Coming to terms with  lexical chunks:  Identifying, using and teaching . Helen Osimo,  University of Haifa Oranim Academic...
Jerusalem is lost in translation !! Tourism officials in Israel did little to sell the city of Jerusalem as a must-see for...
"Jerusalem -  there's no such city !",  instead of the slogan:  "Jerusalem -  there's no city like it !&quo...
IDIOMATIC LEXICAL CHUNK ILC <ul><li>full idioms     semi-     transparent/ </li></ul><ul><li>  variable chunks </li></ul><...
…  a formulaic unit <ul><li>&quot;is no longer obliged to be grammatically regular or semantically logical&quot;   </li></...
IDENTIFYING ILCs <ul><li>CRITERIA :  an idiomatic lexical chunk is a  </li></ul><ul><li>multiword unit that is  </li></ul>...
and/or 2. semantically opaque in varying degrees –  at least one component in the unit does not convey its conventional me...
semantically opaque <ul><li>I’m all  ears </li></ul><ul><li>come to  terms  with </li></ul><ul><li>by  and  large </li></ul>
grammatical irregularities <ul><li>tense:  It’s about time you  went  to bed </li></ul>
grammatical irregularities <ul><li>tense:  It’s about time you  went  to bed </li></ul><ul><li>article: Just say  the  wor...
grammatical irregularities <ul><li>tense:  It’s about time you  went  to bed </li></ul><ul><li>article: Just say  the  wor...
grammatical irregularities <ul><li>tense: It’s about time you  went  to bed </li></ul><ul><li>article: Just say  the  word...
Julia and I go way back. The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our ups and downs. Sometimes she makes me furious an...
Julia and  I  go way back .  The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our  ups and downs . Sometimes she  makes me fur...
PERCENTAGE OF CHUNKS IN THE TEXT <ul><li>189 words  </li></ul><ul><li>19 ILCs (66 words) </li></ul><ul><li>35% of the text...
PERVASIVENESS OF LEXICAL CHUNKS <ul><li>58.6%  spoken and  </li></ul><ul><li>52.3%  written texts </li></ul><ul><li>(Erman...
USING   ILCs <ul><li>three structural patterns : </li></ul><ul><li>fixed </li></ul><ul><li>variable </li></ul><ul><li>disc...
Julia and  I  go way back .  The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our  ups and downs . Sometimes she  makes me fur...
Julia and  I  go way back .  The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our  ups and downs . Sometimes she  makes me fur...
Julia and  I  go way back .  The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our  ups and downs . Sometimes she  makes me fur...
Julia and  I  go way back .  The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our  ups and downs . Sometimes she  makes me fur...
IDIOMATIC LEXICAL CHUNKS FIXED VARIABLE (verb tense, pronoun, negation) DIS- CONTINUOUS (+ lexical items)
The fixed pattern <ul><li>once or twice  </li></ul><ul><li>nook and cranny  </li></ul><ul><li>come to think of it  </li></...
The variable pattern   <ul><li>[see] eye to eye  </li></ul><ul><li>saw eye to eye </li></ul><ul><li>have never seen eye to...
The discontinuous pattern <ul><li>keeps getting stuck </li></ul><ul><li>which would be represented  </li></ul><ul><li>keep...
She kept getting sick They keep getting lost represented thus : [keep] getting [ADJ]
ILCs grammatically irregular  and/or  semantically   opaque FIXED once or twice   each other   VARIABLE [see] eye to eye D...
TEACHING  ILCs   Should we teach them? Which chunks should we teach? Who should be taught? How should we teach them?
TEACHING  ILCs text-oriented approach goal-oriented approach practice tasks organisational frameworks
CATEGORIES <ul><li>as an organisational framework </li></ul><ul><li>speech acts   </li></ul><ul><li>modal verbs </li></ul>...
BINOMIALS <ul><li>fixed multiword units  usually composed of two </li></ul><ul><li>lexical items joined most frequently  b...
They often have synonyms:   sooner or later  = eventually They sometimes repeat the same word: again and again little by l...
some rhyme wear and tear wine and dine similar in Hebrew but not the same   sooner or later more or less for better or for...
DELEXICALISED VERBS   MAKE <ul><li>[make] [me] [ADJ] ( furious,  happy,  </li></ul><ul><li>upset, curious   …) </li></ul><...
add chunks from the same category [make] sure   [make] up [your] mind [can’t] make head or tail of
A HEADWORD   THAT OCCURS FREQUENTLY IN CHUNKS   <ul><li>way  a   very frequent idiomatic intensifier  </li></ul><ul><li>  ...
other examples of  way  as an intensifer way above,  way below, way beyond,  way too long,  way out of reach
For HETEROGENEOUS CLASSES <ul><li>Add chunks with the same headword </li></ul><ul><li>by the way </li></ul><ul><li>[pave] ...
