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Hb2015 frewert and pannafino-mychorrhizae

  1. A case study using big-tooth aspen Austin Frewert and Jalina Pannafino SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry MELHNE Project
  2.  Associate with the roots of plants in a mutualistic relationship (Brundrett 2008)  Supply plants with nutrients in exchange for carbon. Make up a large portion of microbial biomass in terrestrial ecosystems (Smith & Read, 1997)  Two major classes of mycorrhizal fungi:  Ectomycorrhizae (EM)  Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM)  Ectendomycorrhizal species associate with both AM and EM
  3. Hartig net of EM (Brundrett 2008)  In EM associations: - Mantle around the roots - Hartig net between cells - External filamentous hyphae/rhizomorphs  Hyphae explore a long distance in the soil (Brundrett 2008)  Trees associated: - Aspen, American beech, yellow birch, paper birch, cherryE- endoderm C-cortex Arrows- Hartig net
  4. Arbuscule of a Glomus species (Brundrett 2008)  In AM associations: - arbuscules, hyphae, and vesicles form within the roots cortex cells  Hyphae do not explore long distances in the soil  Trees associated: - Aspen, red maple, sugar maple, striped maple, ash
  5.  Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance has been shown to decrease with increasing nitrogen concentrations (Kjøller 2012).  Increased nitrogen in the soil reduces the production of fruiting bodies in EM fungi (Arnolds 1991).
  6.  When root exploration is limited, up to 80% of phosphorous the plant receives can be sequestered by AM hyphae (Marschner 1993).  A decrease in mycorrhizal colonization has been seen in soils with high P, this is also contingent on species and the concentration of nitrogen in the soil (Baath and Spokes 1989).
  7.  It is not well understood if the phosphorous, nitrogen, or a combination cause the decrease in colonization. Photo of mycorrhizae courtesy of Austin Frewert
  8.  To determine the influence of fertilization on mycorrhizal diversity  Big-tooth aspen (ectendomycorrhizal spp.) provides an opportunity to study effects of fertilization on both AM and EM associations EM and AM in associations in Melaleuca uncinata (Brundrett 2008)
  9. -Sampling will occur in buffer plots treated with N, N&P and an untreated control in site C4 (37 years old), 106 documented P. grandidentata (big-tooth aspen) -2 trees per collection site >3 m apart ( Lilleskov et al. 2004), 2 root segments per tree (AM vs. EM) -Younger trees < 15cm DBH, Older tree specimens > 20cm DBH -Root-tracing method (Lucash et al. 2005)
  10.  Aspen root samples scanned on 1 cm grid, record root length and percent colonization  Root tips sorted morphologically (AM vs. EM) under a dissecting/compound microscope  Designate 5 most prominent morphologies for EM  Roots cleared and stained  AM will be assessed
  11.  A decrease in EM colonization is expected with N additions  A decrease in AM colonization is would expected with P additions  In NP a decrease in AM and EM in increase in fine root production
  12.  Arnolds, Eef. "Decline of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Europe." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 35.2-3 (1991): 209-44. Web.  Brundrett MC. 2008. Mycorrhizal Associations: The Web Resource. 7/5/15. ‹›.  Cox, Filipa, Nadia Barsoum, Erik A. Lilleskov, and Martin I. Bidartondo. "Nitrogen Availability Is a Primary Determinant of Conifer Mycorrhizas across Complex Environmental Gradients." Ecology Letters 13.9 (2010): 1103-113. Web.  Kjøller, Rasmus, Lars-Ola Nilsson, Karin Hansen, Inger Kappel Schmidt, Lars Vesterdal, and Per Gundersen. "Dramatic Changes in Ectomycorrhizal Community Composition, Root Tip Abundance and Mycelial Production along a Stand-scale Nitrogen Deposition Gradient." New Phytologist 194.1 (2012): 278-86. Web.  Lucash, Melissa S.; Eissenstat, Dave M.; Joslin, J. Devereux; McFarlane, Karis J.; and Yanai, Ruth D., "Estimating Nutrient Uptake by Mature Tree Roots Under Field Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities" (2007). Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations. Paper 111.  Smith, Sally E., and David J. Read. "Nitrogen Nutrition of Ectomycorrhizal Plants." Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (1997): 255-75. Web.
  13.  Ruth Yanai  Matt Vadeboncoeur  Jerome Barner  Tom Horton  Shoestring crew 2015: Jessica Swindon, Matt Hayden, Tyler Sadutto, Aaliyah Jason, Isaac Jo, Nick Hoden, Jessie Smith, Briged Farrell, Caitlin Holmes

Editor's Notes

  1. Expand, bullet point list?
  2. Label E, C, and arrow How far in the soil
  3. How far do hyphae go?
  4. Reword Uptake contingent
  5. Show stand map
  6. Then what?