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Types of research, sampling techniques, statistical test

- 1. Research Capacity Building Workshop Presentation Dr. Deepa Devhare Assistant professor Dept of Microbiology
- 2. Content: • Research • Types of research methodologies • Research cycle Research question Study design Components of research Statistical analysis of results • Ethics in research
- 3. Research • process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
- 6. 1. Research question A question that a study or research project aims to answer.
- 8. Structure of the Research Question PICOT P: Patients, Population, Participants, Problem I: Intervention, Independent Variable, Input variable, Index Test C: Camparator, Comparision,Control O: Outcome(Health outcome), patient oriented outcome T: Timed Outcome
- 10. Eg. Researcher wants to study effect of folic acid supplementation on gingival overgrowth in pediatric patients taking phenytoin as a treatment Formulating a research question in PICOT structure P: Children aged 6-15 yrs recently started on phenytoin monotherapy I: Folic acid supplementation0.5mg/day C: Placebo O: Incidence of any degree of gingival overgrowth T: 6months
- 11. 2. Research/Study Design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.
- 12. Study design Descriptive describes the phenomenon as it exists. Used to identify and obtain information on the characteristics of a particular issue Analytic Aims to understand the phenomenon
- 13. Study design
- 14. Types of study designs Cross sectional study Case control study Cohort study Diagnostic study Randomised control trials
- 17. 2. Case control studies Analytical observational study Always retrospective
- 20. 3. Cohort study Cohort -derived from latin word meaning an enclosure, company or crowd In research, the cohort is a group of people with something in common usually an exposure or involvement in a defined population group
- 21. COHORT STUDY
- 24. Cohort study
- 26. 4. RANDOMISED CONTROL TRIALS
- 29. Hierarchy Based on Study Designs
- 31. Components of research Variables Sample Bias Outcome Data
- 32. Variable: refers to a person, place, thing, or phenomenon that you are trying to measure in some way Independent variable • Input variable • can be changed and tested Dependent variable • Output variable • Directly affected by input variable not studying for a test Test score
- 33. Study population • refers to a smaller, manageable version of a larger group. • It is a subset containing the characteristics of a larger population. Accessible population
- 37. Independent variable • can be changed and tested. Random error- Difference between study finding and truth due to chance Systematic error Difference between study finding and truth due to methodological issues Researcher misreading the weight of study participanats uncalibrated weighing machine giving wrong readings What can go wrong in research?
- 38. TYPES OF BIAS Selection bias Allocation bias Performance bias Detection bias Attrition bias Interpersonal bias
- 39. Outcome Types of outcome Example Hard outcome Diabetes mellitus Soft outcome Impact of DM on quality of life Surrogate outcome HBA1C Patient centric outcome Diseases/not diseases Cured /not cured • final product or end result; consequence; issue. • conclusion reached through a process of logical thinking.
- 40. Data and data handling • Anything that can be grouped based on comparable parameters IS DATA. • Data Handling is the process of gathering, recording, and presenting information that is helpful to analyze, make predictions and choices.
- 42. Introduction to Statistical tests Before analysing data we need to know whether data is normally distributed or not? Normal distribution Skewed distribution
- 43. Normal distribution (Gaussian curve) • its mean , median and mode are all equal to one another • The distribution then falls symmetrically around the mean, the width of which is defined by the standard deviation.
- 44. Skewed distribution • Appearance of graph:Asymmetrical curve • Skewness: If SD is >1/2 of mean • Median far away from mean
- 46. Statistical analysis for diagnostic study designs Sensitivity Specificity Positive predictive value Negative predictive value
- 48. • human research to be approved by an Institution Ethics Committee • Informed consent necessary from study participants • Responsibility of principal investigator Ethical committee approval and informed consent