Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands
Gender matters: trees, forests, agroforestry.
Tenure and access rights demands attention.
Dryland agroforestry our future priority.
For example: India, Gran Chaco and Sahel region
Gender equity includes
race, ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, disability or
any other diversities
that defines our individual
Empirical evidence on..
What does agroforestry in dry and
degraded lands mean for smallholders?
Why gender equity in agroforestry
How local democratic governance
influence gender in agroforestry?
Dryland agroforestry: viable option
Tenure insecurity; small holders (2acres)
Climate variability; seasonal migration
Planting trees a way to claim boundary
Gender equity: tenure and access
245 hh: 85% women lack tenure rights
Elder women have more access to fruit
trees, fodder shrubs, and fuel wood
Rules on access to resources changes
during crisis or opportunity
- Climate variability
- Value chain (processed fruits; jatropha)
Decision-making in agroforestry
Roles and responsibilities
Managing fodder shrubs
women lead in managing
shrubs in consultation
Soil fertility improvements
68% joint and 20% men
Women lack of knowledge
Fuel wood management
65% women and 21% men
Selection of species and
management by women
Fruits and crop production
67% joint and 26% men
Frequent drought and
market fluctuation = joint
Daily livelihood food
security & men migration
35% joint 30% men
Depend on tenure rights;
exclusion of pastoralists
Sale and marketing
New arena for both
Social safety net
Capacity-building on agrofo 43% men
Migration = women active
Men are targeted
• At democratic local governance women are
passive participants though the ‘quota’ give them
35% political space. Elite women are active.
• At household level, in crisis situation, men and
women play critical role in agroforestry
• Women are active in negotiating marketing deals.
• Smallholders income increase (men benefit)
• Gendered risk- when value of product
increases men takeover business from women
• Agroforestry has high potential when men and
women are involved in technological
adaptation, marketing and benefit-sharing.
CIAT’s focal contact for gender as a cross-cutting theme for
Forests, Trees, and Agroforestry
- Identity and Recognition
Fraser (2000): Forms of identity are constructed
through interaction of self-identity (individual
adopts to get recognition), and external
identity (reinforced by dominant group)
- Decision making and Gender equity