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DES Sons

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The Presence of Gender Dysphoria, Transsexualism, and Disorders of Sexual Differentiation in Males Prenatally Exposed to Diethylstilbestrol DES.

by Scott P. Kerlin, Ph.D.

MORE ABOUT DES:

DES Sons studies : https://desdaughter.wordpress.com/tag/des-sons/

DES studies on cancer, breast cancer, CCAC, vaginal cancer, screening: https://desdaughter.wordpress.com/2013/09/08/des-diethylsilbestrol-resources-by-ncbi-1/

DES studies on fertility, gender identity, pregnancy : https://desdaughter.wordpress.com/2014/04/04/des-diethylsilbestrol-resources-by-ncbi-3/

DES studies on in-utero exposure to DES and DES side-effects : https://desdaughter.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/des-diethylsilbestrol-resources-by-ncbi-2/

DES articles on lawsuits and various studies. : https://desdaughter.wordpress.com/2014/10/11/des-diethylsilbestrol-resources-by-ncbi-4/

DES Videos : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3D4F4A11812DAE00

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DES Sons

  1. 1. The Presence of Gender Dysphoria, Transsexualism, and Disorders of Sexual Differentiation in Males Prenatally Exposed to Diethylstilbestrol: Initial Evidence from a 5-Year Study Scott P. Kerlin, Ph.D. DES Sons International Network Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2. The Presence of Gender Dysphoria, Transsexualism, and Disorders of Sexual Differentiation in Males Prenatally Exposed to Diethylstilbestrol: Initial Evidence from a 5-Year Study Presented at E.Hormone 2004: The 6th Annual Symposium on the Environment and Hormones Tulane/Xavier Universities, New Orleans October 27-30, 2004 http://e.hormone.tulane.edu/eh2004.html
  3. 3. Scope of Existing Published Research Focusing on DES Sons • Estimated total of 1-3 million DES sons born in U.S. (similar numbers as daughters) • DES sons also born in Australia, Canada, and Europe 1940s-1970s • Fewer primary studies of DES sons than DES daughters • 1970s: first discoveries of structural & functional abnormalities of urogenital system in some DES sons (epididymal cysts, hypotrophic testes, cryptorchidism) • Inconsistent findings on risks for infertility, testicular cancer
  4. 4. Scope of Research on DES Sons • Latest DES sons study of cancer outcomes suggested little or no increased risk for most cancers in DES sons (Strohsnitter, 2001) • No identified increase in prostate cancer in DES sons so far • Immune system effects still under investigation • Psychiatric effects (major depressive disorder, psychoses, schizophrenia). • First studies of psychosexual effects published in 1970s (Continued)
  5. 5. DES Research Update – NCI Web Site http://searchosp1.nci.nih.gov/whealth/DES/index.html
  6. 6. DES Research Update Conference, 1999 (NCI, NIEHS, NIH) • Last conference held in U.S. discussing available and needed research on human health effects of DES exposure, July 19-20, 1999 • Recognizes inadequacy of existing research on DES sons, “basic and clinical research on DES sons should be a top priority in policy discussions.” • Recommends further research on cancer and infertility issues of DES sons • Finding: More women than men are aware of DES and of their possible exposure • Finding: The full range of effects for all DES children, especially DES sons, is unknown
  7. 7. DES Sons Web Site
  8. 8. The DES Sons International Network Mission and History • Organized as DES Sons Online Discussion Network in 1999 with emphasis on global outreach to DES sons • Mission: Education, advocacy, research on DES sons’ adverse health effects, group support, monitoring published research on DES and endocrine disruptors • Goals: To encourage more primary research with DES sons and to investigate unanswered questions about the scope of impact • Membership reach: Between 1999 and 2004, over 500 individuals with confirmed or suspected DES exposure
  9. 9. The DES Sons International Network Scope of Outreach • Global reach: International online outreach to locate DES sons from Australia, Canada, Europe (especially United Kingdom, France, Belgium), and U.S. • Emphasis: Promote greater awareness about the significance of DES exposure in ongoing international research investigating effects of endocrine disruptors on human health and behaviour • Sources of outreach: Online and print publications focusing on human health effects of DES; announcements in online reproductive health networks • Peer outreach: Network members provide further outreach
  10. 10. DES Sons International Network Research 1999-2004 • Purpose of study: Response to calls for further research on DES sons, using online environment to inspire discussions of health issues among DES sons from around the world • Study format: Conceptualized as an online focus group of DES sons recruited from a variety of DES information and reproductive health information online networks • Research methods: Qualitative analysis using grounded theory, online interviews, membership surveys, polls, private discussions, threaded discussion topics • Participant screening: Prospective members screened for confirmation or likelihood of prenatal DES exposure
  11. 11. DES Sons International Network Research 1999-2004 • Principal reported health concerns: endocrine (hypogonadism); mental health (depression/anxiety); gender identity/sexuality • Additional reported effects (less frequent): epididymal cysts; cryptorchidism; autoimmune disorders; infertility; ambiguous genitalia • Low reported cancer prevalence: five reports of history of testicular cancer in earlier years; no other cancers • One-quarter to one-third of members self-identify as transsexual, transgender, or intersex (Continued)
  12. 12. DES Sons International Network Next Steps, 2005 and Beyond • Continuing international outreach to expand membership and future research participation • Strengthening affiliations with international research networks devoted to male reproductive health and endocrine disruptors • Widening public awareness about the “invisible harm” from endocrine disruption in males • Collaborating with Dr. Milton Diamond, University of Hawaii, in administering follow-up survey for DES sons focusing on gender and sexual health issues
  13. 13. Pacific Center for Sex and Society – Web Site
  14. 14. The Presence of Gender Dysphoria, Transsexualism, and Disorders of Sexual Differentiation in Males Prenatally Exposed to Diethylstilbestrol: Initial Evidence from a 5-Year Study DES Sons International Network: http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/des-sons Contact: des-sons-owner@yahoogroups.com

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