"Beginners' Manual on Islam" (3) -Appendix 5 To Pg 155


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"Beginners' Manual on Islam" (3) -Appendix 5 To Pg 155

  1. 1. APPENDIX VI ISLAM: TAUHIIID, EDUCATION AND WAY OF LIFE BISMILLAH-HIR-RAH-MAA-NIR-RAHIIM • The term ‘Tauhiid’- what is the significance. • Historical perspective of Tauhiid and Islam. • Contextual meaning and explanation of concept. • Education - the moulding of man. • Way of Life - as Muslims in one Ummah. INTRODUCTION Every thinking individual will have to address in himself certain fundamental questions about his existence; who is he? why is he here? what is this existence all about? where is he going to? In short, the ability for man to think and ponder necessitates him to search for a meaning or raison d’être to his life. The meaning which is not confined just simply to the needs of food, shelter and procreation but extends further and becomes the central basis for his every action, his very life. ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF TAUHIID The most profound meaning to this life, which is In fact the universal truth, Is in the concept of the Oneness of God referred to in the Arabic term ‘Tauhiid’. The recognition of which started with the history of man itself, propounded and reasserted throughout the ages by the prophets and messengers of God, until it blossomed and bloomed and established ‘Al-Islam’ as a perfect way of life (Ad-Deen al-Kaamil) by the Last Messenger of God, Muhammad s.a.w. Tauhiid is the very essence, the lifeblood and living force of the religion of Islam. It is the basis from which the rest of its teaching springs forth. It was inculcated Beginners' Manual on Islam 139
  2. 2. from the beginning of the first thirteen years in the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.’s early mission, and was the living force to the successes of the Muslims, until its culmination into perfection and completion. (Q:Al-Maa’ida: 4) This day are those who disbelieve, In despair of (ever harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you AL-ISLAM as your religion. The whole message of this concept, from which Islam is founded, is simply but concisely expressed In the Kalimah: LAA-ILAA-HA- IL-LALLAAH There is no god except Allah Tauhiid is the belief In the Absolute Oneness of God, Who is the Creator, Preserver, Sustainer and Nourisher of all creations. Allah (pronoun for God in Arabic) is Unique and only One. There is no other god except Allah. He does not have partners nor does He share His Divinity with anyone or anything. He Alone is Lord and Master of the Universe and all that is contained in it are His. Nothing moves without His Knowledge and His permission. He is the source of all existence. He has created man and has appointed for each human being a fixed period of life in this world. He has given man organs and faculties, and has created the earth and all other things for man. Through His messengers and prophets, He revealed the knowledge of Himself, and the purpose of man’s creation. To help mankind to achieve that purpose, He prescribes a certain code for living which is the correct way of life. - a code of life which is practical and achievable, in harmony with the Reality. Allah has also given man freewill or choice as to whether or not to adopt this code as the actual basis of his life. With this freewill, man shall be responsible for the choice he made. And all the messengers of Allah have forewarned mankind of the Beginners' Manual on Islam 140
  3. 3. Day of Requital and has repeatedly reminded man of the ultimate destination of this life in the Hereafter. It is not enough for a person to say that he believes in One God. Many idolaters will tell you that they actually believe there is only one supreme God. Yet they take on other things as gods. Islam teaches that in Tauhiid, believing in the Oneness of Allah, a person must not only acknowledge the fact that the Creator, Allah is One, but also that it is Allah alone that deserves to be worshipped and served. And he has to show and express this belief in his deeds and words, throughout his life. In Islam, worship or serving Allah is called ‘IBADAH’ and has a wide meaning. It is not restricted only to rituals of prayers and devotions but includes every aspect of our life. Therefore a believer’s life is an acknowledgement of his belief that he worships none except Allah and shows it by obedience to the Laws given by Allah. A Muslim strives to do all that, which Allah has commanded and refrain from all that, which Allah has forbidden; by following the complete code of life that was brought and established by the Last and Final Messenger of Allah, Muhammad Ibnu ‘Abdillah s.a.w. Thus the subsequent Kalimah follows the Kalimah of Tauhiid: MUHAM-MADUR -RA-SUU-LULLAH Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah Therefore the concept of Tauhiid is the essence of the teaching of Islam which motivates a Muslim to strive towards becoming a true Muslim. With this concept of Tauhiid, it develops the Muslim towards a higher level of consciousness, righteousness and piety - in his relationship with Allah and the rest of creation - as the servant and representative of Allah on this earth. Beginners' Manual on Islam 141
