Northmost country in AfricaAlgeria to west and Libya to Southeast
S.No. Arab CountriesAny difference: Arab World, Middle East, Muslim 1 AlgeriaWorld? 2 Bahrain 3 Comoros Islands Middle East is a loosely defined geographic region 4 Djibouti 5 Egypt Arab is a cultural and linguistic term 6 Iraq 7 Jordan Arab World: Consists of 22 countries in the Middle 8 Kuwait East and North Africa 9 Lebanon 10 Libya Muslim World: Organization of Islamic Countries has 11 Morocco 55 member states 12 Mauritania 13 Oman Of the ten countries with the largest Muslim 14 Palestine 15 Qatar population only Egypt is an Arab country 16 Saudi Arabia Most Arabs are Muslims, but most Muslims are not 17 Somalia 18 Sudan Arabs. There are also millions of Christian Arabs and 19 Syria thousands of Jewish Arabs 20 Tunisia 21 UAE 22 Yemen
1. Tunisia2. Libya3. Algeria4. Bahrain5. Cyprus6. Egypt7. Iran8. Iraq9. Israel10. Jordan11. Kuwait12. Lebanon13. Oman14. Qatar15. Saudi Arabia16. Syria17. Turkey18. United Arab Emirates19. Yemen Post Revolution Protests Sustained Violence
Political Rule ◦ 1956: Achieved independence from France ◦ First President Habib Bourguiba, established a strict one-party state and dominated the country for 31 years ◦ 1987: In a bloodless coup, Prime Minister Ben Ali assumed the presidency 2009 National Elections ◦ Opposition candidates could not put up any posters or hold any meetings! ◦ 97% of newspaper campaign coverage was devoted to President Ben Ali ◦ Ben Ali’s government went after the country’s journalist union, bringing down its democratically elected board ◦ Police bullied and harassed critical reporters ◦ Florence Beaugé, a correspondent for the French daily Le Monde, tried to cover the polling but was put on a flight back to Paris ◦ No Independent observer allowed to monitor the vote ◦ Ben Ali won landslide victory with 89.62% votes!
Lack of Freedom ◦ In 2008, in terms of freedom of the press, Tunisia was ranked 143 out of 173 ◦ Tunisia and China as the two countries with the greatest internet censorship ◦ Journalist Taoufik Ben Brik, who had published two articles in French newspapers that were critical of the regime was incarcerated Journalists obstructed from reporting on controversial events In practice, no public criticism of the regime is tolerated The state-owned Publinet internet network monitors and filters traffic
17 Dec 2010: Mohamed Bouazizi, a 26 year old fruit vendorsets himself on fire in the marginalized town of Sidi Bouzid infront of city HQ Dec 10 – Jan 11: Public outrage quickly grew over the incident, leading to protests and riots. 219 people killed 2 Jan, 11: International cyberactivist collective Anonymous launched Operation Tunisia in a bid to capture the world medias attention 14 January 2011: Ben Ali dismissed the government and fled the country. By late January 2011 a "national unity government" was formed 20 June, 11: Ben Ali and his wife ordered sentenced in absentia for 35 years in prison October 2011: Elections for a Constituent Assembly held
People of Sidi Bouzid overcame heavy censorship and police repression December 17: Video of a peaceful protest led by the young mans mother posted on FB. Video was aired on Al Jazeeras channel. Facebook and YouTube featured images of police dispersing youths who attacked shop windows and damaged cars. Salhi, a lawyer became an active participant in the protests. used Facebook to organise protests, sending out invites to his friends. Twitter went from being local to national in scope: #bouazizi became #sidibouzid, then #tunisia. Check #Arabspring Internet and power outages in Sidi Bouzid and neighbouring towns Secure ‘https’ protocol became unavailable in Tunisia January 2: Anonymous groups DDoS attacks succeeded in taking at least eight government websites including ‘Tunisian web’ January 7 : Bloggers, web activists were arrested Tunisian authorities hijacked Facebook, blog and email accounts
Elections held in October 11 ◦ Seats split amongst 17 political parties’ and 32 independent candidates ◦ Enhada party won largest number of seats (37%) ◦ Voters flocked are those that emphasized co-operation and dialogue as the basis for a new inclusive politics. Parties that based their election campaign on provoking fear of others - particularly the Progressive Democratic Party, which stood essentially as the anti-Ennahdha party - lost out majorly Inaugural session of its democratically elected 217 members constituent assembly in November 11 ◦ The new coalition government brings together Islamists (Ennahda), liberals and leftists ◦ Constituent Assembly boasts a higher percentage of women than France, Belgium, UK and US ◦ Coalition government divides top government posts Islamist Ennahda party: New prime minister, Hammadi Jebali spent 16 years in prison, 10 of those in solitary confinement Liberal Congress for the Republic: New president, Moncef Marzouqi Leftist Ettakols Mustafa Ben Jaafar: Speaker of the new assembly Assembly has been charged with drafting a new constitution
1953: Declared as Republic country Rulers ◦ 1952: Muhammad Naguib ◦ 1956: Gamal Abdel Nasser ◦ 1970: Anwar Sadat ◦ 1981: Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak Mubarak’s National Democratic Party (NDS) government maintained one-party rule under a continuous state of emergency. Mubarak earned the support of the West and a continuation of aid from the US by maintaining policies of suppression towards Islamic militants and peace with Israel
January 25, 2011 0 Egyptian youth and opposition groups organized a "Day of Rage" campaign Mubarak announces that he has sacked the cabinet, but he himself refuses to step down. 4 Announces VP for the first time: Omar Suleiman, Countrys former spy chief Mubarak names his new cabinet on state television. Protesters continue to defy the military- 6 imposed curfew. About 2,50,000 people gather in Cairos Tahrir Square . Mubarak announces in a televised address that he will not run for re-election but refuses to 7 step down from office Egypts government approve a 15 per cent raise in salaries and pensions in a bid to appease 14 the angry masses 17 Mubarak repeats his promise to not run in the next presidential elections and to "continue to shoulder" responsibilities in the "peaceful transition" that will take place in September 18 Hosni Mubarak resigns as president and hands over power to the armyFebruary 11, 2011
• 846 killed and 6,000 injured during the Progress Card revolution Transition to Held elections for democracy has the lower house of been too slow and• July 2011: Opposition discontent over inadequate parliament the slow pace of SCAF progress in transitioning the government led to a resumption of protests in Cairo and over a dozen other cities and continued through October• Trial in which MUBARAK is accused of corruption and complicity in the deaths of nearly 900 protesters began in early August, was temporarily suspended in September
1952: Gained Independence under leadership of King Idris 1969: Small group of military officers led by 27-year-old army officer Muammar Gaddafi staged a coup détat against King Idris, launching the Libyan Revolution. Gaddafi was referred to as the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution" in government statements and the official Libyan press 1973: He announced the suspension of all existing laws and the implementation of Sharia Much of the country’s income from oil was spent on arms purchases and on sponsoring paramilitaries and terrorist groups around the world
15 Feb: Protests begin in Benghazi due to delays in housing units and political corruption. This led to security forces firing on firing on the crowd 17 Feb: the official "day of revolt," an effort to bring thousands of protesters into the streets of multiple cities. Gaddafi forces responded by firing live ammunition at the crowds. Gaddafi released dozens of prisoners from jail and paid them to fight against the protesters. Gaddafi had hired mercenaries to supplement his security forces March 19: NATO starts bombing Libya. UN Security Council voted to impose a no-fly zone over Libya with 10-0 in voting “yes”. Five - Russia, China, India, Germany and Brazil – abstained. French jets began bombing Libya just hours after the resolution was passed, with bombers from the US, UK and other countries joining shortly afterwards.
August 16: Tripoli isolated. Libya’s rebels say they have completed moves to cut off roads to the capital. August 21: Rebel fighters enter Tripoli reporting little resistance August 23: Libyan rebels launch massive offensive on Gaddafis compound. Rebel fighters mount an attack backed by captured tanks on the compound, in the centre of the capital. Rebels also had support of NATO jets that carried out much more intense air raids September 1: Libyas interim rulers meet world leaders at a conference in Paris to discuss reshaping Libya. Gaddafi, on the 42nd anniversary of his coming to power, urges his supporters to fight on
September 15: Nicolas Sarkozy, the French president and David Cameron, the British prime minister, land in Libya to a heroes welcome September 16: The UN Security Council eases sanctions on Libya, including on its national oil company and central bank. The UN General Assembly approves a request to accredit interim government envoys as Libyas sole representatives at the UN, effectively recognizing the NTC. September 20: Barack Obama, calls for the last of Gaddafis loyalist forces to surrender as he announces the return of the US ambassador to Tripoli September 25: The first Libyan crude oil to be shipped in months sails from Libya
September 27: NATO says Libyas interim rulers have taken full control of the countrys stockpile of chemical weapons and nuclear material. October 20: NTC military chief, confirms that Muammar Gaddafi has died of his wounds after being captured near Sirte. October 25: Libyas National Transitional Council buried Muammar Gaddafi, his son Mutassim, and a former aide at a secret location Following Gaddafi’s murder an interim government has been formed, led by university professor Abdurrahim El-Keib. However, bloodshed is going on. The former rebels are fighting for power and control over the national resources. El-Keib has practically no grip over the numerous revolutionary brigades that fight even in the capital Tripoli. Single tribes and groups do not accept the government, saying that their representation in it is insufficient
Fight them street by street, alley by alley, house to house. With rifles and pistols they will be annihilated I am not going to leave this land. I will die as a martyr at the end. I shall remain, defiant. Muammar is Leader of the Revolution until the end of time I am a Bedouin warrior who brought glory to Libya and will die a martyr Those rats ... were attacked by the masses tonight and we eliminated them We will fight in every valley, in every street, in every oasis, and every town. We wont surrender again; we are not women; we will keep fighting I call on the Libyan people, men and women, to go out into the squares and the streets in all the cities in their millions. ... Go peacefully... be courageous, rise up, go to the streets, raise our green flags to the skies. ... Dont be afraid of anyone. You are the people. You have right on your side. You are the rightful people of this land Whats going on? … What you are doing is not allowed in Islamic law [halal]. What you are doing is forbidden in Islam [haraam]! … Do you know right from wrong?
Unrest in the tiny island state started on 14 February. Demonstrators called for the removal of the royal family, which has led since the 18th century The government accused Tehran of orchestrating the protests King Hamad clamped down hard on 16 March, clearing the protesters camp in a show of force . He imposed a state of emergency and used hundreds of soldiers from Saudi Arabia and the UAE to beef up security Government detained more than 1,600 people - including human rights activists, doctors, bloggers and opposition supporters - since the unrest started In closed-door trials, four demonstrators were sentenced to death and three others to life in prison for the killing of two police officers during protests. 9 people were later given 20 year jail sentences after being found guilty of kidnapping a policeman 47 doctors and nurses have also gone on trial, accused of disseminating false information about the casualties and attempting to topple the monarchy In November, an independent commission published a report stating that "excessive force" had been used when the government crushed the protests. The report stated that detainees had been blindfolded, whipped, kicked, given electric shocks and threatened with rape to extract confessions
In January 2011, protesters began calling for the ouster of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had ruled Yemen since 1978 Abdullah Saleh repeatedly held out the promise that he would step down, only to back out of deals The violence against his rule escalated early on in the crisis when government forces were confronted by fighters from the powerful Hashid tribal federation, who sided with the protesters Government snipers were firing on people from rooftops, while military aircraft shelled positions held by the protest-supporting troops. On 21 October the UN Security Council called on the president to sign a deal brokered by Gulf states, under which he would step down in return for immunity from prosecution - and his immunity was approved by parliament in January But after stalling for months, Mr Saleh finally signed an agreement on 23 November to begin the transfer of power to his deputy In January 2012, he left the country, travelling to the US where he says he will receive medical treatment The deal should eventually clear the path for elections to take place
Since March, the demonstrators started calling for political freedom, an end to corruption, action on poverty and the lifting of an emergency law imposed in 1963 The Syrian government, led by President Bashar al-Assad, has been accused of violently cracking down on protesters Al-Assad, whose family has ruled Syria since 1970, announced government changes in March and lifted a 48-year-old state-of-emergency law in April The government says it is fighting "terrorists and armed gangs" and that some 2,000 members of the security forces have been killed. It also says it is facing an international conspiracy seeking to destabilise the country. Arab League suspended Syria from its ranks on 12 November. Arab League, EU and US imposed sanctions After weeks of tortuous negotiations on a peace plan, Syria finally agreed to allow an observer mission Syria has dismissed the Leagues plan - modelled on the settlement reached in Yemen, whereby the president relinquished power to a deputy and left the country With a leadership determined to cling to power, and a revolt shows no sign of easing, any resolution looks a distant prospect
Country Summary of events In February, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika lifted restrictions on freedom of speech when he announced the Algeria end a 19-year-old state-of-emergency law. He announced in April that a commission would be reviewing the countrys constitution and that changes must be made to strengthen democracy. Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term in 2014. Resignation of provincial governors and Iraq local authorities Jordans King Abdullah II announced sweeping reforms in June, promising to establish a parliamentary majority Jordan government. The king also announced economic reforms, including changes to the countrys tax system Kuwait Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah resigns The main protests focused on calls for political reform especially against sectarian regime. A 30-40% increase in Lebanon wages was announced Young Mauritanians have been pushing for social, political and economic reforms since late February. Job creation is aMauritania major concern. Half the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood. There have been two bloodless coups in the country since 2005 King Mohammed VI announced series of political reforms. The proposal empowered the PM with the authority to Morocco appoint government officials and to dissolve the parliament - the powers previously held by the king. However, the king retains his position as the chair of the Council of Ministers and the Supreme Security Council. Protests continue Omans sultan, Qaboos bin replaced some high-level government figures and issuing a royal order that said job Oman seekers who register with the government will be paid 150 rials a month (about U.S. $390) until they find jobsSaudi Arabia Economic concessions by King Abdullah Sudan President Bashir announces he will not seek another term in 2015
Common Issues Lack of accountability In-built corruption Estranged political elite with little connection to wider society Marginalization of women from political leadership Islamist entrenched through state propagandaResulting characteristics of mostArab societies: Poverty Unemployment Political repression
Tunisia Libya Egypt Syria Yemen Bahrain Bashar al- Ruler Mr. Ben Ali Mr. Gadaffi Mr. Mubarak Mr. Saleh King Hamad Assad Years in 24 42 29 21 33 12 PowerNo. of days 28 250 18 274 314 303of protest No. of 300 30,000 846 5,000 1,480 55 deaths No. of 14,000 700 50,000 6,400 1,000 500 injured detained
Protests involving thousands of protesters have recently been held in: ◦ Greece ◦ India ◦ North Korea ◦ China ◦ Vietnam ◦ Croatia ◦ Oman ◦ Iraq ◦ Iran