IMPROVINGHOUSING ASSISTANCECommunity Building and Shared ResponsibilityEduardo StaszowskiDesis Lab | Parsons The New School for Design | NYCLocal Public DesignDesign to Reshape Local Public Policies20 September 2012Tourcoing, France
4HOW MIGHT WE…?Structural holes…develop design strategies to bridge information gaps and narrowareas of disconnection within a social setting, where neededinformation is not shared due to structural limitations?Tacit knowledge…make use of participatory design methods to observe and engagecitizens in order to reveal the subjective knowledge of individuals andcommunities?Heterarchies…flatten hierarchy by creating collaborative networks that generatemore opportunities for heterogeneous collaboration? Source: Srinivas, N. and Staszowski E.
5Course: IDC Interface | Home Services | Fall 10 | Students: Micah Spears, Rachel Happ and Chantelle Fuoco
6WHAT IF……public services could be designed to trigger, orient,support, and scale promising cases of bottom-up socialinnovation?…promising social innovations could then becomepowerful and positive drivers of public innovation?
8NYC HOUSING YESTERDAYDuring the 1970’s and 1980’s, neighborhoods across New YorkCity experienced wholesale blight and abandonment and the Citybecame NYC’s largest landlord, taking ownership of over 100,000units of in rem properties. Photo: Teresa Zabala/The New York Times
9NYC HOUSING YESTERDAYBy the late 1990’s, New York City experienced a renaissancebringing many neighborhoods back from the brink. Source: HPD Photo Archive
10NYC HOUSING TODAYNew York City has had an overall net vacancy rental rate of lessthan 5% since 1974—the legal definition of a housing emergency.As shown below, vacancy rates among low cost units continue tobe significantly below this threshold, while the luxury sector hasconsistently experienced health vacancy rates above 5%. * Rent levels represent monthly contract rent in real 2008 dollars; Source: 2002, 2005, 2008 Housing and Vacancy Survey (U. S. Census Bureau)
11NYC HOUSING TODAYAs the city prospered through the early 2000’s, the stock of in remhousing diminished to less than 1,000 properties midway throughthe decade. As such, the city had to seek new land, stock andfinancing strategies to leverage the market and expand theaffordable housing stock. Source: HPD Performance Metrics Represents total unit count in Occupied and Vacant buildings in the DPM Workload
12BUT WHAT ISAFFORDABLE HOUSING? Source: Center for Urban Pedagogy (h6p://envisioningdevelopment.net/aﬀordable‐housing)
13AFFORDABLE HOUSING“It’s housing that families in certain income categories canoccupy for 30% or less of their income.”But, rent burden is not evenly distributed across income categories.50% of New York City residents pay more than 30% of their incomein rent and 30% pay more than 50% of their income in rent.This government definition determines which families are eligibleto benefit from different affordable housing programs according todifferent income categories and …“30% of $1 million is very different from 30% of $20,000!” Source: Center for Urban Pedagogy and HPD.
14Source: Center for Urban Pedagogy (h6p://envisioningdevelopment.net/aﬀordable‐housing)
15Source: Center for Urban Pedagogy (h6p://envisioningdevelopment.net/aﬀordable‐housing)
17NYC HPD - MISSIONToday, the Department of Housing Preservation and Development(HPD) is the largest municipal developer of affordable housing inthe nation.Quality: HPD code inspectors respond to complaints regarding housingconditions, such as the availability of heat and hot water.Availability: In 2004, HPD launched the New Housing Marketplace Plan, themost extensive affordable housing development plan in the country to create orpreserve 165,000 units of affordable housing.Affordability: HPD administers the country’s fourth largest Section 8 HousingChoice Voucher program to provide a rental subsidy to over 32,000 low incomehouseholds.
18OUR PROJECTWith the support of the Rockefeller Foundation’s CulturalInnovation Fund 2012, Public and Collaborative: DesigningServices for Housing is a 2-year initiative the NYC Departmentof Housing Preservation & Development (HPD) and the PublicPolicy Lab (PPL) to explore innovative ways to improveservices related to city-supported affordable housingdevelopment and preservation.http://nyc.pubcollab.org Source: Center for Urban Pedagogy and HPD.
