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Migration, property rights and livelihoods on Peruvian forest frontiers

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Presented by Peter Cronkleton of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) at the World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, on 21 March 2018 in Washington, DC

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Migration, property rights and livelihoods on Peruvian forest frontiers

  1. 1. MIGRATION, PROPERTY RIGHTS AND LIVELIHOODS ON PERUVIAN FOREST FRONTIERS PETER CRONKLETON, Ph.D. WORLD BANK CONFERENCE ON LAND AND POVERTY Washington DC - March 21, 2018
  2. 2. Migration seen as key driver of deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon Lack of systematic information about migration, the characteristics of migrants or the actual effects of migration on forests Migration and Peru’s Forest Frontiers
  3. 3. Funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) GLOBAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MIGRATION AND FORESTS
  4. 4.  NE: Neshuya landscape, formerly production forest occupied in the 1980s  AS: Abujao-Shesha landscape, tradition floodplain settlements  TO: Tournavista landscape, older frontier with overlapping property claims TO AS NE Research Sites
  5. 5. Focus Group Interviews ▪ 22 Focus groups (20 groups disaggregated by gender and 2 mixed groups) ▪ 131 participants Systematic Survey ▪ 233 household interviews (30% of resident households) ▪ Landholders, landless and care takers Key Informant Interviews Methodology
  6. 6.  Occupation through spontaneous settlement  Residents claim and demarcated properties on their own in collaboration with neighbors  Forest lands targeted for occupation because seen as unused  Only later did state enter to formalize property claims  Migration drivers  Search for arable land  Forced migration (terrorism and violence, natural disasters)  Search for economic opportunity (wage labor, investment in land) PHOTO Observations from Focus Groups
  7. 7. Survey Results 1 Origin of Informants • Only 5 informants born in selected villages • More than a third born in the Amazon • Distribution of ‘Amazonians’ varied o AS: 67%, NE 40%, TO 23% PHOTO 39% 35% 24% 2% Informant Region of Birth Amazon Highlands North coast Other
  8. 8. These were not recently settled communities • Average time lived on site was 14yrs • Some AS and TO informants settled more than 4 decades • Most villages initially settled in 1970s or 1980s, villages in AS site have much longer history PHOTO Survey Results 2
  9. 9. Access to land was a main driver of migration • Search for arable land cited as motivation for migration by most informants o NE: 67%, AS: 64%, TO: 58% • Many informants had not been landless prior to migration o 47% had owned land at previous home o Of those, 50% owned less than 4 ha o 13 informants owned more than 50 ha PHOTO Survey Results 3
  10. 10. Most properties were small • The average property size overall-- 42 ha • Variation at landscape sites o NE: 26 ha, AS: 44 ha, TO: 60 ha • Some larger properties -- up to 200 ha Farming was major source of income • Mixed agriculture/wage labor common • Cacao prevalent source of income in NE • Market access better in NE and TO Estimated average monthly income • NE:US$ 452, AS: US$ 176, TO:US$ 323 PHOTO Survey Results 4
  11. 11. Property rights varied in sample Formal rights varied across landscapes • In NE and AS approx. 45% titled • In TO approx. 12% titled PHOTO 35% 21% 21% 20% 3% Property right type Titled Constancia de posesion No document Mixed rights Fujimori title Survey Results 5
  12. 12. Perceptions of property rights security Property rights perceived as secure. When informants were asked. . . • Whether they felt secure • Whether neighbors respected property limits • Whether the State would defend their property rights • When asked how property rights security had changed over the past five years • 74% agreed or strongly agreed • 89% agreed or strongly agreed • 68% agreed or strongly agreed • 89% believe security has stayed the same or improved Survey Results 6
  13. 13. 1. Spontaneous settlement has produced grassroots agrarian reform o State-lands occupied by migrants o Later state agencies formalize claims 2. Pattern results in forest conversion o Much forestland owned by state o Forest perceived as unused o Titling focused on cleared land Conclusions
  14. 14. Conclusions 3. Migration offered economic opportunity to those that successfully acquire land 4. Formal property rights were goal but elusive for many, however, the lack of formal rights did not lower perceptions of security.
  15. 15. cifor.org blog.cifor.org ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org THANK YOU

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