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A presentation by Beatrice Sabana on the Policy briefs

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  1. 1. 5/27/2010 POLICY MAKING PROCESS Policies are developed in response to the existence of a perceived problem or an opportunity; they never exist in a vacuum. The context is extremely important because it will shape the kinds of actions POLICY BRIEF considered. For example: Who has identified the problem? Is it widely recognized by society as a whole or is limited in scope to a local pressure group In the case of the former there may be a greater willingness to intervene than in the latter, depending on the political power exerted by the pressure group. PROPOSALS FROM THE NATIONAL Do the public authorities have the interest or will to respond? There are usually many more problems than th policy makers are willing t address. ll bl th the li k illi to dd STAKEHOLDER WORKSHOP Many issues remain unaddressed. Do the public authorities wish to wield the instruments necessary to carry out a policy response? The problem may be recognized, but public authorities may have little ability to effect change. Such is the problem of many environmental problems that require global solutions. What is the timescale? How pressing is the problem, and how long would a response take? Policy makers are notoriously prone to attempt only short-term interventions, since their mandates are usually of relatively short duration. Long term issues may not attract policy makers because the results of any policy intervention may be decades away. POLICY FORMULATION Policy Making process Who has identified the problem, and why should it be seen to be a problem? Many problems exist, but few are taken up because they are not brought before a wide audience. Is there agreement on the problem? If there is no agreement that a problem exists, it is unlikely that a strong policy response will be forthcoming. Effective policies are more likely to be formulated if there is widespread recognition of a problem and its causes. Policy-making must be understood as a Is it an issue that can be addressed by public policy?. Is it too soon to develop a policy? This argument was used by the lobby in California that opposed stricter emission controls on vehicles in the early 1990s, based on the argument that the political process as much as an analytical or technology of alternative energy for vehicles was not sufficiently advanced. Is the problem seen differently by groups with different values? Environmentalists see many problem solving one. transport issues differently than many other interest groups. Divergence of opinions may affect how the problem is addressed. Is the problem fully understood? Do we know the causal relationships that may be necessary to ‘The policy-making process is not always a The policy making provide a solution? Can the relationships between the factors that make up the problem be quantified? Problem definition is better when it is possible to measure the scale and scope of the issues involved. rational activity Indeed, policy making In defining the problem or opportunity and to help address the questions above, background studies are required. The state of affairs needs to be provided which will identify the actors, the issues and the process can be rather messy, with outcomes possible means that are available. It is also important to forecast trends in order to identify whether the issue is likely to change. occurring as a result of complicated political, social and institutional processes which are best described as ‘evolutionary’’, The role of interest groups in the Reactions to change policy process The policy process is influenced by a range of People react against change for a wide range interest groups that exert power and authority over of reasons, including fear of the unknown, policy-making. These influences affect each stage of lack of information, threat to status, there the process from agenda setting, to the identification being no perceived benefits, fear of failure, of alternatives weighing up the options choosing alternatives, options, low trust in the organisation, strong peer organisation the most favourable and implementing it. groups norms and being bound by custom. A crucial aspect of all policy process is to determine When faced with change people perceptions the interest groups in order to manage their range from negative reaction which perceive participation in the process. change as a threat, to positive reactions, which see it as an opportunity. 1
  2. 2. 5/27/2010 Reactions to change Managing Change Identifying ‘change agents’ (policy champions) It is important to identify individuals who will lead change. These are the people who will give direction and momentum to the implementation of new policies and methods. In some situations it is difficult to identify a single individual or agency to lead the change. In such circumstances reform change leadership may be embodied in special task forces, commissioner co-ordinating committees. Recognizing barriers to change It is important to predict the reaction of individuals and groups to proposed changes and manage them Managing change Ownership of the policy process Ownership of the development policy process tends to be drawn away from local and indigenous groups to policy experts or outsiders. ‘Policy-making