Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in the rhizosphere of bananas in farming systems of Central Kenya
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in the rhizosphere of bananas in farming systems of central kenya

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in the rhizosphere of bananas in farming systems of central kenya

  1. 1. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in the rhizosphere of bananas in farming systems of Central Kenya Jefwa J.M., Vanlauwe B., Sanginga N. Elsen A., Kahangi E., van Asten P. Losenge, T., Mwajita M., Robinson. J and Ruto L Banana plants in a Nutrient Omission trial in Maragua, Kenya manifesting Introduction nutrient deficiency in low fertility soils. Banana production in central province in Kenya (Maragua district) is estimated at 30t/ha/yr. In 2003, 3355ha of land was under banana with estimate production of 38,040tons with market value of US $ 4,322,727. Decline in soil fertility, pests and diseases, inadequate water and lack of clean planting materials are major production constraints. The main sources of planting materials are Tissue culture (TC) plantlets. 1. What are the Challenges There are challenges in survival and establishment of tissue culture plants particularly All fertilizer minus micronutrients All fertilizer minus K in soils with production constraints. Use of rhizosphere organisms has great potential to alleviate or minimize these constraints. Banana is highly dependent on Mycorrhizae for its growth. The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi (AMF),fertilizer minusendophyte can enhance survival and establishment of root P All fertilizer minus P All All fertilizer minus P TC plants under the banana fertilizer minus P All production constraints. Commercial inoculum is available. However, there are challenges on the effectiveness of the exotic AMF species in new environmental conditions. All fertilizer minus P All fertilizer minus P The range and average soil nutrient status of 50 farms and a nutrient omission trial established at the same site. Not all AMF species are effective on banana growth. Hence the use of Banana rhizosphere AMF endophytes is the most appropriate. . The greenhouse trial clearly indicated the importance of the symbiosis in nutrient absorption. In the absence of effective AMF, bananas were not able to take up nutrients effectively. AMF are crucial in nutrient Greenhouse Inoculation trial with commercial exotic AMF species showed three Glomus species to be more effective on plant growth parameters. In the absence of AMF, growth of banana plantlets was poor even with Hewitt nutrient solution. 10 2.5 300 9 S h o o t d r y w e ig h t ( g ) P la n t h e ig h t ( c m ) 8 2 250 L e a f s u r fa c e a r e a 7 6 1.5 200 5 150 4 1 3 100 2 0.5 1 50 0 0 0 None Gi albida G. G. G. mosseae None Gi albida G. G. G. mosseae None Gi albida G. G. G. mosseae etunicatum intraradices etunicatum intraradices etunicatum intraradices AMF treatments AMF treatments AMF Treatments Tissue cultue banana plantlet All fertilizer minus micronutrients All fertilizer minus P devoid of corm and few root systems. AMF increase the All fertilizer root surface area and explores fro nutrients beyond Photograph: 1-Control; 2- Gigaspora albida; 3- Glomus mosseae; the nutrient depletion zone Coyne, 2004 AMF Spore on and inside root 4- Glomus intraradices and 5- Glomus etunicatum Arbuscular mycorrhizae AMF species Rank Abundance Proportion Accumulative (Descriptive names) frequency fungi colonization in A. scrobiculata 1 622 32.3 32.3 roots characterized by Acaulospora fulvous 2 261 13.6 45.8 intercellular vesicles in All fertilizer minus K cortical cells and Glomus rusty (m) 3 223 11.6 57.4 intracellular arbuscular Glomus ivory 4 184 9.6 67 structures, the site of Glomus straw 5 164 8.5 75 nutrient exchange Acaulospora hyaline 6 128 6.6 82.1 between the planr and Glomus rusty (s) 7 111 5.8 87.9 fungi Glomus aggregatum 8 98 5.1 93 Vesicles between cortical cells Acaulospora rusty 9 33 1.7 94 Gigaspora 10 19 1.0 95.7 Glomus sporocarpic 11 15 0.8 96.5 Commericial AMF inoculum Acaulospora (fulv) 12 15 0.8 97.2 from Hub enterprise UK. 1B Scutellospora ochr 13 12 0.6 97.9 Pellets of clay mineral as Glomus fulvous 14 10 0.5 98.4 carrier of AMF inoculum. Belos is AMF inoculum Glomus yellow 15 10 0.5 98.9 bulking up with sorghum Glomus cream 16 5 0.3 99.2 as the host plant. Acaulospora orange 17 5 0.3 99.4 brown Scutellospora hyaline 18 3 0.2 99.6 Glomus orange 19 3 0.2 99.7 Archaeospora 20 2 0.1 99.8 Banana No. of Mean spore Most abundant No. of cultivars bananas abundance AMF species AMF Some AMF species from the rhizosphere of bananas in sampled species Maragua. Cavendish 84 5.167±0.93 A. scrobiculata 16 2A 2B Chinese 2 0 0 0 Grand naine 4 3±1.915 A .scrobicuata 2 Valery 94 6.904±2.08 A .scrobiculata 17 Williams 14 9.29±4.57 Glomus straw 11 Gros mitchel 85 6.941±2.732 Glomus rusty (m) 15 Lactan 3 1.667±1.667 A. scrobiculata 2 Sweet banana 2 20.50±17.50 Acaulospora fulv 5 Gichagara 1 0 0 0 Githumo 14 2.143±1.06 Glomus ivory 6 Kibutu 3 1.33±1.33 A .scrobiculata 4 Kiganda 2 6.5±1.5 Acaulospora hyalin Mugithi 0 0 0 0 Muraru 36 0.472±0.216 A. scrobiculata 5 Muhato 0 0 0 0 Nyauve 0 0 0 0 Nyoro 0 0 0 0 Uganda red 2 0.50±0.5 Acaulospora fulv 1 Wood rotting fungi Conclusion: Bananas associate with a high species number of AMF with cultivars showing preference for specific AMF species. Since AMF species vary in there effectiveness in mycorrhizal functions, there is need to screen further species for adaptations in different cropping systems to facilitate utilization through inoculation and manipulation in the field. Organizations: The authors acknowledge Rockefeller Foundation, Joseph Mungatu of TSBF-CIAT , Victor Otieno and Susan Njunguini of Mational Museums of Kenya

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