VOCABULARY UNIT   chunks which share meaning   <ul><li>agree   –   [see] eye to eye </li></ul><ul><li>o ccasionally  –  on...
add chunks with similar meanings <ul><li>on and off;  </li></ul><ul><li>now and then;  </li></ul><ul><li>once in a while; ...
GRAMMAR UNIT <ul><li>present simple tense with temporals -  sometimes  </li></ul><ul><li>+  ILC  -  now and then </li></ul>
IDENTIFYING <ul><li>A CONTINUUM OF IDIOMATICITY </li></ul><ul><li>1. Is it grammatically irregular ?   </li></ul><ul><li>a...
USING <ul><li>THREE STRUCTURAL PATTERNS </li></ul><ul><li>FIXED </li></ul><ul><li>VARIABLE  (verb tense, pronoun, negation...
TEACHING TWO APPROACHES <ul><li>Text-orientated  goal-orientated  </li></ul><ul><li>↓  ↓ </li></ul><ul><li>categories </li...
Be aware !!  Idiomatic chunks are  all over the place
Thank you for
Thank you for [bearing] with [me] [email_address]
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Coming to Terms with Lexical Chunks: Identifying, Using and Teaching.

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Helen Osimo
The importance and benefits of teaching lexical chunks has been well-documented, but can some sort of order be imposed on an area which is so amorphous? This presentation suggests criteria for identifying idiomatic chunks in written and spoken texts, ways to explain their usage and to organize them for teaching.

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Coming to Terms with Lexical Chunks: Identifying, Using and Teaching.

  1. 1. Coming to terms with lexical chunks: Identifying, using and teaching . Helen Osimo, University of Haifa Oranim Academic College of Education, Israel [email_address]
  2. 2. Jerusalem is lost in translation !! Tourism officials in Israel did little to sell the city of Jerusalem as a must-see for visitors when a brochure suggested it did not exist. The sightseeing pamphlet was translated from Hebrew to English and read:
  3. 3. &quot;Jerusalem - there's no such city !&quot;, instead of the slogan: &quot;Jerusalem - there's no city like it !&quot;. Story from BBC NEWS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/middle_east/5364192.stm Published: 2006/09/20 14:27:14 GMT (taken from Maariv)
  4. 4. IDIOMATIC LEXICAL CHUNK ILC <ul><li>full idioms semi- transparent/ </li></ul><ul><li> variable chunks </li></ul><ul><li>|____________________________________________| </li></ul><ul><li>kick the bucket no such city/word/person </li></ul>
  5. 5. … a formulaic unit <ul><li>&quot;is no longer obliged to be grammatically regular or semantically logical&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Wray (2002:33) </li></ul>
  6. 6. IDENTIFYING ILCs <ul><li>CRITERIA : an idiomatic lexical chunk is a </li></ul><ul><li>multiword unit that is </li></ul><ul><li>1.grammatically irregular – at least one component does not follow regular grammatical rules; irregularity includes fixedness and grammatical constraints </li></ul>
  7. 7. and/or 2. semantically opaque in varying degrees – at least one component in the unit does not convey its conventional meaning.
  8. 8. semantically opaque <ul><li>I’m all ears </li></ul><ul><li>come to terms with </li></ul><ul><li>by and large </li></ul>
  9. 9. grammatical irregularities <ul><li>tense: It’s about time you went to bed </li></ul>
  10. 10. grammatical irregularities <ul><li>tense: It’s about time you went to bed </li></ul><ul><li>article: Just say the word </li></ul>
  11. 11. grammatical irregularities <ul><li>tense: It’s about time you went to bed </li></ul><ul><li>article: Just say the word </li></ul><ul><li>fixed tense: Come to think of it </li></ul>
  12. 12. grammatical irregularities <ul><li>tense: It’s about time you went to bed </li></ul><ul><li>article: Just say the word </li></ul><ul><li>fixed tense: Come to think of it </li></ul><ul><li>restricted to the plural: I’m all ear s </li></ul>
  13. 13. Julia and I go way back. The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our ups and downs. Sometimes she makes me furious and I am ashamed to admit that once or twice I've even knocked her about a bit. What drives me crazy is the way her ‘P’ keeps getting stuck, and that now and again her shift becomes loose. I never see eye to eye with her about her messy ribbons either, nor the fact that every intimate nook and cranny is constantly clogged up with dust. But Julia and I make the best of it. After all, we've been through a lot over the years: two books, reams of journalism, and hundreds of letters. Come to think of it, we're partners because we understand each other. In the lonely business of writing, Julia is my one and only companion – for better or for worse – and her loyalty means a lot. My friends and colleagues are always making fun of me and call me an old dinosaur. They insist that sooner or later I’ll have to start using a word-processor and get rid of Julia – my faithful old typewriter!
