 </li></ul>
    5. 5. 多种途径的配置 <ul><li>可以通过多种途径来配置 </li></ul><ul><li>配置直接在设备的内存中生效 </li></ul>控制端口 Aux 端口 端口 PC or Unix 服务器 Web 或网络管 理服务器 虚拟终端 Telnet TFTP
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>提供命令行界面 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>在不同的网络设备上运行时有差别 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>在命令模式下可以键入或粘贴命令 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>键入命令后回车,设备立即解析和执行所键入的命令 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>两个主要命令模式是用户模式和特权模式 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>不同的命令模式有不同的提示符 </li></ul></ul>Cisco IOS 用户界面的基本特性 Cisco IOS
    7. 7. Cisco IOS 的主要命令模式 <ul><li>用户模式 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>对交换机和路由器的有限操作 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>命令提示符为 主机名 > </li></ul></ul>主要有两个命令模式提供命令键入 . 模式一 :
    8. 8. Cisco IOS 的主要命令模式 ( 续 ) <ul><li>特权 ( 或 enabled) 模式 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>对交换机和路由器更深入的操作 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>有配置和监视权力 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>是进入其它配置模式的前提 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>命令提示符为 主机名 # </li></ul></ul>模式二 ( 也是最常用的模式 ):
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>系统启动例程会初始化交换机 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>初始启动利用缺省配置参数 </li></ul></ul>交换机的初始启动 <ul><li>1. 启动前确认正确连接线缆和控制线 </li></ul><ul><li>2. 接入电源 </li></ul><ul><li>3. 观察启动顺序 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>面板上的指示灯 LEDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco IOS 输出到控制台上的内容 </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 检查交换机指示灯 (LEDs)
    11. 11. 交换机自检期间的端口指示灯 <ul><ul><li>1. 启动时,所有端口指示灯变绿 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. 每个端口自检完毕,对应的指示灯熄灭 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. 如果端口自检失败 , 对应指示灯呈黄色 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. 如果有任何自检失败情况,系统指示灯呈现黄色 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. 如果没有自检失败 , 自检过程完成 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. 随着自检过程的完成 , 指示灯闪亮后熄灭 . </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 交换机初次启动时的显示信息 控制台连接 <ul><li>Catalyst 1900 Management Console </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright (c) Cisco Systems, Inc. 1993-1998 </li></ul><ul><li>All rights reserved. </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Edition Software </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet Address: 00-50-BD-73-E2-C0 </li></ul><ul><li>PCA Number: 73-3121-01 </li></ul><ul><li>PCA Serial Number: FAA0252A0QX </li></ul><ul><li>Model Number: WS-C1924-EN </li></ul><ul><li>System Serial Number: FAA0304S0U3 </li></ul><ul><li>Power Supply S/N: PHI025101F3 </li></ul><ul><li>------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>1 user(s) now active on Management Console. </li></ul><ul><li>User Interface Menu </li></ul><ul><li>[M] Menus </li></ul><ul><li>[K] Command Line </li></ul><ul><li>[I] IP Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Enter Selection: </li></ul>
    13. 13. 登入交换机并键入特权模式密码 控制台 > > enable Enter password: # # disable > quit 用户模式提示 特权模式提示
    14. 14. 显示交换机初始启动的状态 Switch #show interfaces Switch#show version Switch#show running-config <ul><ul><li>显示交换机的各种运行状态 </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 交换机之 show version 命令 wg_sw_c# show version Cisco Catalyst 1900/2820 Enterprise Edition Software Version V8.01.01 written from 171.068.229.225 Copyright (c) Cisco Systems, Inc. 1993-1998 wg_sw_c uptime is 15day(s) 21hour(s) 53minute(s) 11second(s) cisco Catalyst 1900 (486sxl) processor with 2048K/1024K bytes of memory Hardware board revision is 5 Upgrade Status: No upgrade currently in progress. Config File Status: No configuration upload/download is in progress 27 Fixed Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s) Base Ethernet Address: 00-50-BD-73-E2-C0
    16. 16. 交换机之 show running-configuration 命令 wg_sw_c#show run Building configuration... Current configuration: ! hostname &quot;wg_sw_c&quot; ! ip address 10.1.1.33 255.255.255.0 ip default-gateway 10.3.3.3 ! interface Ethernet 0/1 <text omitted> interface Ethernet 0/24 ! Interface Ethernet 0/25 ! interface FastEthernet 0/26 ! interface FastEthernet 0/27 wg_sw_c#show run Building configuration... Current configuration: ! hostname &quot;wg_sw_c&quot; ! ip address 10.1.1.33 255.255.255.0 ip default-gateway 10.3.3.3 ! interface Ethernet 0/1 <text omitted> interface Ethernet 0/12 ! Interface Ethernet 0/25 ! interface FastEthernet 0/26 ! interface FastEthernet 0/27 Catalyst 1924 Catalyst 1912
