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Linking migration, forest and gender in Burkina Faso


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Presented by Houria Djoudi of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

Published in: Environment
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Linking migration, forest and gender in Burkina Faso

  1. 1. Linking migration, forest and gender in Burkina Faso Houria Djoudi (CIFOR), Catherine Pehou (CIFOR), Mathurin Zida (CIFOR)
  2. 2. Introduction  Migration as an emerging issue  In the context of remittances and development  Migration and environment, particularly the impact on natural resources (land use changes, forests,..etc) is less considered
  3. 3. Migratory systems • Human fluxes (1 or 2 ways movements, circular movements) • Fluxes in goods and/or in services, knowledge and/or institutions • Leads to new exchanges in different entities • Social networks (reciprocity principals) • Focusses not only monetary fluxes • Embedded into cultural identities in some areas like the Sahel
  4. 4. First case study Linking gender, rights and internal migration
  5. 5. Kassol o W 002°06’59,3" N 11°31’36,0" Strong presence of former migrants who have obtained access to land (higher integration) Pien W 001°58’16,0" N 11°04’23,2« Strong presence of migrants; without access (low levels of integration) Nebou W 001°52’07,0 "N 11°19’00,6" Strong presence of migrants and new forms of access Study Area The main ethnic groups:  Gurunsi/Nuni (indigenous, less than 50% of population)  Mossi and Fulani (migrants, 50-90% of population)
  6. 6. The context • Agriculture related migration (intensification, cotton..etc) • Drought related migration • Livestock related mobility (transhumance) Sedentarisation in the central part of Burkina Faso
  7. 7. The food tree based agroforestry system (parklands, Parkia and Shea butter trees)  Mosaic landscapes to fulfil multiple livelihood objectives  Food trees in agriculture fields, fallows to restore soil fertility  Complex access rules according to gender, class and ethnical affiliation (tree tenure versus land tenure)
  8. 8. Objective, Methods, Study Area • Qualitative and quantitative methods • Direct observations of harvesting practices and participation in the harvest period • Survey with 180 women (migrant and non migrant) • Gurunsi/Nuni (indigenous) • Mossi and Fulani (migrants, over 30 years)
  9. 9. African locust been tree (Parkia Biglobosa) • Safety net role (women) • Food security, • Regulating services (soil fertility) • Cultural services
  10. 10. Results: Access rightsAccessrightSecurity 78% migrant women
  11. 11. Strategies to cope with the lack of access  «Illegal» harvesting (54%)  Secondary harvesters (32%)  Harvesters in the protected forest areas (7%)  Provider of harvest services (7%)
  12. 12. Results • Shifts in the harvest practices
  13. 13. Results • Quality/quantity issues • Nutritional value • Increasing the workload of women (wood fuel ) • Substitution with artificial condiments (Maggi cubes) • Conflicts
  14. 14. Second case study Linking gender, and international migration
  15. 15. Understand pattern of international migration and linkgage to gender and the use of forest  Target groups: households affected by migration and the returnees Mitiéridougou Sanmatenga Camp Mossi TOTAL Migrants internes 0 50 54 104 Migrants internationaux 0 50 46 96 Autochtones 100 0 0 100 TOTAL 100 100 100 300 Objectives and methods
  16. 16. For the second study we are in the process of finalising data analysis regarding • Demography of migration • Changes in Households labour pattern (gender) • Remittences flows
  17. 17.  Mobility and migration systems in policies, interventions and programms related to natural ressource management?  In a more general way linking food security and rights?  Migration as a livelihood and adaptive strategy. Conclusions