  14. 14. Julia and I go way back . The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our ups and downs . Sometimes she makes me furious and I am ashamed to admit that once or twice I've even knocked her about a bit. What drives me crazy is the way her ‘P’ keeps getting stuck , and that now and again her shift becomes loose. I never see eye to eye with her about her messy ribbons either, nor the fact that every intimate nook and cranny is constantly clogged up with dust. But Julia and I make the best of it : After all, we've been through a lot over the years : two books, reams of journalism and hundreds of letters. Come to think of it , we're partners because we need each other . In the lonely business of writing, Julia is my one and only companion – for better or for worse – and her loyalty means a lot . My friends and colleagues are always making fun of me and call me an old dinosaur. They insist that sooner or later I’ll have to start using a word-processor and get rid of Julia – my faithful old typewriter !
  15. 15. PERCENTAGE OF CHUNKS IN THE TEXT <ul><li>189 words </li></ul><ul><li>19 ILCs (66 words) </li></ul><ul><li>35% of the text comprises ILCs </li></ul>
  16. 16. PERVASIVENESS OF LEXICAL CHUNKS <ul><li>58.6% spoken and </li></ul><ul><li>52.3% written texts </li></ul><ul><li>(Erman & Warren:2000) </li></ul>
  17. 17. USING ILCs <ul><li>three structural patterns : </li></ul><ul><li>fixed </li></ul><ul><li>variable </li></ul><ul><li>discontinuous </li></ul>
  18. 18. Julia and I go way back . The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our ups and downs . Sometimes she makes me furious and I am ashamed to admit that once or twice I've even knocked her about a bit. What drives me crazy is the way her ‘P’ keeps getting stuck , and that now and again her shift becomes loose. I never see eye to eye with her about her messy ribbons either, nor the fact that every intimate nook and cranny is constantly clogged up with dust. But Julia and I make the best of it : After all, we've been through a lot over the years : two books, reams of journalism and hundreds of letters. Come to think of it , we're partners because we need each other . In the lonely business of writing, Julia is my one and only companion – for better or for worse – and her loyalty means a lot . My friends and colleagues are always making fun of me and call me an old dinosaur. They insist that sooner or later I’ll have to start using a word-processor and get rid of Julia – my faithful old typewriter !
  19. 19. Julia and I go way back . The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our ups and downs . Sometimes she makes me furious and I am ashamed to admit that once or twice I've even knocked her about a bit. What drives me crazy is the way her ‘P’ keeps getting stuck , and that now and again her shift becomes loose. I never see eye to eye with her about her messy ribbons either, nor the fact that every intimate nook and cranny is constantly clogged up with dust. But Julia and I make the best of it : After all, we've been through a lot over the years : two books, reams of journalism and hundreds of letters. Come to think of it , we're partners because we need each other . In the lonely business of writing, Julia is my one and only companion – for better or for worse – and her loyalty means a lot . My friends and colleagues are always making fun of me and call me an old dinosaur. They insist that sooner or later I’ll have to start using a word-processor and get rid of Julia – my faithful old typewriter !
  20. 20. Julia and I go way back . The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our ups and downs . Sometimes she makes me furious and I am ashamed to admit that once or twice I've even knocked her about a bit. What drives me crazy is the way her ‘P’ keeps getting stuck , and that now and again her shift becomes loose. I never see eye to eye with her about her messy ribbons either, nor the fact that every intimate nook and cranny is constantly clogged up with dust. But Julia and I make the best of it : After all, we've been through a lot over the years : two books, reams of journalism and hundreds of letters. Come to think of it , we're partners because we need each other . In the lonely business of writing, Julia is my one and only companion – for better or for worse – and her loyalty means a lot . My friends and colleagues are always making fun of me and call me an old dinosaur. They insist that sooner or later I’ll have to start using a word-processor and get rid of Julia – my faithful old typewriter !
  21. 21. Julia and I go way back . The relationship isn’t perfect and we’ve had our ups and downs . Sometimes she makes me furious and I am ashamed to admit that once or twice I've even knocked her about a bit. What drives me crazy is the way her ‘P’ keeps getting stuck , and that now and again her shift becomes loose. I never see eye to eye with her about her messy ribbons either, nor the fact that every intimate nook and cranny is constantly clogged up with dust. But Julia and I make the best of it : After all, we've been through a lot over the years : two books, reams of journalism and hundreds of letters. Come to think of it , we're partners because we need each other . In the lonely business of writing, Julia is my one and only companion – for better or for worse – and her loyalty means a lot . My friends and colleagues are always making fun of me and call me an old dinosaur. They insist that sooner or later I’ll have to start using a word-processor and get rid of Julia – my faithful old typewriter !