    17. 17. 交换机之 show interfaces 命令 wg_sw_c# show interfaces ethernet 0/1 Ethernet 0/1 is Enabled Hardware is Built-in 10Base-T Address is 0050.BD73.E2C1 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbits 802.1d STP State: Forwarding Forward Transitions: 1 Port monitoring: Disabled Unknown unicast flooding: Enabled Unregistered multicast flooding: Enabled Description: Duplex setting: Half duplex Back pressure: Disabled --More--
    18. 18. 配置交换机 <ul><li>配置模式 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>全局配置模式 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wg_sw_a# conf term </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wg_sw_a(config)# </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>端口配置模式 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wg_sw_a(config)# interface e0/1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wg_sw_a(config-if)# </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 配置交换机的各种标识 <ul><ul><li>为交换机设置本地标识 </li></ul></ul>交换机名 (config)# hostname wg_sw_c wg_sw_c(config)#
    20. 20. <ul><ul><li>系统启动例程会初始化路由器 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>如果需要,路由器可以有选择性地回退启动 </li></ul></ul>Cisco 路由器的初始启动 Check hardware Find and load Cisco IOS software image Find and apply router configuration information Load Bootstrap 1. 启动前确认正确连接线缆和控制线 2. 按下电源开关 3. 观察启动顺序 Cisco IOS 输出到控制台上的内容
    21. 21. <ul><ul><li>没有配置文件与有配置文件的路由器启动对比 </li></ul></ul>路由器启动时在控制台上的输出内容 --- System Configuration Dialog --- Continue with configuration dialog? [yes/no]: yes At any point you may enter a question mark '?' for help. Use ctrl-c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt. Default settings are in square brackets '[ ]'. Setup 模式 wg_ro_c con0 is now available Press RETURN to get started. wg_ro_c> 控制台 用户模式 提示
    22. 22. Setup: 初始配置对话框 Router# setup --- System Configuration Dialog --- Continue with configuration dialog? [yes/no]: y At any point you may enter a question mark '?' for help. Use ctrl-c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt. Default settings are in square brackets '[]'. Basic management setup configures only enough connectivity for management of the system, extended setup will ask you to configure each interface on the system Would you like to enter basic management setup? [yes/no]: n
    23. 23. 预先浏览端口配置情况 First, would you like to see the current interface summary? [yes]: Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol BRI0 unassigned YES unset administratively down down BRI0:1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down BRI0:2 unassigned YES unset administratively down down Ethernet0 unassigned YES unset administratively down down Serial0 unassigned YES unset administratively down down <ul><ul><li>自检过程中所找到的端口 </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 设置全局参数 <ul><ul><li>初始化全局参数 </li></ul></ul>Configuring global parameters: Enter host name [Router]: wg_ro_c The enable secret is a password used to protect access to privileged EXEC and configuration modes. This password, after entered, becomes encrypted in the configuration. Enter enable secret: cisco The enable password is used when you do not specify an enable secret password, with some older software versions, and some boot images. Enter enable password: sanfran The virtual terminal password is used to protect access to the router over a network interface. Enter virtual terminal password: sanjose Configure SNMP Network Management? [no]:
    25. 25. 设置全局参数 ( 续 ) <ul><ul><li>初始化协议配置 </li></ul></ul>Configure LAT? [yes]: n Configure AppleTalk? [no]: Configure DECnet? [no]: Configure IP? [yes]: Configure IGRP routing? [yes]: n Configure RIP routing? [no]: Configure CLNS? [no]: Configure IPX? [no]: Configure Vines? [no]: Configure XNS? [no]: Configure Apollo? [no]:
    26. 26. 设置端口参数 BRI interface needs isdn switch-type to be configured Valid switch types are : [0] none..........Only if you don't want to configure BRI. [1] basic-1tr6....1TR6 switch type for Germany [2] basic-5ess....AT&T 5ESS switch type for the US/Canada [3] basic-dms100..Northern DMS-100 switch type for US/Canada [4] basic-net3....NET3 switch type for UK and Europe [5] basic-ni......National ISDN switch type [6] basic-ts013...TS013 switch type for Australia [7] ntt...........NTT switch type for Japan [8] vn3...........VN3 and VN4 switch types for France Choose ISDN BRI Switch Type [2]: Configuring interface parameters: Do you want to configure BRI0 (BRI d-channel) interface? [no]: Do you want to configure Ethernet0 interface? [no]: y Configure IP on this interface? [no]: y IP address for this interface: 10.1.1.33 Subnet mask for this interface [255.0.0.0] : 255.255.255.0 Class A network is 10.0.0.0, 24 subnet bits; mask is /24 Do you want to configure Serial0 interface? [no]:
    27. 27. 设置脚本的确认与应用 The following configuration command script was created: hostname Router enable secret 5 $1$/CCk$4r7zDwDNeqkxFO.kJxC3G0 enable password sanfran line vty 0 4 password sanjose no snmp-server ! no appletalk routing no decnet routing ip routing no clns routing no ipx routing no vines routing no xns routing no apollo routing isdn switch-type basic-5ess interface BRI0 shutdown no ip address ! interface Ethernet0 no shutdown ip address 10.1.1.31 255.255.255.0 no mop enabled ! interface Serial0 shutdown no ip address <text omitted> end [0] Go to the IOS command prompt without saving this config. [1] Return back to the setup without saving this config. [2] Save this configuration to nvram and exit. Enter your selection [2]:
    28. 28. 登入路由器 Console wg_ro_c> wg_ro_c> enable wg_ro_c# wg_ro_c# disable wg_ro_c> wg_ro_c > logout wg_ro_c con0 is now available Press RETURN to get started. 用户模式提示 特权模式提示
    29. 29. <ul><ul><li>只要所输命令串在全部命令中是唯一的,可以将一个命令尽可能地简写, </li></ul></ul>路由器在用户模式下的命令清单 wg_ro_c > ? Exec commands: access-enable Create a temporary Access-List entry atmsig Execute Atm Signalling Commands cd Change current device clear Reset functions connect Open a terminal connection dir List files on given device disable Turn off privileged commands disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection enable Turn on privileged commands exit Exit from the EXEC help Description of the interactive help system lat Open a lat connection lock Lock the terminal login Log in as a particular user logout Exit from the EXEC -- More --
    30. 30. 路由器在特权模式下的命令清单 wg_ro_c#? Exec commands: access-enable Create a temporary Access-List entry access-profile Apply user-profile to interface access-template Create a temporary Access-List entry bfe For manual emergency modes setting cd Change current directory clear Reset functions clock Manage the system clock configure Enter configuration mode connect Open a terminal connection copy Copy from one file to another debug Debugging functions (see also 'undebug') delete Delete a file dir List files on a filesystem disable Turn off privileged commands disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection enable Turn on privileged commands erase Erase a filesystem exit Exit from the EXEC help Description of the interactive help system -- More -- <ul><ul><li>只要输入部分命令串 ( 唯一表示某个命令 ) ,紧接着按 tab 键就可以完整地输入一个命令 </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. 路由器命令行帮助机制 上下文关联帮助 错误信息提示 指出所输入交换机命令的错误所在,以便于修改或纠正 . 可以重新调出一个较长或较复杂的命令或其它内容,用来再次运行、查看或修改 . 之前命令保存区 提供命令清单和与特定命令相关联的参数 .
    32. 32. 路由器的上下文相关联帮助 Router# clok Translating &quot;CLOK&quot; % Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address Router# cl? clear clock Router# clock % Incomplete command. Router# clock ? set Set the time and date Router# clock set % Incomplete command. Router# <Ctrl-P>clock set ? hh:mm:ss Current Time <ul><li>符号解析 </li></ul><ul><li>命令提示 </li></ul><ul><li>调出最近用过的内容 </li></ul>
    33. 33. 路由器的上下文相关联帮助 ( 续 ) Router# clok Translating &quot;CLOK&quot; % Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address Router# clear clock Router# % Incomplete command. Router# set Set the time and date Router# % Incomplete command. Router# hh:mm:ss Current Time Router# clock set 19:56:00 % Incomplete command. Router# clock set 19:56:00 ? <1-31> Day of the month MONTH Month of the year Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 8 ^ % Invalid input detected at the '^' marker Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 August % Incomplete command. Router# clock set 19:56:00 04 August ? <1993-2035> Year <ul><li>命令提示 </li></ul><ul><li>语法检查 </li></ul><ul><li>命令提示 </li></ul>
    34. 34. 使用增强的编辑命令 Router>Shape the future of internetworking by creating unpreced <ul><ul><li>“ Shape the future of internetworking by creating unprecedented value for customers, employees, and partners.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>上述文字段在输入时会超出一行 </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. 使用增强的编辑命令 Router> $ future of internetworking by creating unprecedented op ( 一行中长字串会自动滚卷 ).
