Yes 50 Scientifically Proven Ways To Be Persuasive


Published on

Robert Cialdini's famous book Yes! 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive presented in précis format to help you easily remember the powerful techniques.
Business Wealth Club St Albans
Sales classes in St Albans
Marketing classes in St Albans
Business classes in St Albans
Planning classes in St Albans
Clubs in St Albans
Agencies in St Albans

Yes 50 Scientifically Proven Ways To Be Persuasive

  1. 1. Yes! Yes! 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive Robert B. Cialdini with Noah J. Goldstein and Steve J. Martin
  2. 2. Précis <ul><li>social proof understand audience </li></ul><ul><li>personal messages praise good behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>keep few choices put value on free </li></ul><ul><li>people choose the middle clear specific </li></ul><ul><li>reciprocity is normal personal touch </li></ul><ul><li>significance-unexpected-personalised for gift </li></ul><ul><li>offer help for reciprocity label a request </li></ul><ul><li>feel obliged to return favour </li></ul><ul><li>verbalise commitment praise decisions </li></ul><ul><li>doing favours increases reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>smaller favours increase participation </li></ul><ul><li>start low in auctions </li></ul><ul><li>be introduced as expert </li></ul><ul><li>team outcomes better dissenters add value </li></ul>train by mistakes argue against self interest +ve & -ve attributes need to connect take blame mirroring rhyming & matching because real smiles scarcity unique loss more powerful than gain powerful images avoid complexity compare reframe mid programme use ambiguity increased excitement memory aid brand mirrors cut theft be aware of others emotions decision making best when alert email easily misunderstood influence changes with culture
  3. 3. Six Universal Principles of Social Influence Reciprocation We feel obligated to return favors performed for us. Authority We look to experts to show us the way. Commitment/Consistency We want to act consistently with our commitments & values
  4. 4. <ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>The less available the resource, the more we want it </li></ul><ul><li>Liking </li></ul><ul><li>The more we like people the more we want to say yes to them </li></ul><ul><li>& we like & trust people like us – similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Social Proof </li></ul><ul><li>We look to what others do to guide our behavior </li></ul>Six Universal Principles of Social Influence
  5. 5. Social Proof <ul><li>When people are uncertain about a course of action, they tend to look outside themselves to other people around them to guide their decisions & actions </li></ul><ul><li>Ad writer Colleen Szot changed the line at the end of an infomercial from, “Operators are standing by” to “If operators are busy, please call again.” </li></ul><ul><li>Sales skyrocketed because operators waiting meant no one wanted the product. Busy operators meant others were calling & wanted the product </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonials from satisfied customers are powerful social proof </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social Proof/Similarity <ul><li>Social proof is powerful, but even more powerful when the proof or endorsement comes from people like us – our tribe, our family, our colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Positive social proof is much more effective than negative social proof </li></ul><ul><li>2004 election, “4 years ago, 22 million single women didn’t vote” focused target audience on prevalence of problem & validated not voting, rather than the undesirability </li></ul><ul><li>Negative affects of drug use doesn’t work, showing wellness does </li></ul>
  7. 7. Positives <ul><li>Reward good behavior, don’t punish bad behavior, it just represses it, doesn’t change it. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewarding good behavior is the only way to change it. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation & recognition are infinitely more powerful than criticism. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Too Many Choices Confuse <ul><li>The more choices offered in a retirement plan, the less often people enrolled than when fewer were offered </li></ul><ul><li>Participation dropped 2% for every ten options offered </li></ul><ul><li>Participation rates zoomed when only two options were offered </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t give people too many choices – it confuses them </li></ul>
  9. 9. People Don’t Value Free Stuff <ul><li>Instead of offering a “free software program,” offer a “$100 software program at no cost to you.” </li></ul><ul><li>Put a value on your gifts or bonuses or free stuff </li></ul>
  10. 10. High, Middle, Low <ul><li>If you offer a high-priced, premium product for £1,000, your medium priced £350 product seems like a bargain </li></ul><ul><li>Even if you were selling it before at £250, but without a comparison it might have seemed high </li></ul><ul><li>Always give a comparison to something higher to reinforce the value of your offer </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fear Often Paralyses <ul><li>Fear arousing communication usually stimulates an audience to take action to reduce the threat </li></ul><ul><li>However when the fear-producing message describes danger but the audience is not told of a </li></ul><ul><li>clear, specific, effective means of reducing the danger , </li></ul><ul><li>they may deal with fear by “blocking out” the message or denying it applies to them </li></ul>
  12. 12. Do Favors For People <ul><li>We too often ask, “Who can help me?” </li></ul><ul><li>Instead ask, “Whom can I help?” & do them a favor </li></ul><ul><li>Sets up an obligation for reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Management is about getting results through other people, so set up a web of indebted colleagues who have benefited from favors, attention & listening </li></ul>
  13. 13. Personalise Requests <ul><li>When you ask people at work to do something, </li></ul><ul><li>like filling out a survey, </li></ul><ul><li>instead of sending out a mass email, </li></ul><ul><li>personalise your request with an individualised PostIt note or similar </li></ul>