  22. 22. IDIOMATIC LEXICAL CHUNKS FIXED VARIABLE (verb tense, pronoun, negation) DIS- CONTINUOUS (+ lexical items)
  23. 23. The fixed pattern <ul><li>once or twice </li></ul><ul><li>nook and cranny </li></ul><ul><li>come to think of it </li></ul><ul><li>each other </li></ul><ul><li>over the years </li></ul>
  24. 24. The variable pattern <ul><li>[see] eye to eye </li></ul><ul><li>saw eye to eye </li></ul><ul><li>have never seen eye to eye </li></ul><ul><li> didn’t see eye to eye </li></ul><ul><li>[ Make] the best of [it] </li></ul>
  25. 25. The discontinuous pattern <ul><li>keeps getting stuck </li></ul><ul><li>which would be represented </li></ul><ul><li>keeps getting [ADJ] </li></ul><ul><li>keeps getting lost/sick/tired/bored </li></ul>
  26. 26. She kept getting sick They keep getting lost represented thus : [keep] getting [ADJ]
  27. 27. ILCs grammatically irregular and/or semantically opaque FIXED once or twice each other VARIABLE [see] eye to eye DIS-CONTINUOUS [keep] getting [ ADJ ]
  28. 28. TEACHING ILCs Should we teach them? Which chunks should we teach? Who should be taught? How should we teach them?
  29. 29. TEACHING ILCs text-oriented approach goal-oriented approach practice tasks organisational frameworks
  30. 30. CATEGORIES <ul><li>as an organisational framework </li></ul><ul><li>speech acts </li></ul><ul><li>modal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>delexicalised verbs ( make, get, have ) binomials </li></ul>
  31. 31. BINOMIALS <ul><li>fixed multiword units usually composed of two </li></ul><ul><li>lexical items joined most frequently by and, or, but </li></ul><ul><li>ups and downs </li></ul><ul><li>once or twice </li></ul><ul><li>now and again </li></ul><ul><li>nook and cranny </li></ul><ul><li>one and only </li></ul><ul><li>for better or for worse </li></ul><ul><li>sooner or later </li></ul>
  32. 32. They often have synonyms: sooner or later = eventually They sometimes repeat the same word: again and again little by little They often start with the same letters or sounds: first and foremost last but not least born and bred
  33. 33. some rhyme wear and tear wine and dine similar in Hebrew but not the same sooner or later more or less for better or for worse no Hebrew equivalent back to front the same in Hebrew one and only
  34. 34. DELEXICALISED VERBS MAKE <ul><li>[make] [me] [ADJ] ( furious, happy, </li></ul><ul><li>upset, curious …) </li></ul><ul><li>[make] the best of [it/them] </li></ul><ul><li>[make] fun of [me] </li></ul>
  35. 35. add chunks from the same category [make] sure [make] up [your] mind [can’t] make head or tail of
  36. 36. A HEADWORD THAT OCCURS FREQUENTLY IN CHUNKS <ul><li>way a very frequent idiomatic intensifier </li></ul><ul><li> [go] way back </li></ul>
  37. 37. other examples of way as an intensifer way above, way below, way beyond, way too long, way out of reach
  38. 38. For HETEROGENEOUS CLASSES <ul><li>Add chunks with the same headword </li></ul><ul><li>by the way </li></ul><ul><li>[pave] the way for </li></ul><ul><li>set in [his] ways </li></ul><ul><li>[rub] [NP] up the wrong way </li></ul>
  39. 39. VOCABULARY UNIT chunks which share meaning <ul><li>agree – [see] eye to eye </li></ul><ul><li>o ccasionally – once or twice </li></ul><ul><li> now and again </li></ul>
  40. 40. add chunks with similar meanings <ul><li>on and off; </li></ul><ul><li>now and then; </li></ul><ul><li>once in a while; </li></ul><ul><li>once in a blue moon </li></ul>
  41. 41. GRAMMAR UNIT <ul><li>present simple tense with temporals - sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>+ ILC - now and then </li></ul>
  42. 42. IDENTIFYING <ul><li>A CONTINUUM OF IDIOMATICITY </li></ul><ul><li>1. Is it grammatically irregular ? </li></ul><ul><li>and/or </li></ul><ul><li>2. Is it semantically opaque ? </li></ul>
  43. 43. USING <ul><li>THREE STRUCTURAL PATTERNS </li></ul><ul><li>FIXED </li></ul><ul><li>VARIABLE (verb tense, pronoun, negation) </li></ul><ul><li>DISCONTINUOUS (+ lexical items ) </li></ul>
  44. 44. TEACHING TWO APPROACHES <ul><li>Text-orientated goal-orientated </li></ul><ul><li>↓ ↓ </li></ul><ul><li>categories </li></ul><ul><li>head words </li></ul><ul><li>shared meaning … </li></ul>
  45. 45. Be aware !! Idiomatic chunks are all over the place
  46. 46. Thank you for
  47. 47. Thank you for [bearing] with [me] [email_address]

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