    36. 36. 使用增强的编辑命令 Router>Shape the value of internetworking by creating unpreced ( 一行中长字串会自动滚卷 ). <Ctrl-A> 光标移动到命令行的开始位置 .
    37. 37. 使用增强的编辑命令 Router> $ value for customers, employees, and partners. ( 一行中长字串会自动滚卷 ). <Ctrl-A> 光标移动到命令行的开始位置 . <Ctrl-E> 光标移动到命令行的结束位置 .
    38. 38. 使用增强的编辑命令 ( 一行中长字串会自动滚卷 ). <Ctrl-A> 光标移动到命令行的开始位置 . <Ctrl-E> 光标移动到命令行的结束位置 . <Esc-B> 回移一个单词 Router> $ value for customers, employees, and partners.
    39. 39. 使用增强的编辑命令 ( 一行中长字串会自动滚卷 ). <Ctrl-A> 光标移动到命令行的开始位置 . <Ctrl-E> 光标移动到命令行的结束位置 . <Esc-B> 回移一个单词 . <Ctrl-F> 下移一个字符 . Router> $ value for customers, employees, and partners.
    40. 40. 使用增强的编辑命令 ( 一行中长字串会自动滚卷 ). <Ctrl-A> 光标移动到命令行的开始位置 . <Ctrl-E> 光标移动到命令行的结束位置 . <Esc-B> 回移一个单词 <Ctrl-F> 下移一个字符 . <Ctrl-B> 回移一个字符 . Router> $ value for customers, employees, and partners.
    41. 41. 使用增强的编辑命令 ( 一行中长字串会自动滚卷 ). <Ctrl-A> 光标移动到命令行的开始位置 . <Ctrl-E> 光标移动到命令行的结束位置 . <Esc-B> 回移一个单词 <Ctrl-F> 下移一个字符 . <Ctrl-B> 回移一个字符 . <Esc-F> 下移一个单词 Router> $ value for customers, employees, and partners.
    42. 42. 使用增强的编辑命令 ( 一行中长字串会自动滚卷 ). <Ctrl-A> 光标移动到命令行的开始位置 . <Ctrl-E> 光标移动到命令行的结束位置 . <Esc-B> 回移一个单词 <Ctrl-F> 下移一个字符 . <Ctrl-B> 回移一个字符 . <Esc-F> 下移一个单词 <Ctrl-D> 删除当前字符 Router> $ value for customers, employees, and partners.
    43. 43. 回览之前用过的命令 Ctrl-P or Up arrow 调出最近 ( 前一 ) 使用过的命令 Ctrl-N or Down arrow 调出更近使用过的命令 Router> show history 显示命令保存区内容 Router> terminal history size lines 设置命令保存区大小
    44. 44. show version 命令 wg_ro_a# show version Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) 2500 Software (C2500-JS-L), Version 12.0(3), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Mon 08-Feb-99 18:18 by phanguye Image text-base: 0x03050C84, data-base: 0x00001000 ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.0(10c), SOFTWARE BOOTFLASH: 3000 Bootstrap Software (IGS-BOOT-R), Version 11.0(10c), RELEASE SOFTWARE(fc1) wg_ro_a uptime is 20 minutes System restarted by reload System image file is &quot;flash:c2500-js-l_120-3.bin&quot; (output omitted) --More-- Configuration register is 0x2102
    45. 45. 查看配置情况 控制台 IOS Setup utility show startup-config show running-config <ul><ul><li>将配置参数保存到 NVRAM 中 </li></ul></ul>Config Config RAM NVRAM
    46. 46. show running 和 show startup 命令 wg_ro_c# show startup-config Using 1359 out of 32762 bytes ! version 12.0 ! -- More -- wg_ro_c # show running-config Building configuration... Current configuration: ! version 12.0 ! -- More -- 保存在 NVRAM 中 保存在 RAM 中 <ul><ul><li>显示当前运行的和保存的配置情况 </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. 路由器模式一览 <ul><li>用户模式 </li></ul><ul><li>特权模式 </li></ul><ul><li>全局配置模式 </li></ul>Router(config)# Router>enable Router#config term Exit Ctrl-Z (end) 配置模式 模式提示 Interface Router(config-if)# Subinterface Router(config-subif)# Controller Router(config-controller)# Line Router(config-line)# Router Router(config-router)#
    48. 48. 保存配置 wg_ro_c# wg_ro_c# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? Building configuration… wg_ro_c# <ul><ul><li>将当前运行的配置复制到 NVRAM 中 </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. 配置路由器的各种标识 <ul><ul><li>为路由器或其端口设置标识或信息 </li></ul></ul>路由器名 Router(config)# hostname wg_ro_c wg_ro_c(config)# 开机时的固定显示信息 wg_ro_c(config)# banner motd # Accounting Department You have entered a secured system. Authorized access only! # 端口描述 wg_ro_c(config)# interface ethernet 0 wg_ro_c(config-if)# description Engineering LAN, Bldg. 18
    50. 50. 路由器密码配置 Router(config)# line console 0 Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# password cisco 控制台密码 虚拟终端密码 Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# password sanjose
    51. 51. 路由器密码配置 Router(config)# line console 0 Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# password cisco 控制台密码 虚拟终端密码 Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# password sanjose 特权模式明文密码 Router(config)# enable password cisco 特权模式加密密码 Router(config)# enable secret sanfran