  14. 14. Giving Gifts <ul><li>Gifts are appreciated much more if they've 3 qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpected </li></ul><ul><li>Personalised </li></ul>
  15. 15. No Strings Attached <ul><li>To increase the sense of obligation to reciprocate, act first with no strings attached </li></ul><ul><li>For example, you give a donation to a charity or a candidate at a party you are giving, announce it, but indicate that there is no expected quid pro quo </li></ul><ul><li>Others’ donations will increase </li></ul>
  16. 16. Foot in the Door Technique <ul><li>Get agreement with a principle </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do you believe in safe driving?” </li></ul><ul><li>Make a small request (commitment & consistency will work in your favor) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Will you put up a small Safe Driving sign?” “Yes” </li></ul><ul><li>Come back next week & ask to put up a bigger sign </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment & consistency work in your favour again </li></ul>
  17. 17. Door in the Face Technique <ul><li>Get agreement with a principle </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do you believe in safe driving?” </li></ul><ul><li>Make a small request (commitment and consistency will work in your favor) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Will you put up a huge Safe Driving sign in your yard?” “No” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Will your put up a medium-sized Safe Driving sign in yard?” “Yes” </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment and consistency work in your favor </li></ul>
  18. 18. Labeling <ul><li>Assign a trait, attitude, belief, or other label to a person, then make a request of that person consistent with that label </li></ul><ul><li>Luke to Darth Vader, “I know there’s good in you.” </li></ul><ul><li>Darth Vader saves Luke from the Emperor </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ask For Commitment <ul><li>Instead of asking, “Please call if you have to cancel your reservation,” ask, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Will you please call if you have to cancel?” & wait for a “yes.” </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting for “yes” seals the commitment </li></ul>
  20. 20. Write Down Commitments <ul><li>Writing down your goals & commitments strengthen them </li></ul><ul><li>For you & others, too </li></ul><ul><li>People make judgments about themselves based on observations of their own behavior & they infer more about themselves based on their actions than on their notations </li></ul>
  21. 21. Behavior Changes Attitudes <ul><li>Ask someone who doesn’t like you or opposes you to do you a favor & if they do it, they will like you better </li></ul><ul><li>People are motivated to change their attitudes in ways that are consistent with their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>They avoid cognitive dissonance </li></ul>
  22. 22. Even a Little Helps <ul><li>“ Even a pound will help” works </li></ul><ul><li>Simply pointing out that even a small amount would be acceptable & worthwhile to you is likely to be an effective strategy </li></ul><ul><li>People who can afford a major contribution think a small amount won’t help the cause </li></ul><ul><li>“ Even a dollar will help” worked for Obama’s campaign </li></ul>
  23. 23. Start Low or High? <ul><li>If there are going to be lots of bidders, start low & social proof will result in the bids going up </li></ul><ul><li>If there are going to be only two bidders, start high to anchor a perception of high value </li></ul>
  24. 24. Groups Make Better Decisions <ul><li>If you’re the brightest person in the room, you’re in trouble because you don’t ask for advice </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of people collaborate & work hard to come up with a better solution than one person </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity works </li></ul>
  25. 25. Devil’s Advocates Aren’t Convincing <ul><li>A true, authentic dissenter is much more effective than someone selected to act as a devil’s advocate </li></ul><ul><li>When making a decision, find an authentic, committed dissenter </li></ul><ul><li>It avoids group think </li></ul>
  26. 26. When Training, Focus on Errors <ul><li>When training, use case studies of mistakes & errors so people can learn what not to do </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t learn as well from what goes right </li></ul>
  27. 27. Turn a Weakness Into a Strength <ul><li>Be candid about weaknesses, it demonstrates honesty & objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>The two-sided argument is very persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal the bad, the negatives & the weaknesses first </li></ul><ul><li>Then talk about the good, the positive & the strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Your credibility soars </li></ul>
  28. 28. Take Blame <ul><li>Don’t’ play the blame game </li></ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for mistakes & problems </li></ul><ul><li>Internal focus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t blame outside factors such as economy, luck, competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Not credible </li></ul>
  29. 29. Find Similarities <ul><li>Potential clients (targets of persuasion) are more receptive to sales pitches from those who they share similarities such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Names (first and last) </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Hometowns </li></ul><ul><li>School or university </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing out similarities can be the first step in resolving potentially ugly conflicts with coworkers & neighbours </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mirroring <ul><li>Waiters found they got much larger tips when they repeat customers’ orders back to them exactly as verbalised </li></ul><ul><li>Mirroring creates feeling of liking & strengthens bonds of trust between two people </li></ul><ul><li>Creates openness </li></ul>
  31. 31. Smile Authentically <ul><li>People can tell the difference between authentic & inauthentic smiles </li></ul><ul><li>In order to be authentic, find something to like about a person so you can be authentic </li></ul><ul><li>We spend too much time finding fault with people </li></ul><ul><li>Look for positives & we’ll like them more & smile more authentically </li></ul>
