Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Systems Architecture Dr Rachel Armstrong Teaching Fellow,  AVATAR  Research Group, The Bartlett School of Architecture
Overview: Definitions <ul><li>Systems Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity Science </li></ul><ul><li>Biogenesis  </li...
Overview: Examples <ul><li>Model Systems  </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility of Complex Material Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Fu...
Overview: Outcomes <ul><li>Systems Architecture and the Built Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Architecture and the E...
What is Systems Architecture? <ul><li>Systems Architecture is the architecture of complexity, inspired by the science of s...
What is Complexity Science? <ul><li>Complexity Science is a model of the world that is based on exploring the connections ...
 
What is Different about Complexity Science? <ul><li>It replaces the Cartesian view of the biological world that assumes sy...
 
What are the Characteristics of Complex Systems? <ul><li>Characterized by Albert Laszlo Barabasi who demonstrated that com...
 
Characteristics of Complex Systems <ul><li>Independent of embodying medium </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to and organize aroun...
 
How does Complexity Science inform Systems Architecture? <ul><li>Systems Architecture embraces interlinking material syste...
What is the Methodology of Systems Architecture? <ul><li>As a methodology systems architecture is cross disciplinary and t...
Systems Architecture in Practice <ul><li>Systems Architecture directly connects the organism to nature and the environment...
Systems Architecture in Practice <ul><li>Systems Architectures are capable of decision making and can evolve </li></ul><ul...
Self-Organizing Matter <ul><li>Characteristic of living systems </li></ul>Primitive Streak, Karl Grimes
Universe as information
“ Life is a fundamental property of the universe” Christian De Deuve
“ Chemistry has this computational nature embedded In it, which it inherited from the underlying computation That’s going ...
&quot;... the Anthropic Principle says that the seemingly  arbitrary and unrelated constants in physics have  one strange ...
Biogenesis and Systems Architecture <ul><li>Biogenesis is the term given to the transition between inert and vital matter ...
Artificial Life and Systems Architecture <ul><li>The discipline of Artificial Life investigates how this ‘transition’ occu...
Artificial Life and Systems Architecture <ul><li>The insights from Artificial Life Sciences are crucial for Systems Archit...
What is Life? <ul><li>No satisfactory definition of life </li></ul>
Does Life Exist? <ul><li>Scientist Andrew Ellington argues that definitions of life do not tell us how to make life from a...
Life As Energy <ul><li>“ Living matter evades the decay to equilibrium” Erwin Schrödinger, 1944 </li></ul>
Life As Information <ul><li>“… the essence of life is information, but information is not synonymous with life. To be aliv...
Life is a Scalar Concept <ul><li>Mark Bedau argues that life is a scalar concept </li></ul>
Embodiment <ul><li>Process by which information is manifest </li></ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully understo...
Origin, Daniel Lee
Creating Living Systems <ul><li>&quot;Creating a cell from scratch is probably at least 10 years away, but it is going to ...
Approaches to Designing Artificial Life <ul><li>Top down approach bases design principles on existing systems e.g. biomime...
Working Definition of Life <ul><li>A working material definition is needed so that the energy and information implicit in ...
Fundamental Living Technology <ul><li>Nanotechnological systems capable of traducing information and coupling energy from ...
Gizmo <ul><li>“ A small self-contained unit of high performance in relation to its size and cost, whose function is to tra...
Biology <ul><li>“ Biology is the Nanotechnology that works” Tom Knight MIT </li></ul>
Definition of Biology <ul><li>The spontaneously occurring terrestrial system of nanotechnology capable of self organizatio...
How did Biogenesis Occur? <ul><li>Two main theories of Origins of Life exist which are both supported by experimental obse...
Experimentation that indulges in the messiness And ambiguity of everyday life …Archigram
RNA World <ul><li>Information First </li></ul><ul><li>RNA World is the theory that chemical information in a particular mo...
 