    52. 52. 其它控制台命令 Router(config)# line console 0 Router(config-line)# exec-timeout 0 0 Router(config)# line console 0 Router(config-line)# logging synchronous <ul><ul><li>禁止控制台会话自动退出 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>重显被打乱的控制台输入 </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. 端口配置 Router(config)# interface type number Router(config-if)# <ul><ul><li>type 包括 serial, ethernet, token ring, fddi, loopback, dialer, null, async, atm, bri, and tunnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number 用来识别具体的单个端口 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>从当前端口配置模式退出 </li></ul></ul>Router(config)# interface type slot/port Router(config-if)# <ul><ul><li>模块化端口的表示法 </li></ul></ul>Router(config-if)# exit
    54. 54. 配置串口 <ul><li>进入全局配置模式 </li></ul>Router(config)# interface serial 0 Router(config-if)# Router# configure term Router(config)# 指定某个端口
    55. 55. 配置串口 <ul><li>进入全局配置模式 </li></ul>Router(config-if)# clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)# Router(config)# interface serial 0 Router(config-if)# Router# configure term Router(config)# 指定某个端口 设置时钟频率 ( 只在 DCE 端 ) 设置带宽 Router(config-if)# bandwidth 64 Router(config-if)#exit
    56. 56. 确认参数修改情况 Router# show interface serial 0 Serial0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is HD64570 Internet address is 10.140.4.2/24 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255 Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec) Last input 00:00:09, output 00:00:04, output hang never Last clearing of &quot;show interface&quot; counters never Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec ( output omitted)
    57. 57. 开启或关闭端口 Router# configure term Router(config)# interface serial 0 Router(config-if)# no shutdown %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Seria0, changed state to up %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line Protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up 开启已经关闭的端口 Router# configure term Router(config)# interface serial 0 Router(config-if)# shutdown %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0, changed state to administratively down %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to down 人工关闭端口
    58. 58. 路由器的 show interfaces 命令 Router# show interfaces Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is Lance, address is 00e0.1e5d.ae2f (bia 00e0.1e5d.ae2f) Internet address is 10.1.1.11/24 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec) ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:00:07, output 00:00:08, output hang never Last clearing of &quot;show interface&quot; counters never Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 81833 packets input, 27556491 bytes, 0 no buffer Received 42308 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles 1 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 1 ignored, 0 abort 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 55794 packets output, 3929696 bytes, 0 underruns 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets 0 babbles, 0 late collision, 4 deferred 0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
    59. 59. 解读端口状态 Router# show interfaces serial 1 Serial1 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is HD64570 Description: 64Kb Line to San Jose :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: :: Operational.................. Connection problem... Interface problem........ Disabled ...................... Serial1 is up, line protocol is up Serial1 is up, line protocol is down Serial1 is down, line protocol is down Serial1 is administratively down, line protocol is down 存活信息 载波监测
    60. 60. 串口上用 show controller 命令 Router#show controller serial 0 HD unit 0, idb = 0x121C04, driver structure at 0x127078 buffer size 1524 HD unit 0, V.35 DTE cable . . . 显示串口线的线缆类型
    61. 61. <ul><li>通过本章的学习,您应该掌握以下内容 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>开启交换机和路由器并观察其启动过程 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>注意交换机的出厂初始配置情况,完成路由器的初始参数配置 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>在网络设备上进入并辨识不同的命令模式 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>在不同的用户界面下应用各种帮助和命令行编辑功能 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>查看并确认并于各网络设备的基本信息 </li></ul></ul>本章总结
    62. 62. 问题回顾 <ul><li>1. 交换机开机自检时出现什么现象 ? 2. 路由器在什么情况下和怎样用到 Setup 配置模式 ? </li></ul><ul><li>3. 运行 Cisco IOS 软件的设备在特权模式下提示符是怎样的 ? </li></ul><ul><li>4. 掌握在交换机和路由器上的 Cisco IOS 软件的所能提供的帮助机制内容 . </li></ul>

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