Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands


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Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands

  1. 1. Key highlights  Gender matters: trees, forests, agroforestry.  Tenure and access rights demands attention.  Dryland agroforestry our future priority. For example: India, Gran Chaco and Sahel region
  2. 2. Gender equity Gender equity includes race, ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, disability or any other diversities that defines our individual identity.
  3. 3. Empirical evidence on.. ¿ What does agroforestry in dry and degraded lands mean for smallholders? ¿ Why gender equity in agroforestry matters? ¿ How local democratic governance influence gender in agroforestry?
  4. 4. Research Area: semi-arid tribal India
  5. 5. Dryland agroforestry: viable option  Tenure insecurity; small holders (2acres)  Climate variability; seasonal migration  Planting trees a way to claim boundary
  6. 6. Gender equity: tenure and access  245 hh: 85% women lack tenure rights  Elder women have more access to fruit trees, fodder shrubs, and fuel wood  Rules on access to resources changes during crisis or opportunity - Climate variability - Value chain (processed fruits; jatropha)
  7. 7. Decision-making in agroforestry Roles and responsibilities Men/Women/ Joint Vulnerability Managing fodder shrubs 55% joint 32% women women lead in managing shrubs in consultation Soil fertility improvements 68% joint and 20% men Women lack of knowledge Fuel wood management 65% women and 21% men Selection of species and management by women Fruits and crop production 67% joint and 26% men Frequent drought and market fluctuation = joint Vegetable garden 72% women Daily livelihood food security & men migration Fencing 35% joint 30% men Depend on tenure rights; exclusion of pastoralists Sale and marketing 45% joint New arena for both Information sharing 67% women Social safety net Capacity-building on agrofo 43% men Migration = women active Technological adaptation Men are targeted 66% men
  8. 8. Political participation • At democratic local governance women are passive participants though the ‘quota’ give them 35% political space. Elite women are active. • At household level, in crisis situation, men and women play critical role in agroforestry management. • Women are active in negotiating marketing deals.
  9. 9. Discussion • Smallholders income increase (men benefit) • Gendered risk- when value of product increases men takeover business from women • Agroforestry has high potential when men and women are involved in technological adaptation, marketing and benefit-sharing.
  10. 10. Thank you E-mail: CIAT’s focal contact for gender as a cross-cutting theme for Forests, Trees, and Agroforestry
  11. 11. Conceptual framework - Identity and Recognition Fraser (2000): Forms of identity are constructed through interaction of self-identity (individual adopts to get recognition), and external identity (reinforced by dominant group) and - Decision making and Gender equity