 
 
Protocells <ul><li>Metabolism First </li></ul><ul><li>Protocells offer a matrix and compartment for more primitive technol...
 
Symbiogenesis <ul><li>Many different kinds of fundamental living technologies existed simultaneously and gave rise to biol...
 
Minimal Life <ul><li>These are working definitions of what scientists are trying to achieve in the laboratory to prove the...
 
Minimal Genome <ul><li>Top down approach </li></ul><ul><li>‘ minimal genome’ </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneering work by J Craig ...
 
Minimal Cell <ul><li>Bottom up approach </li></ul><ul><li>Definition involves three compartments defined by Rasmussen et a...
 
Complex Systems Dogma <ul><li>Alludes to the presupposition that simple lower-level elements can give rise to higher-level...
Artificial Life Form, Karl Sims
Systems Architecture vs. Smart Technologies <ul><li>Smart materials fall into Steen Rasmussen’s definition of  simple lowe...
Origins of Life and Systems Architecture <ul><li>Essentially the Origins of Life Sciences are revealing that seemingly pri...
 
Origins of Life and Systems Architecture <ul><li>The scientific field of Origins of Life and what constitutes it, is hugel...
Systems Architecture: Spectrum of Fundamental Living Technologies <ul><li>Architecture is considered as being separate to,...
Systems Architecture: Spectrum of Fundamental Living Technologies <ul><li>With the advent of biotechnologies the inside an...
Model systems <ul><li>Systems Biology (complexity) </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Biology, the modification of bio nanotechno...
Bacteria
Bacteria can be thought of as a super-organism According to James Shapiro and Martin Dworkin
Powerful inter-cellular communications systems
Bacterial behaviour is coordinated
Billions of organisms can mobilize to a food source
Quorum sensing and easy genetic programming  exploited for the purposes of Bacterial Computing
Diatoms <ul><li>Unicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic algae present in aquatic environments </li></ul>
Diatom Nanotechnology <ul><li>Diatom nanotechnology e.g. biomineralization, biophotonics, photoluminescence, microfluidics...
Importance of Diatoms <ul><li>The first organisms for which the gap in our knowledge of the relationship between genotype ...
 
Slime Mould
“ In the Dallas suburb of Garland, an Unidentified Growing Object [big as a platter, foamy and creamy and pale yellow] ter...
Can move at speeds of up to 2cms per hour
Saprophytic, feed on decaying matter and bacteria
In poor conditions they form spores
 
Green Algae
Bryopsis, is made of a single giant cell of up to 30 cms
‘ Dustbin’ metabolism, can assimilate nano-particles
Tissue Cell Culture <ul><li>Transformed animal cells capable of ‘immortality’ </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on nutrifying mediu...
Orlan <ul><li>Skin is deceiving and capable of taking on multiple identities </li></ul><ul><li>Cells taken from donors of ...
Harlequin Tissue Culture Residency at SymbioticA
Stelarc <ul><li>Obsolescence of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Flesh is ill suited for survival as its physiological range is ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Compatibility Between Complex Material Systems <ul><li>Man with severed thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Charles Vacanti from th...
Fundamental Living Technology <ul><li>Alternative biologies or synthetic chemical systems </li></ul><ul><li>Able to create...
Protocells Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
Spontaneous self organization Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
Morphological simplicity but hugely complex chemistry consisting of numerous phases Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
Capable of complex behaviour, movement and primitive sensation  Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
Giant protocells can divide to produce inert daughter cells Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
Material Computing <ul><li>The ability of molecular systems to make ‘decisions’ </li></ul><ul><li>Context sensitive </li><...
Semantics of Material Computing <ul><li>Problem with semantics of chemical/material systems: what do the results mean? </l...
Outputs of Chemical Computing <ul><li>Growth and Development are forms of material computation, Andrew Ellington </li></ul...
Limitations <ul><li>Scale  </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueous medium  </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Nutrition...
 