  4. 4. To implement Tauhiid (the attestation in the Oneness of Allah), there are three important aspects that have to be realised and established, as taught by the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (1) Aspect of Practice - ‘Amal’ which constitute obedience and submission -‘Islam’ (2) Aspect of Belief and Conviction - ‘Iiman’ (3) Aspect of Righteousness and Best Conduct –‘ Ihsan’ All three constitute the aspects that every Muslim should fulfil. One without the other is insufficient to truly realise the concept of attesting to the oneness of Allah. For there cannot be obedience without faith; and faith without obedience is meaningless; and faith and obedience must lead to best and righteous conduct of a Muslim who truly submits to the will of Allah. And those who believed and worked righteousness will be admitted to Gardens beneath which rivers f low, - To dwell therein forever with the permission of their Lord. Their greeting therein will be: “Peace!” Seest thou not how Allah sets forth a parable? - A goodly tree, whose root is firmly fixed, and its branches reaching into heaven, giving its fruit at every season by permission of its Lord. So Allah sets forth parables for men, in order that they may reflect. (Q: Ibrahim: 23-24) CONCEPT OF EDUCATION Islam as ‘Ad-Deen’ i.e. a complete way of life, encompasses a total system and does not recognise any form of separation or dichotomy between what Is secular and what Is religious; between the material and the spiritual, between the intellectual and moral. It stresses the need to the moulding of a complete man, and provides the balanced system based upon the concept Beginners' Manual on Islam 142
  5. 5. of Tauhiid. Unifying every aspect of his life under the concept of attesting to the Oneness of Allah. Therefore, especially with regard to education, Islam’s philosophy is unique and unsurpassed. Whereas in the past experience of the other religions where intellectual progress was only possible by ‘secularism’, Islam’s success as the torch bearer of knowledge and civilization was because of the adherence of the Muslims to this total system of life. The main reason for the decline of the Muslims was when they begin to separate the wholesome teachings of Islam as a complete way and adopt the secularistic thinking. To do justice, it actually requires a much lengthier discourse on the subject specifically, but allow me to briefly summarise the approach of education just from the earlier mentioned three aspects that are necessary in Tauhiid - to show that stemming from this concept, Islam’s philosophy of education is rooted. (See also my * ADDENDUM: the Education of a Muslim) Iiman (Faith/Conviction) ‘Iiman’, which is usually translated as faith, does not mean blind acceptance without a corresponding intellectual discernment. Islam stresses very much upon man’s proper use of the gift of reason. But it does not encourage a purely intellectual acquisition devoid of any spiritual fulfilment or conviction. Rather, from the knowledge of certainty based on the revelation (Tauqifiiyah), we are required to confirm them with our faculties, especially that of intellectual reasoning and by observing the signs and wonders of the whole creation until it develops into conviction. It is a gradual process of reinforcing ones awareness and belief and the Muslims are required to strive to strengthen this by acquiring all other knowledge. Thus the main subject which becomes necessary in the education of every Muslim is ‘Usuulud- din’- the basis of the Deen, especially Aqa’iid (theology), and the other important knowledge which becomes relevant, Beginners' Manual on Islam 143
  6. 6. complementary and important are for example Astronomy, Geology, Anthropology, History, Biology, Natural Sciences. . etc. Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the alternation of night and day - There are Signs for men of understanding, - Such as remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth, (and say): “Our Lord! Thou createdst not this in vain. Glory be to Thee! Preserve us from the doom of the Fire.” (Q: Al-Imran :190—191) Amal (Practice) From the understanding of the Hadith from the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w., we learn about the nature of Iiman, thus: “Iiman is to be convinced in your heart (mind), and to express it in words and to manifest It in practice (‘amal)” (Reported by Muslim) For man, ultimately, to function in accordance with his true nature, i.e. to become what he was created to be i.e. in the service of his Creator is the most sensible. The Creator, Who had prescribed the Way for man enjoins him to adopt the path of Submission and Obedience (Al-Islam). Thus in a Muslim, Iiman must correspond and be manifested with ‘amal. Practice, for a Muslim is for a specific purpose - that of serving our Maker. Stemming from the concept of Unity of God, we see this vast creation as one whole in which man has been accorded with a special position and with it the responsibility as Allah’s vicegerent on earth. This ‘Amanah (Trust) is to be carried out in the best possible manner, guided by the whole teachings left behind by Allah’s Final Messenger Muhammad s.a.w. Thus we see the growth of an outstanding world civilization spearheaded Beginners' Manual on Islam 144
