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A Bacteria in the Gut may Predict Type 1 Diabetes

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We and other scientists discovered that gut bacteria contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes. The varieties of gut bacteria in diabetic children and those at high risk of developing diabetes are very different from those of healthy individuals. Using an animal model of type 1 diabetes, we recently found that some of the gut bacteria share similar molecular markers with insulin-producing beta cells in pancreas. The presence of these bacteria can stimulate the autoreactive T cells to mistakenly attack insulin-producing beta cells. One group of these diabetes-inducing bacteria is called Fusobacteria. We found more Fusobacteria in diabetic mice and the number of Fusobacteria increased as mice approached onset of diabetes. We hypothesize that Fusobacteria are associated with human type 1 diabetes. If our hypothesis is correct, we may be able to use the quantity of Fusobacteria present in the gut to predict and monitor the time of diabetes development in individuals who are prone to the disease.

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A Bacteria in the Gut may Predict Type 1 Diabetes

  1. 1. A Bacteria in the Gut may Predict Type 1 Diabetes Ningwen Tai, Associate Research Scientist Yale Diabetes Center
  2. 2. Heart and blood vessel disease Nerve damage Kidney damage Eye damage Foot damage Pregnancy problem Diabetes complications Type 1 diabetes (T1D) Healthy Insulin Glucose Diabetic Immune cells Pancreas islet XX X
  3. 3. 5 million Americans are expected to have type 1 diabetes by 2050, including nearly 600,000 youth. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes The percentage of newly diagnosed cases of T1D rose 21.2% from 2001-2009 American Diabetes Association 2016
  4. 4. Less than 50% of identical twins develop type 1 diabetes One twin develops diabetes while the other does not.
  5. 5. HealthyDiabetic Different gut bacteria composition between diabetic patients and healthy controls Gut bacteria
  6. 6. NOD - mouse model of human T1D GUT BACTERIA TYPE 1 DIABETES
  7. 7. Type 1 diabetes Autoimmune response Environment (bacteria, virus) Genetics (Genes) Genetic and environmental factors contribute to T1D development
  8. 8. Less Fusobacteria Mimic peptide Mimic peptide Immune cells Preliminary study: mouse Lower diabetes incidence Higher diabetes incidence More Fusobacteria
  9. 9. Research plans - 1. Collection of human oral and fecal samples from diabetic, high-risk and healthy individuals 2. Measurement of Fusobacteria in the collected samples by two different methods - sequencing and qPCR 3. Data analysis and evaluation
  10. 10. Research goal To prove the increase of Fusobacteria is associated with human diabetes development and provide a better knowledge for early disease intervention. 1. Prevention: to find specific treatment for eliminating diabetes inducing bacteria in order to better prevent from diabetes development in high- risk individuals 2. Cure: to modify diabetes inducing bacteria and replace with “good” bacteria to treat diabetic patients Future applications

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