19 PROJECT STRUCTURE 1. Design | 2. Pilot | 3. EvaluateFellowships: How-to-Guide and Pilots ImplementationAcademic work: Courses, Papers and DissertationsKnowledge Sharing Platform: How-to-Guide, Open Lectures and Un-conference (Year 2)
20 NYC HPD - CHALLENGES The crash in the market in late 2008 changed the landscape of affordable housing: 2004-2008 2008-TodayChallenges • Rising rents and sales prices • Financial distress in multi-family stock • Displacement of tenants • Diminishing availability and increased cost of • Increasing levels of market rate credit development • Falling private investment • Diminishing availability of land • Rising foreclosures • Increasing signs of physical deteriorationOpportunities/Tools • Cross-subsidizing mixed income • Reclaiming formerly assisted stock housing • Preserving existing stock • Inclusionary zoning • Investing in new communities • Rezoning under-utilized land Source: HPD
21HOUSING/ECONOMIC CRISIS More foreclosures Lower Quality of Residential and Economic Life in Less Homeowners LMI Communities Lower Property Less local retail and Maintenance employment Potential More Crime Abandonment Source: George Galster (Wayne State University) | “After the Crisis: Housing Policy and Finance in the US and UK” Conference. The New School (9/14/12)
22DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES1. The housing market in New York is extremely complex to navigate especially in the field of affordable housing. Going through the many government programs and services can be a serious challenge, even for housing and development professionals and community organizations.2. The creation of resident-based services and collaborative efforts of residents living in the buildings with investments leveraged by HPD could have a transformative impact in underserved neighborhoods promoting social and economic integration and contributing to the overall success and preservation of the investment.
23OUR HYPOTHESISInnovative networkscan be activatedwhen government,tenants, landlords,developers andcommunity groupsbecome partners indesigning andproviding servicesfor affordablehousing. Source: The Young Foundation/NESTA (2007)
24Services and the City | Spring 12 | Faculty: Lara Penin | Students: Judit Boros, Matteo D’Amanzo, Harriette Kim and Molly Oberholtzer
25Public and Collaborative Services | Spring 12 | Faculty: Ezio Manzini and Eduardo Staszowski | Students: Janet Lorbberecht, Nelson Lo and Jennifer Meyer
26OUR DESIGN SCENARIOFROM BUILDINGS TO COMMUNITIES:A vision of how HPD might evolve to meet new realities and challenges• A series of complimentaryinnovations proposed acrossthe arc of the HPD’s services• Builds on HPD’s history ofsuccessful collaboration withprivate developers andcommunity partners• Illustrates the mutual benefitof increased participation inHPD’s services for both theagency and its constituents
27PILOT PROPOSALS1. Development of targeted local marketing strategies that improve eligibility among communities of greatest need.2. Integration of social media as a platform for efficient customer service and supportive community-networking before, during, and after lease-up.3. Affordable housing kiosks or “street teams” that activate local networks and connect with potential applicants not reached by other marketing channels. Kiosk
28PILOT PROPOSALS4. Toolkit that provides information, increases transparency, and aligns expectations for affordable housing applicants and those who assist them.5. Tools, training, and support for community partners or “sherpas” who assist with marketing and guide housing seekers through the application process. Applicant Toolkit
29PRELIMINARY REFLECTIONS1. Co-production: reform vs. devolvement2. Right for experimentation: a call for space3. Whose voice gets represented4. Role of design
30DESIGN ROLE 11. Understand the challenges of service delivery to current and potential users;2. Enable residents’ involvement in the design and delivery of local services;3. Generate ideas, rapidly prototype and test proposed solutions to gain insight into what works and what doesn’t;4. Facilitate strategic conversations among stakeholders.
31DESIGN ROLE 21. Process Facilitator: generate a dialogue with the community, observe local level practices and knowledge sharing, promote networks and synergies among citizens and other stakeholders2. Information and Cross-Cultural Broker: inform the community, translate and visualize complex ideas;3. Input Gatherer: map and collect information on local level practices;4. Visioning Catalyst: design scenarios of social innovation and prototype ideas. Source: Staszowski E. (2011).
Merci! email@example.com http://desis.parsons.edu @desisparsons The views expressed in this presentaLon do not necessarily reﬂect the oﬃcial posiLons or policies of HPD or the City of New York