  32. 32. Exclusive Information <ul><li>Because of the scarcity principle, people will pay more for a product/service they perceive to be scarce </li></ul><ul><li>They’ll pay even more if the information about the scarcity came from an exclusive & truthful source not generally available to the rest of the public </li></ul><ul><li>If you pass on information that is uniquely known by you but fail to point out the exclusivity of the information, you could be losing an opportunity </li></ul>
  33. 33. Loss Aversion <ul><li>People are more than twice as motivated to avoid a loss as they are to acquire gains </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of presenting something as a saving, you’re more persuasive if you frame it in terms of what you could lose if you don’t act </li></ul><ul><li>We also sometimes get tricked by not wanting to lose the time spent in the buying or negotiating process when faced with a last-minute high demand </li></ul>
  34. 34. Use “Because” <ul><li>Using the single word “because” when associated with a request can more than double compliance </li></ul><ul><li>To break in a line say, “I want to use the Xerox machine because I have only two copies.” </li></ul><ul><li>Always back up your requests or points with a strong rationale – a strong “because.” </li></ul>
  35. 35. Be Easy to Pronounce and Read <ul><li>People have a greater affection for words that are easy to pronounce </li></ul><ul><li>Company names, stock symbols, people </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasiveness of a hand-written message is influenced by the quality of the hand writing </li></ul><ul><li>On an easy-to-read font face </li></ul>
  36. 36. KISS <ul><li>Keep it simple, stupid </li></ul><ul><li>No jargon or big words: </li></ul><ul><li>“ We’re leveraging our assets & establishing strategic alliances to create a robust knowledge center – one with a customer-ruled business structure using market-leading technologies to maximize our human systems.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We’re consultants.” </li></ul>
  37. 37. Rhyme and Climb <ul><li>Research suggests that when marketers have mottos, slogans, trademarks, or jingles that rhyme their likability & truthfulness perception increases </li></ul><ul><li>“ Caution & measure will increase your treasure.” </li></ul><ul><li>Not, “Caution & measure will win you riches.” </li></ul>
  38. 38. Perceptual Contrast <ul><li>Baseball players swing a heavy bat in the on-deck circle so their regular bat will feel lighter in comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Prior experience colors perception </li></ul><ul><li>High-end hot tub costs $15,000 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Having it is like having an extra room in your house.” </li></ul><ul><li>Sales went up 500% because people compared $15,000 to the cost of a $50,000 bedroom addition </li></ul>
  39. 39. A Box of Crayons <ul><li>Red, blue & yellow – dull, not memorable </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium orange, Kermit green – cool, memorable </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpected names & ambiguous names cause consumers to think & thus, are more desirable, likable, & memorable </li></ul>
  40. 40. Social Norms Marketing <ul><li>People are generally motivated to behave in line with perceived social norms </li></ul><ul><li>When you send a message, accompany it with some evidence of social norms, because people do not have accurate perceptions of social norms </li></ul><ul><li>“ 65 percent of students have three or fewer drinks when they party.” </li></ul><ul><li>Students thought the average was much higher </li></ul>
  41. 41. Mirrors Reduce Theft <ul><li>People tend to act in ways that reinforce the image they want to have of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, put a mirror on the wall so people can see themselves & they will act as if they are being watched … by themselves </li></ul><ul><li>A mirror in a stock room reduced theft by 50 percent </li></ul>
  42. 42. Emotions Affect Decision Making <ul><li>When people are in an emotional state (especially being sad), it affects their decision making </li></ul><ul><li>When in an emotional state people are persuaded to do things they would not do when in a neutral (unemotional) state </li></ul><ul><li>When in an emotional state (anger, e.g.) people do things they would not do if in a neutral state </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t send that email when you’re angry or emotional - Sleep on it </li></ul>
  43. 43. Concentrate and Be Skeptical <ul><li>When people are tired or distracted, they are more easy to persuade </li></ul><ul><li>When you have to make an important decision, concentrate, eliminate distractions, stay alert & calm, & remain skeptical </li></ul>
  44. 44. Give ‘Em Coffee <ul><li>Caffeine keeps people awake & makes them more alert </li></ul><ul><li>Make your sales pitch (if it’s good & well reasoned) or presentation when people are most alert </li></ul><ul><li>In the morning after coffee, for example </li></ul>
  45. 45. Face to Face Best <ul><li>Face to face is by far the most effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Voice inflection, gestures & non-verbal communication can be very effective </li></ul><ul><li>If you can’t meet face to face, use a video conference or video chat </li></ul><ul><li>Get to know someone via Facebook – picture & profile </li></ul><ul><li>Emails don't convey emotion so easily misunderstood </li></ul>
  46. 46. Know the Culture <ul><li>Individual cultures (US, UK, Western Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about me </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist cultures (Asia, South America, Africa, Eastern Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about we </li></ul><ul><li>In individual cultures, ads & messages that appeal to individuals – make me better, prettier, richer – work </li></ul><ul><li>In collectivist cultures, ads & messages that appeal to the family, group, tribe – make us better, richer – work </li></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusion
  48. 48. Contact Alan French <ul><li>To get in touch with Alan to discuss or understand this in more detail </li></ul><ul><li>Please call Alan +447805675740 </li></ul><ul><li>or email [email_address] </li></ul>