Limitations <ul><li>Complex Systems are not predictive </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent Possible, in Reinventing the Sacred, by ...
Decay & Digestion <ul><li>In Systems Architecture these are processes by which it is possible to reconfigure architectural...
Urban Complexity <ul><li>How can the principles of Systems Architecture be applied to the urban environment? </li></ul>
 
 
Systems Architecture and the Built Environment <ul><li>Donna Haraway’s notion of ‘cyborg’ </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of...
 
Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment <ul><li>Beyond our physiological limits the environment has an extreme im...
 
 
 
Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment <ul><li>Systems Architecture becomes prosthetic in extreme environments <...
Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment <ul><li>Complexity has its limits </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity collapses ...
Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment <ul><li>“ Even though biological organisms span many orders of magnitude ...
 
 
 
Systems Architecture Perspectives <ul><li>With each new philosophical shift in the way that we perceive our world, comes a...
Systems Architecture Perspectives <ul><li>In Systems Architecture biology connects with the psyche, communications network...
Systems Architecture Perspectives <ul><li>Systems Architecture anticipates the evolution of autonomous and autopoietic* ar...
Autopoiesis* <ul><li>The process by which an organization produces itself. An autopoietic organization is an autonomous an...
Interdisciplinary Methodology <ul><li>Systems Architecture requires inter disciplinary collaboration between biological co...
Interdisciplinary Methodology <ul><li>Systems Architecture is based in complexity science and takes an experimental approa...
Spillerian Perspective “ Cell biology is the new cyberspace and nanotechnology.  Once we fully understand the exact nature...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

International Bartlett Lecture Final

1,962 views

Published on

Presentation November 2008 on Systems Architecture, the methodological and conceptual background to Living Architecture & Protocell Architecture

