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Biceps - Melbourne Arm Clinic

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Biceps - an orthopaedic surgeons perspective
Melbourne Arm Clinic
Upper Limb Orthopaedic Surgeons

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Biceps - Melbourne Arm Clinic

  1. 1. Biceps Mr. Devinder Garewal Orthopaedic Shoulder Surgeon
  2. 2. Biceps brachii • 2 headed muscle of the arm • Long head commonly involved in pathology
  3. 3. Overview • Controversy persists regarding the function of LHB • Tendinopathy has inflammatory, degenerative, overuse- related and traumatic causes • Tendinitis of LHB is an inflammatory tenosynovitis that occurs within the bicipital groove causing anterior shoulder pain • Can occur independently but more commonly presents in combination with other shoulder pathology: • Impingement • Rotator cuff disorders • SLAP tears • Bursitis • ACJ disorders
  4. 4. Anatomy • LHB originates at the supraglenoid tubercle & superior labrum • Inserts distally onto radial tuberosity • Bicipital groove: hourglass shaped corridor between tuberosities of the humeral head • Helps to contain LHB but most restraint is provided by surrounding soft tissues • Rich sensory and sympathetic innervation • Some relatively avascular zones (undersurface tendon in groove, at superior glenoid insertion)
  5. 5. Bicipital groove
  6. 6. Soft tissue constraints
  7. 7. Role of biceps • Biomechanical function is debatable • ?humeral head depressor • ?anterior stabiliser • ?restricts glenohumeral translation • ?vestigial structure
  8. 8. Pathophysiology • Spectrum of conditions from inflammatory tendinitis to degenerative tendinosis • This continuum likely arises secondary to repetitive traction, fricition and glenohumeral rotation with resultant pressure and shear forces at distinct, anatomically narrow sites • The sheath of the tendon is an extension of the synovial lining of the shoulder joint which can become inflammed in conjuction with inflammatory processes that affect the rotator cuff tendons
  9. 9. Clinical Evaluation & Diagnosis
  10. 10. History • Progressive course of anterior shoulder pain • Declining function as a result of chronic overuse • Often pain is in the region of the groove • May radiate down anteriorly to the muscle belly • Biceps instability can occur: • Clicking or popping • May hear audible snap with throwing motions • Usually occurs in setting of subscapularis tears
  11. 11. Examination • Popeye deformity – indicative of LHB rupture • Point tenderness over groove • Subpectoral LHB tendon test: • Palpate tendon medial to pec whilst pt internally rotates the arm against resistance • Speed’s test • Resisted forward flexion • Yergason’s test • Resisted supination & elbow flexion
  12. 12. Pop eye deformity
  13. 13. Imaging • Shoulder XR – exclude other causes • MRI – with arthrogram • Gold standard • Investigates tendon and sheath • Can look at all other shoulder structures • US • Operator dependent • Ix thickening, subluxation/dislocation, rupture • Ix cuff • Diagnostic & therapeutic injection with LA/CS
  14. 14. Treatment
  15. 15. Non-operative Rx • Rest & activity modification • NSAIDs • Physiotherapy • Correct the underlying scapular rhythm • Manage concomitant shoulder disorders • US guided injection • Into bicipital sheath • However, intratendinous injection may predispose to tendon rupture
  16. 16. Operative Rx • Controversial • Tenotomy Vs tenodesis • Pros and Cons in each camp • Studies have not identified significant differences in functional scores or patient satisfaction between the two techniques
  17. 17. Arthroscopic tenotomy • Evaluate biceps tendon integrity and stability • Check subscapularis and supraspinatus tendons
  18. 18. Arthroscopic tenotomy - Pros • Quick & simple • Reproducible technique that produces pain relief • Requires little post op rehab • Cheap
  19. 19. Arthroscopic tenotomy - Cons • Cosmesis • Pop eye deformity (3-70%) • Fatigue discomfort with repetitive resisted elbow flexion
  20. 20. Arthroscopic “release” • Important to manage patient expectations • My choice in: • Older patients • Obese arms • Do not work in manual jobs • Those who aren’t worried about appearance • Unable or unwilling to comply with postoperative care following tenodesis
  21. 21. Biceps tenodesis
  22. 22. Biceps tenodesis – Pros • Goal is to maintain the length-tension relationship of the biceps • May prevent post operative muscle atrophy • May prevent fatigue cramping • Helps to maintain normal contour and appearance
  23. 23. Biceps tenodesis - Cons • More technical • Longer anaesthetic • More risks – additional wound, humeral # • More expensive • Longer post operative rehabilitation
  24. 24. Biceps tenodesis • My choice in: • Younger, active patients • Thinner arms • Those not wanting cosmetic deformity • Manual jobs • Those willing to partake in rehabilitation
  25. 25. Method of tenodesis • Multiple options • Can be performed proximally with tendon in the groove or distally, with the tendon out of the groove • Proximal: • Can be done arthroscopically • Distal: • Allows excision of diseased tendon from the groove which can cause postoperative pain secondary to residual tenosynovitis
  26. 26. Arthroscopic tenodesis
  27. 27. Subpectoral open tenodesis
  28. 28. Subpectoral open tenodesis
  29. 29. Subpectoral open tenodesis
  30. 30. Rehab post tenodesis • Sling 4 weeks • No active elbow flexion or supination exercises for 4 weeks • Strengthening from 8 weeks • Unrestricted activity at 3-4 months post op
  31. 31. Thank you
  32. 32. Orthopaedic Upper Limb Surgeons Mr. Devinder Garewal – Shoulder Surgeon Mr. Matthan Mammen – Elbow, Wrist & Hand Surgeon Warringal & North Park Private Hospitals Referrals: 1300 ARM CLINIC | 1300 276 254 Online referrals & information: melbournearmclinic.com

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