tends to become the mystique of elites. And these elites are separated from [local] people ... these mysteries and separations put policy- making processes in rural and agricultural development into a privileged position’, An important tool by which policy discourses ‘control’ or marginalise the interests of indigenous groups is by labelling and categorising them. Target groups are l b ll d ( labelled (such as ‘l dl h ‘landless’ or ‘ ’ ‘women’) and as a result can b ’) d lt be conceived as passive objects of policy rather than as active subjects with projects and agendas of their own. This has been referred to as the ‘disarming of labelling’. It is important to ensure that local people be guided by the stewardship of techno-managerial elites, be they experts in host country governments, international donor agencies,or transnational NGOs PHASES TITLE The phases are: Recognising and defining the nature of the issue to National policy on the conservation and be dealt with Identifying possible courses of action to deal with sustainable management of below Ground the issue Biodiversity Weighing up the advantages and disadvantages of each of th h f these alternatives lt ti Choosing the option which offers the best solution Implementing the policy Evaluating the outcome The national stakeholder workshop was the beginning of this process 2
  3. 3. 5/27/2010 JUSTIFICATION JUSTIFICATION Agriculture is the main livelihood activity for the majority of Kenyans and the soil Below-ground biodiversity is dramatically reduced when forests is a major component of agricultural productivity. Soil fertility has been declining gradually in Kenya as a result of agricultural are converted to agricultural land, and when agricultural land use practices adopted earlier in the century as a means of increasing crop is intensified Reduced BGBD decreases agricultural productivity production such as scientifically tested agricultural technologies, including the and reduces the "resilience" of agricultural systems, which then use of fertilizers, pesticides and mono cultural practices, have resulted into a backlash of the ecosystem. become more vulnerable to adverse climatic events, erosion, Below-ground biodiversity is dramatically reduced when forests are converted to pests, diseases, and other threats. agricultural l d and when agricultural l d use i i t i lt l land, d h i lt l land is intensified R d ifi d Reduced BGBD d It is estimated that more than 90 per cent of crop varieties have decreases agricultural productivity and reduces the "resilience" of agricultural systems, which then become more vulnerable to adverse climatic events, been lost from farmers’ fields in the past century and animal erosion, pests, diseases, and other threats. breeds are disappearing at the rate of 5 per cent per year. It is estimated that more than 90 per cent of crop varieties have been lost from farmers’ fields in the past century and animal breeds are disappearing at the The rate of loss is exacerbated by global trade rules, intellectual rate of 5 per cent per year. property rights regimes, the concentration of agricultural research The rate of loss is exacerbated by global trade rules, intellectual property rights and development of inappropriate technological ‘solutions’, and regimes, the concentration of agricultural research and development of inappropriate technological ‘solutions’, and introduction and promotion of introduction and promotion of genetically engineered organisms. genetically engineered organisms. POLICY GAP No existing policy on BGBD yet it is an important Despite empirical evidence on the loss of Below Ground natural resource; Biodiversity in Kenya and the resultant decrease in agricultural productivity, the Government has not developed a specific policy It is a vital resource for agricultural production; on sustainable conservation and management of Below Ground Helps on control of plant diseases; Biodiversity. It is therefore imperative to develop a policy that will among other Necessary for soil fertility improvement; y y p ; reasons guide appropriate land use systems, provide guidelines Natural reservoir for biotechnological products; on commercial exploitation of BGBD materials. This will assist farmers and other stakeholders to conserve, It is a vital resource for plant growth and production manage and develop agricultural biodiversity leading to in natural ecosystem; sustainable livelihoods and national food security. Similar to Crucial link in carbon cycle and mitigation in climate other Government policies, the BGBD policy will be anchored and guided by Vision 2030, which is the Government’s change; overarching policy framework for attaining economic For integration of natural resource policy aspects development, as well as other related sector policies including touching on BGBD. agriculture, environment, water, forestry etc. BENEFITS OF THE POLICY Critical success factors The proposed policy will ensure: - The sustainable conservation and management of BGBD How do we measure the success of the new The regulation of BGBD bio-prospecting. policy? Further research and development of BGBD. Development of guidelines for the ex-situ breeding and en mass production of specific BGBD components. Rate of adoption by stakeholders Long term monitoring and evaluation of the CSM-BGBD Kenya benchmark sites Development of BGBD export and i D l t f t d import regulations. t l ti Increased yields due to improvements in soil y p Development of regulation to conserve BGBD by controlling threatening fertility agricultural practices and processes. Development and use of appropriate technologies for the maintenance of soil Food security and poverty reduction fertility in agro-ecosystems. Identification of instruments for use in raising funds for BGBD management. Reduction of government Expenditure on Creation of a national BGBD institute (e.g. expand the Nairobi MIRCEN to incorporate BGBD) or other appropriate body. agricultural inputs Allow for incorporation of BGBD curricula into our Education system Enhanced environmental quality and services 3
  4. 4. 5/27/2010 Situational analysis Economic Political environment Opposition from fertilizer pesticides companies; Bring them on board at the initial phase-to see the Performance of the individual politician given economic benefit of using bio resources not just more prominence; chemical ones; Partisan political interests at national level; Nationally BGBD is an immense economic resource but economic value in numbers need to be provided Political shortsightedness; first-exports, savings etc; Fear of opposition by politicians if BGBD will Fear of funding-budget but if well packaged make farmers produce more food and supported; therefore become more independent. At international level-the financial melt down may be a threat to private section participation. Socio-Cultural Technology Eroding strong cultural beliefs held by people Young scientists interests in BGBD hence regarding fertilizers& other BGBD; generational gap; Gender age dimension .Farm managers not Curriculum in University to study BGBD vis the right ones with BGBD information; avis existing research technology; Land fragmentation-threat to BGBD- Utilize technology-Sms, ICT centres,Tv, Intensification. Radio, Print Media, Discussion panels etc Institutional arrangements for implementation of BGBD Environment Home Ministry: Ministry of Agriculture, Resistance by regulatories in the use of bio control methods vis Institutional home: A parastatal (Establishment of a Board and workforce) in the Ministry of Agriculture-Under agricultural sector avis the environment e.g.KEPHIS, KEBS, NEMA; coordinating unit (ASCU)- Lack of participation by key Environmental bodies in Kenya Justification: e.g.KEPHIS, KEBS, NEMA. BGBD Outputs immediate and tangible in Agriculture; Legal Geared towards food security; Baseline data for agriculture; Many laws about environment and potential that BGBD may be Project launched by Assistant Minister for Agriculture; captured under current laws; Powerful Ministry-A Key economic ministry; Many institutions Legally in the area of environment; Has supported BGBD from the beginning; Open ended ness of the legal procedure for policy formulation A major beneficiary of BGBD; with no time frame. This can lead to delays before the policy is Finding show significant contribution to food security and sustainability; eventually formulated. Structure Organization to the grassroots; Monitoring and evaluation system. 4
  5. 5. 5/27/2010 Other complimentary institutions: Private sector Players: Ministry of Environment-NEMA; Agro based industries; Ministry of forestry and wildlife-have an impact of BGBD; KENFAP-Kenya federation of agricultural Ministry of Heritage-NMK National centre for producers; biodiversity; Ministry of higher Education science &Technology; Consumer information network; Ministry of water and Irrigation-Contributes to Community based organization; Agriculture; Ministry of Finance; Nature Kenya. Ministry of Planning; AG Office (Draft to legal document). STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK Specific Objectives Vision To develop and establish a long term BGBD ‘To ensure efficient conservation and sustainable management of research and monitoring programme. soil organisms for soil fertility improvement in agricultural ecosystems’. To create a BGBD institution or body. Mission ‘To promote research utilization and management of soil To develop BGBD bioprospecting policy and legal organisms i all K i in ll Kenyan ecosystems th t through th establishment h the t bli h t frameworks. frameworks of accountable and transparent laws, institutions and systems To mainstream BGBD concerns in agricultural dealing with BGBD’. Goal extension services. The policy shall offer a framework of policies and laws designed To mainstream BGBD concerns in the education to enhance comprehension of the soil organisms and provide for sector. fair and equitable sharing of benefits accruing from their utilization in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity Build capacity in our local farmers to better manage (CBD) principles. BGBD. Financial Arrangements Sustainability of the policy: Budget item-budget allocation in the ministry Education and training of agriculture; Information Education and communication(IEC) Participating institutions sponsoring; Curriculum training on farmers, schools ,colleges Awareness education(public) (p ) Donor community; Pressure groups Taxes and levies-impose BGBD levies, Demonstration to the farmers and presentations penalties; PPP (Public private partnership) Incentives to the farmers for access to the Legal regulatory framework inputs Sensitization of policy makers especially politicians Resource mobilization 5