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

International Bartlett Lecture Final

  1. 1. Systems Architecture Dr Rachel Armstrong Teaching Fellow, AVATAR Research Group, The Bartlett School of Architecture
  2. 2. Overview: Definitions <ul><li>Systems Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity Science </li></ul><ul><li>Biogenesis </li></ul>Squid Skin with Chromatophores, activated by neural and hormonal mechanisms to perform a signalling function
  3. 3. Overview: Examples <ul><li>Model Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility of Complex Material Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Living Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Material Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous Architecture </li></ul>Robo Roach 2007– can influence the behaviour of organic roaches. Reported in Science by Jose Halloy of the Université Libre de Bruxelles, in Brussels, Belgium
  4. 4. Overview: Outcomes <ul><li>Systems Architecture and the Built Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Architecture Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Inter Disciplinary Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Spillerian Perspective </li></ul>Embryonic Development: an intimate relationship between an architectural system and the environment
  5. 5. What is Systems Architecture? <ul><li>Systems Architecture is the architecture of complexity, inspired by the science of systems biology, which is the scientific study of complex biological systems </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Complexity Science? <ul><li>Complexity Science is a model of the world that is based on exploring the connections between systems in order to characterise them </li></ul>
  7. 8. What is Different about Complexity Science? <ul><li>It replaces the Cartesian view of the biological world that assumes systems are made up of components, which are connected to each other as a secondary phenomenon </li></ul>
  8. 10. What are the Characteristics of Complex Systems? <ul><li>Characterized by Albert Laszlo Barabasi who demonstrated that complex systems shared common features </li></ul>
  9. 12. Characteristics of Complex Systems <ul><li>Independent of embodying medium </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to and organize around ‘hubs’ of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Scalable </li></ul><ul><li>Robust </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit ‘redundancy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Can interconnect through shared ‘hubs’ </li></ul>
  10. 14. How does Complexity Science inform Systems Architecture? <ul><li>Systems Architecture embraces interlinking material systems and networks that are organised around hubs of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Systems architecture is robust, independent of scale and the embodying medium </li></ul>
  11. 15. What is the Methodology of Systems Architecture? <ul><li>As a methodology systems architecture is cross disciplinary and takes the form of an experiment based in complexity science whose outcomes inhabit the realm of the inspirational and surreal rather than following the goal orientated pursuits of science </li></ul>
  12. 16. Systems Architecture in Practice <ul><li>Systems Architecture directly connects the organism to nature and the environment, through its multiple, varied connections beyond the immediate realm, dispensing with traditional dichotomies and </li></ul><ul><li>hierarchies such as </li></ul><ul><li>landscape and city, </li></ul><ul><li>or body and architecture </li></ul>
  13. 17. Systems Architecture in Practice <ul><li>Systems Architectures are capable of decision making and can evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Need to understand the principles of self organizing matter to engage in the design of materials capable of complex interactions </li></ul>
  14. 18. Self-Organizing Matter <ul><li>Characteristic of living systems </li></ul>Primitive Streak, Karl Grimes
  15. 19. Universe as information
  16. 20. “ Life is a fundamental property of the universe” Christian De Deuve
  17. 21. “ Chemistry has this computational nature embedded In it, which it inherited from the underlying computation That’s going on in quantum mechanics in general.” Seth Lloyd
  18. 22. &quot;... the Anthropic Principle says that the seemingly arbitrary and unrelated constants in physics have one strange thing in common, these are precisely the values you need if you want to have a universe capable of producing life.” Patrick Glynn
  19. 23. Biogenesis and Systems Architecture <ul><li>Biogenesis is the term given to the transition between inert and vital matter </li></ul>
  20. 24. Artificial Life and Systems Architecture <ul><li>The discipline of Artificial Life investigates how this ‘transition’ occurs, if there is indeed a transition, between inanimate and vital matter </li></ul>
  21. 25. Artificial Life and Systems Architecture <ul><li>The insights from Artificial Life Sciences are crucial for Systems Architecture as we strive to make a transition from a built environment that is composed of inert materials, to one that is capable of life-like behaviour </li></ul>
  22. 26. What is Life? <ul><li>No satisfactory definition of life </li></ul>
  23. 27. Does Life Exist? <ul><li>Scientist Andrew Ellington argues that definitions of life do not tell us how to make life from an experimental perspective and that trying to define what life ‘is’ does not actually help research objectives </li></ul>
  24. 28. Life As Energy <ul><li>“ Living matter evades the decay to equilibrium” Erwin Schrödinger, 1944 </li></ul>
  25. 29. Life As Information <ul><li>“… the essence of life is information, but information is not synonymous with life. To be alive, a system must not only hold information but process and use it. It is the active use of information, and not the passive storage, that constitutes life.” </li></ul><ul><li>Freeman Dyson </li></ul>
  26. 30. Life is a Scalar Concept <ul><li>Mark Bedau argues that life is a scalar concept </li></ul>
  27. 31. Embodiment <ul><li>Process by which information is manifest </li></ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully understood or characterized </li></ul>In Vivo … In Vitro, Daniel Lee
  28. 32. Origin, Daniel Lee
  29. 33. Creating Living Systems <ul><li>&quot;Creating a cell from scratch is probably at least 10 years away, but it is going to happen. We're in for some very interesting, very profound new ways of thinking about what life is, and about where you draw the boundary between life and non-life.“ Mark Bedau </li></ul>
  30. 34. Approaches to Designing Artificial Life <ul><li>Top down approach bases design principles on existing systems e.g. biomimetics </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom up synthesises new structures from fundamental components </li></ul>
  31. 35. Working Definition of Life <ul><li>A working material definition is needed so that the energy and information implicit in living systems is embodied and also so that scientists know when they have something interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Gives rise to entities recognised as fundamental living technologies </li></ul>
  32. 36. Fundamental Living Technology <ul><li>Nanotechnological systems capable of traducing information and coupling energy from the environment to convert resources into building blocks, grow and divide </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by robustness, autonomy, local intelligence, self-repair, adaptation, and self-replication </li></ul>
  33. 37. Gizmo <ul><li>“ A small self-contained unit of high performance in relation to its size and cost, whose function is to transform some undifferentiated set of circumstances to a condition nearer to human desires.” Reyner Banham </li></ul>
  34. 38. Biology <ul><li>“ Biology is the Nanotechnology that works” Tom Knight MIT </li></ul>
  35. 39. Definition of Biology <ul><li>The spontaneously occurring terrestrial system of nanotechnology capable of self organization and replication that arose out of fundamental living technologies generated </li></ul><ul><li>during the Hadean period </li></ul><ul><li>Probably happened </li></ul><ul><li>many times </li></ul>
  36. 40. How did Biogenesis Occur? <ul><li>Two main theories of Origins of Life exist which are both supported by experimental observation </li></ul>
  37. 41. Experimentation that indulges in the messiness And ambiguity of everyday life …Archigram
  38. 42. RNA World <ul><li>Information First </li></ul><ul><li>RNA World is the theory that chemical information in a particular molecule like RNA which was able to speed up its own production created the driving force behind organised protein synthesis and metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Gilbert 1986, Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman won Nobel Prize for RNA experiments </li></ul>
  39. 46. Protocells <ul><li>Metabolism First </li></ul><ul><li>Protocells offer a matrix and compartment for more primitive technologies to assimilate and concentrate. RNA may have been taken up into the matrix later </li></ul><ul><li>First described by Oparin 1924 </li></ul>
  40. 48. Symbiogenesis <ul><li>Many different kinds of fundamental living technologies existed simultaneously and gave rise to biological forms through cooperative strategies and alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Konstantin Mereschkowsky 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>Freeman Dyson 1980s </li></ul>
  41. 50. Minimal Life <ul><li>These are working definitions of what scientists are trying to achieve in the laboratory to prove their hypothesis about how biotic materials become organized in such a way they exhibit characteristics associated with living systems </li></ul>
  42. 52. Minimal Genome <ul><li>Top down approach </li></ul><ul><li>‘ minimal genome’ </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneering work by J Craig Venter </li></ul><ul><li>First synthetic genome </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasma Laborotorium </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Golem’ sequence created ‘in vivo’ and awaits animation in a host </li></ul>
  43. 54. Minimal Cell <ul><li>Bottom up approach </li></ul><ul><li>Definition involves three compartments defined by Rasmussen et al. </li></ul><ul><li>Container </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Results anticipated in the next 10 years </li></ul>
  44. 56. Complex Systems Dogma <ul><li>Alludes to the presupposition that simple lower-level elements can give rise to higher-level dynamical structures </li></ul><ul><li>Steen Rasmussen highlights the shortcomings of such a dogma, claiming that higher-level dynamical structures can only be obtained through forming more complex lower-level structures </li></ul>
  45. 57. Artificial Life Form, Karl Sims
  46. 58. Systems Architecture vs. Smart Technologies <ul><li>Smart materials fall into Steen Rasmussen’s definition of simple lower-level elements as they are reflexive </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Architecture employs complex biological systems and fundamental living technologies that constitute Rasmussen’s notion of complex lower-level structures </li></ul>
  47. 59. Origins of Life and Systems Architecture <ul><li>Essentially the Origins of Life Sciences are revealing that seemingly primitive chemical systems are capable of great complexity and synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>In other words. Terrestrial materials are rather special and interesting as many of them are not inert </li></ul>
  48. 61. Origins of Life and Systems Architecture <ul><li>The scientific field of Origins of Life and what constitutes it, is hugely significant for architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally architecture has been made of out inert matter </li></ul>
  49. 62. Systems Architecture: Spectrum of Fundamental Living Technologies <ul><li>Architecture is considered as being separate to, or outside of the organism and an adornment of the environment, not as part of it </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture has occupied the realm of artifice </li></ul>
  50. 63. Systems Architecture: Spectrum of Fundamental Living Technologies <ul><li>With the advent of biotechnologies the inside and outside of an organism has collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Architecture can be thought of as part of a continuum of evolving, self organizing systems providing it is made of the ‘right’ kind of materials </li></ul>
  51. 64. Model systems <ul><li>Systems Biology (complexity) </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Biology, the modification of bio nanotechnology to generate novel biological functions and systems </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Living Technologies </li></ul>Drosophila Melanogaster, the World’s most interfered with Organism … probably
  52. 65. Bacteria
  53. 66. Bacteria can be thought of as a super-organism According to James Shapiro and Martin Dworkin
  54. 67. Powerful inter-cellular communications systems
  55. 68. Bacterial behaviour is coordinated
  56. 69. Billions of organisms can mobilize to a food source
  57. 70. Quorum sensing and easy genetic programming exploited for the purposes of Bacterial Computing
  58. 71. Diatoms <ul><li>Unicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic algae present in aquatic environments </li></ul>
  59. 72. Diatom Nanotechnology <ul><li>Diatom nanotechnology e.g. biomineralization, biophotonics, photoluminescence, microfluidics, compustat domestication, multiscale porosity, silica sequestering of proteins, detection of trace gases, controlled drug delivery and computer design </li></ul>
  60. 73. Importance of Diatoms <ul><li>The first organisms for which the gap in our knowledge of the relationship between genotype and phenotype is closed </li></ul>
  61. 75. Slime Mould
  62. 76. “ In the Dallas suburb of Garland, an Unidentified Growing Object [big as a platter, foamy and creamy and pale yellow] terrorized Mrs Marie Harris’ back yard for three weeks until it died of sunstroke and nicotine poisoning.” Newsweek, June 11, 1973
  63. 77. Can move at speeds of up to 2cms per hour
  64. 78. Saprophytic, feed on decaying matter and bacteria
  65. 79. In poor conditions they form spores
  66. 81. Green Algae
  67. 82. Bryopsis, is made of a single giant cell of up to 30 cms
  68. 83. ‘ Dustbin’ metabolism, can assimilate nano-particles
  69. 84. Tissue Cell Culture <ul><li>Transformed animal cells capable of ‘immortality’ </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on nutrifying medium for continued growth </li></ul><ul><li>In vitro cultures are very susceptible to bacterial infection </li></ul>SymbioticA, Victimless Leather
  70. 85. Orlan <ul><li>Skin is deceiving and capable of taking on multiple identities </li></ul><ul><li>Cells taken from donors of many ages and races in a collaboration with SymbioticA </li></ul>Cosmetic surgery as a form of auto-portraiture, in defiance of God and nature
  71. 86. Harlequin Tissue Culture Residency at SymbioticA
  72. 87. Stelarc <ul><li>Obsolescence of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Flesh is ill suited for survival as its physiological range is narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies augment and replace the body and psyche </li></ul>
  73. 95. Compatibility Between Complex Material Systems <ul><li>Man with severed thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Charles Vacanti from the University of Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Coral acts as bioscaffolding for patient bone cell culture </li></ul>Coral shaped to look like a thumb
  74. 96. Fundamental Living Technology <ul><li>Alternative biologies or synthetic chemical systems </li></ul><ul><li>Able to create functional nanotechnology capable of producing autonomous architectures </li></ul>Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
  75. 97. Protocells Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
  76. 98. Spontaneous self organization Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
  77. 99. Morphological simplicity but hugely complex chemistry consisting of numerous phases Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
  78. 100. Capable of complex behaviour, movement and primitive sensation Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
  79. 101. Giant protocells can divide to produce inert daughter cells Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
  80. 102. Material Computing <ul><li>The ability of molecular systems to make ‘decisions’ </li></ul><ul><li>Context sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Problems need to be well defined </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple solutions </li></ul>The Protein Albumin Denaturing
  81. 103. Semantics of Material Computing <ul><li>Problem with semantics of chemical/material systems: what do the results mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Not Turing based </li></ul>Interference patterns during protocell generation Photograph courtesy of Martin Hanczyc
  82. 104. Outputs of Chemical Computing <ul><li>Growth and Development are forms of material computation, Andrew Ellington </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture interprets the semantics of form independently of function </li></ul>Alba, The GFP Bunny, Eduardo Kac
  83. 105. Limitations <ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueous medium </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Physical limits of carbon chemistry </li></ul>
  84. 107. Limitations <ul><li>Complex Systems are not predictive </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent Possible, in Reinventing the Sacred, by Stuart Kauffman </li></ul>Tightrope walk between Twin Towers Philippe Petit, 1974
  85. 108. Decay & Digestion <ul><li>In Systems Architecture these are processes by which it is possible to reconfigure architectural complexity and achieve structural transformation </li></ul>Detritus
  86. 109. Urban Complexity <ul><li>How can the principles of Systems Architecture be applied to the urban environment? </li></ul>
  87. 112. Systems Architecture and the Built Environment <ul><li>Donna Haraway’s notion of ‘cyborg’ </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of nano-bio-info-cogno systems with built environment </li></ul>Bjork, All is full of love, Director Chris Cunningham
  88. 114. Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment <ul><li>Beyond our physiological limits the environment has an extreme impact on biology </li></ul>Sarah Jane Pell, Hydromedusa
  89. 118. Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment <ul><li>Systems Architecture becomes prosthetic in extreme environments </li></ul>
  90. 119. Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment <ul><li>Complexity has its limits </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity collapses when there is only one hub that out competes all the others, when it becomes ‘simple’ </li></ul>
  91. 120. Systems Architecture and the Extreme Environment <ul><li>“ Even though biological organisms span many orders of magnitude in size, their metabolic rates all lie within a single factor of ten. So there does seem to be some kind of broadly optimal rate of energy consumption in our biosphere. Curious. I wonder if it's related to the rate of arrival of solar energy, and planets around different suns, or in different orbits, would have different optimal metabolic rates.” Larry Yaeger </li></ul>
  92. 124. Systems Architecture Perspectives <ul><li>With each new philosophical shift in the way that we perceive our world, comes a fresh opportunity to use the science and associated technologies </li></ul><ul><li>in innovative ways </li></ul>
  93. 125. Systems Architecture Perspectives <ul><li>In Systems Architecture biology connects with the psyche, communications networks, landscape, environment, population dynamics and information systems in an integrated gestalt of flow, like a giant </li></ul><ul><li>super-organism </li></ul>
  94. 126. Systems Architecture Perspectives <ul><li>Systems Architecture anticipates the evolution of autonomous and autopoietic* architectures </li></ul>
  95. 127. Autopoiesis* <ul><li>The process by which an organization produces itself. An autopoietic organization is an autonomous and self-maintaining unity which contains component-producing processes. </li></ul><ul><li>The components, through their interaction, recursively generate the same network of processes which produced them. </li></ul><ul><li>An autopoietic system is operationally closed and structurally state determined with no apparent inputs and outputs. </li></ul><ul><li>A cell, an organism, and perhaps a corporation are examples of autopoietic systems. </li></ul>
  96. 128. Interdisciplinary Methodology <ul><li>Systems Architecture requires inter disciplinary collaboration between biological complexity scientists, fundamental living technologists and architects to explore this new territory </li></ul>
  97. 129. Interdisciplinary Methodology <ul><li>Systems Architecture is based in complexity science and takes an experimental approach to architectural practice, resulting in design outcomes </li></ul>
  98. 130. Spillerian Perspective “ Cell biology is the new cyberspace and nanotechnology. Once we fully understand the exact nature of how our world makes us and, indeed, how it sometimes kills us, we will be able to make true architectures of ecological connectability.” Spiller’s Bits: Complex Systems Architecture, 2008

×