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The continual innovation and progression of science and the recreation of life processes will eventually cause a paradigm shift in regards to the uniqueness of life and what should be considered alive.

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  1. 1. By Alexander Beyl
  2. 2. Humans have been trying tounderstand and classify life eversince they had the ability toquestion their surroundings. We now have a betterunderstanding of life with theknowledge of evolutionaryprocesses.The view of life has been continuously changing overtime , and the advances of science seem to be causing areevaluation of life once again.
  3. 3. The continual innovation and progression of science and therecreation of life processes will eventually cause a paradigmshift in regards to the uniqueness of life and what should beconsidered alive.
  4. 4. Many definitions of life exist in multiple areas of study.No definition is officially accepted as the correct definition.Many are incomplete and convoluted.Examples:  “the tendency to individuation”  “a collection of phenomena which succeed each other during a limited time in an organized body”  “the two-fold internal movement of composition and decomposition, at once general and continuous”
  5. 5. Christoph Adami’s work with life’s definition began when NASAasked him to create a biosignature that could be used on thesearch for life on other planets.His idea transcended the confines of organic chemistry andfocused on life processes.
  6. 6. The most usable definition of life is a list of attributes composed byNASA.Attributes:  Complex and organized  Able to take in energy and use it for growth and reproduction  Engaged in homeostasis  Responsive to its surroundings  Able to reproduce
  7. 7. A jellyfish that does not die- Turritopsis nutricula.Single-celled organisms that live in theEarth’s most extreme environments-Archaea.
  8. 8. Viruses act alive when they are replicating, but they do not act alivewhen they are not replicating. Their definite classification has not beendecided.Crystals can act alive when they growand respond to their surroundings.
  9. 9. Allows scientist to alter natural life  Spider Goats- given the genes to produce spider silk.  Doctors could correct genetic errors and prevent diseases and disorders.  Organizations like UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, will become increasingly important to regulate and restrict the inappropriate use of this technology.
  10. 10. After 15 years of research, Craig Venterand his team created cells with geneticcodes written by humans.  The new species is called Mycoplasma mycoides.  It’s the only life form with a computer as a parent.  It has messages written in its genes.  The ability to custom make organisms could lead to more effective vaccines and improved fuels.
  11. 11. Any organism with mechanical or synthetic parts can be considered acyborg.  Advancements of prosthetic technology has led to appendages that function with the body through neural controls.  Stelios Arcadiou, a man with an ear growing from his arm, believes “technology is, and always has been, an appendage of the body”
  12. 12. Some believe man-made life cannot be considered alive because itlacks a soul or consciousness.The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia defines soul as “the vital,immaterial, life principle, generally conceived as existing within humansand sometimes within all living things, inanimate objects, and theuniverse as a whole.”Ideas about the origin of consciousness range from the non-physical tothe interaction of particles in quantum mechanics.Because these are difficult to define and even more difficult to test, theattributes of life should be the only qualification for a living system.
  13. 13. The programs in Christoph Adami’s digital world replicate evolutionnearly perfectly . The system is called AVIDA.Scientists and computer designers have realized thepower and efficiency in the design of the brain.  The pursuit of more complex computers falls under the category of artificial intelligence.  The AAAI defines AI as “the scientific understanding of the mechanism underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines”
  14. 14. In order to understand the brain, Henry Markram downloaded theentire structure of the brain onto a computer.DARPA is funding several companies to develop artificial brainsequivalent to mammalian brains.  IBM is one of the major companies receiving the funding.  The ultimate goal of the project is to create a synthetic brain structure with 10 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses, consuming only one kilowatt of energy.The progress of these projects shows how life’ssystems can be recreated through synthetic means.
  15. 15. As long as we can find benefits in living machines, their eventualexistence will always be a possibility.Although some might be cautious of a robot takeover, machines havealready become intertwined into our society.While life is still important and should be respected, many of life’sprocess have already been replicated by humans.If a machine has all of the attributes of life, then it should beconsidered alive.We may soon have to accept new, synthetic life forms and place themon Earth’s list of living organisms.
  16. 16. Pictures Herd Animals: of Life: on slide 5:’s image: on slide 6:, animals and other eukaryotes on slide 6: organisms on slide 6: nutricula images: Hotspring slide 7: virus on slide 8: virus on slide 8: on slide 8: Goats: Venter: Venter’s cells: prosthetic: Arcadiou: logo: logo: logo: Chip: Robot Image: