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PTSD- Aastha Bhat, Group 24.pptx

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PTSD- Aastha Bhat, Group 24.pptx

  1. 1. Post traumatic stress disorder By Aastha Bhat, Group 9624Ma, IV course (Medicine); Dr. Natalia
  2. 2. Definition PTSD is a pathological anxiety that usually occurs after an individual experiences or witnesses severe trauma that constitutes a threat to the physical integrity or life of the individual or of another person It is a debilitating psychological condition trigged by a traumatic event, such as rape, war, a terrorist act, sudden or violent death of a loved one, natural disaster, or catastrophic accident
  3. 3. Traumas leading to PTSD include,  War  Natural disasters  Car or plane crash  Terrorist attack  Childhood neglect  Kidnapping  Assault  Rape  Physical abuse  Sudden death of a loved one  Sexual abuse
  4. 4. Signs and symptoms  Symptoms of PTSD: Re-experiencing the traumatic event  Intrusive, upsetting memories of event  Flashbacks  Nightmares  Feelings of intense distress, when reminded of trauma  Intense physical reactions, as reminders of event (pounding heart, rapid breathing, nausea, muscle tension, sweating)
  5. 5. Signs and symptoms Symptoms of PTSD: Avoidance and numbing  Avoiding activities, places, thoughts, or feelings that remind the trauma  Inability to remember important aspects of the trauma  Loss of interest in activities and life in general  Feeling detached from others and emotionally numb  Sense of a limited future (you don’t expect to live a normal life span, get married, have a career)
  6. 6. Signs and Symptoms Symptoms of PTSD: Increased anxiety and emotional arousal  Difficulty falling or staying asleep  Irritability or outbursts of anger  Difficulty concentrating  Hypervigilance (on constant “red alert”)  Feeling jumpy and easily startled
  7. 7. Other common symptoms  Anger and irritability  Guilt, shame or self blame  Substance abuse  Feelings of mistrust  Depression and hopelessness  Suicidal thoughts and feelings  Feeling alienated and alone  Physical aches and pains
  8. 8. Diagnostic criteria
  9. 9. DSM-5 Criteria for PTSD Criterion A: Stressor  You directly experienced the event.  You witnessed the event happen to someone else, in person.  You learned of a close relative or close friend who experienced an actual or threatened accidental or violent death.  You had repeated indirect exposure to distressing details of the event Criterion B: Intrusion  Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive memories  Traumatic nightmares or upsetting dreams with content related to the event  Dissociative reactions, such as flashbacks, in which it feels like the experience is happening again.  Intense or prolonged distress  increased heart rate Criterion C: Avoidance Persistent effortful avoidance of distressing trauma-related reminders after the event as evidenced by the following:  Avoidance of trauma- related thoughts or feelings.  Avoidance of trauma- related external reminders, such as people, places, conversations, activities, objects, or situations.
  10. 10. DSM-5 Criteria for PTSD Criterion D: Neg mood alterations  Inability to recall key features of the traumatic event  distorted negative beliefs and expectations about oneself or the world  distorted blame of self or others for causing the traumatic event  Feeling alienated, detached or estranged from others.  inability to experience positive emotions, such as happiness, love, and joy. Criterion E: Alterations in arousal and reactivity  Irritable or aggressive behavior  Self-destructive or reckless behavior  Feeling constantly "on guard" or like danger is lurking around every corner (hypervigilance)  Exaggerated startle response  Problems in concentration  Sleep disturbance Criterion F: Functional significance  Significant symptom-related distress or impairment of different areas of life, such as social or occupational.
  11. 11. DSM-5 Criteria for PTSD  The disturbance is not due to medication, substance use, or other illness. Criterion H: Exclusion Criterion G: Duration  Persistence of symptoms in Criteria B, C, D, and E for more than one month.
  12. 12. Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy 2. PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENT It involves carefully and gradually “exposing” yourself to thoughts, feelings, and situations that remind you of the trauma Exposure therapy It involves gradually facing the thoughts and memories of traumatic event or situations (places where the event occurred) that make one anxious. Done by using imaging techniques or by actually returning to the place where one had an accident. Cognitive restructuring therapy It involves identifying irrational patterns of thought, feeling and behavior that emerges after a traumatic event. It replaces dysfunctional thoughts with realistic and helpful ones. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing The patient is asked to concentrate on an image connected to the traumatic event and the related negative emotions, sensations and thoughts Patient is encouraged to let go of the memories and discuss the images and emotions he experienced during the eye movements Group psychotherapy Telling one’s story (the “trauma narrative”) and directly facing the grief, anxiety and guilt related to trauma enables many survivors to go on with their lives rather than getting stuck in unspoken despair and helplessness. TREATMENT 1. PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT  Anti-depressants SSRIs- Sertraline, Fluoxetine; TCAs- Imipremine  Anti-anxiety drugs Lorazepam
  13. 13. Self help in PTSD  PTSD self-help tip 1: Reach out to others for support  PTSD self-help tip 2: Avoid alcohol and drugs  PTSD self-help tip 3: Challenge your sense of helplessness
  14. 14. Thank you AASTHA BHAT

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