  7. 7. by the Muslims when they held fast to this concept, that has benefited all mankind. Alas, the world today is faced with so much turmoil because this Trust is betrayed. Man who does not adhere to the concept of Tauhiid, is experimenting with other ways with disastrous result - whereas the panacea for them is still to be found in the pristine teachings of Islam. Mischief has appeared on land and sea because of (the meed) that the hands of men have earned, that Allah may give them a taste of some of their deeds: in order that they may turn back (from Evil). (Q: Rum: 41) So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the Faith: Establish Allah’s handiwork according to the pattern of which He has made mankind - no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by Allah: that is the W standard Religion: but most amongst mankind understand not. (Q: Rum: 30) Thus in ‘Amal, the important subject is the knowledge or rather understanding (Fiqh) of the “Shari’ah” (lit, the Way) - which encompasses personal duties of Muslims; matters of family law; aspects pertaining to economic and social transactions; law for the establishment of order in society; distribution and utilization of wealth; administration of justice and government; international law. etc. The other knowledge, which is complementary thus then becomes relevant and necessary, are all contemporary applied sciences and skills such as accountancy, medical sciences, environmental and physical sciences.... etc. Ihsan (Best or Righteous Conduct) As stated earlier, the Tauhiidal approach in education is towards the moulding of a complete man. Basically Islam stresses the potential goodness in the nature of man - “created in the best Beginners' Manual on Islam 145
  8. 8. of mould.” It also stresses the need for man to aspire towards perfection, If not he will be debased to become the lowest of the low. Thus having a certain conviction and establishing good upon the face of this world itself would be superfluous if the disposition (akhlaq) of man is not at the same time elevated. The western world today is a paradox in that although the western man has the technology towards conquering the outer space, he has not been able to conquer his passion and beastly desires. So much material advancement has been made and yet their world is faced with moral decay. Western man is covered with so much material comforts and yet his inner self is in turmoil, lacking that inner peace and tranquillity. All of which indicate the shortcomings of their (western model) approach in education. Thus the aspect of Ihsan which is the third component of Tauhiid is primarily concern with the refinement of the disposition of man, dealing with the attitude and inner awareness of man. The Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. has stated: “Al-Ihsan (righteousness and best conduct) is that you serve (worship) Allah as though you are seeing Him. Even though if you don’t see Him, (yet you are convinced that) He sees you” (Hadith reported by Bukhary & Muslim) Thus the branch of knowledge prescribed in the concept of education in Islam is “Al-‘Ilm al-Akhlaq” - the science of the Disposition of Man (Knowledge of the Self). Sometimes it is referred to as Tasawwuf or Irfan, which apply methods for development which emphasise inner purification and moral/ spiritual attainment. This aspect of development is all to be based upon the perfect model In the Holy Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad s.a.w.) a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Beginners' Manual on Islam 146
  9. 9. Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the remembrance of Allah. (Q: Ahzab: 21) And thou (Muhammad) standest on an exalted standard of character. (Q: Qalam: 4) Thus as can be seen, the system of education founded upon the concept of Tauhiid is the most profound, most excellent to produce the best of mankind. It is complete and balanced for it is based upon Divine Guidance and modelled after the Messenger of Allah, and that period in the history of mankind which produced that Unique Qur’anic generation- the “Khay-ra- Ummah” (best community). (Say: Our life takes its) colour from Allah! And who could give a better colour (to life) than Allah? And it is He (alone) Whom we worship. (Q: Baqarah: 138) WAY OF LIFE As Muslims, our way of life is one i.e. Al-Islam. We all belong to that single Universal Brotherhood of Islam, consisting of different and varied people united and bound by At-Tauhiid. It is that way of life, which has been perfected and completed, - based upon the Guidance of the Quran and the life example of Allah’s Final Messenger Muhammad s.a.w. The sources of its teachings which is still available with us, enshrined in Al-Qur’an (Dustuuruna) and As-Sunnah (Qudwaatuna). What is now required of us is to strive to live it. For we, as people who have Faith in the Oneness of Allah, must heed His commandment. Oh Ye who believe! Enter into Islam whole-heartedly; Beginners' Manual on Islam 147
  10. 10. And follow not the footsteps of the Evil One: For he is to you an avowed enemy. (Q: Baqarah: 208) We are to always remember that this vast dominion of our existence belongs to Allah, and that life is a test. To strive in Allah’s Way is the only path to success; as people who attest that there is no god except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Blessed be He (Allah) in Whose hands is Dominion; And He (Allah) over all things hath Power; - He (Allah) Who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed And He (Allah) is the Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving - (Q: Al-Mulk: 1-2) MAY ALLAH GUIDES US ALL ALONG THE RIGHT AND TRUE PATH, AND SUSTAINS US IN HIS MERCY AND EXALTS US UNTO THE COMPANY OF THOSE WHO ARE CLOSEST TO HIM. WA-BIL-LA-HI TAU-FIQUE-WAL HIDAA-YA WAS- SALAA-MU- ‘ALAYKUM-WARAH-MA-TULLAA-HI -WA- BARAKAA-TUH Text prepared by: Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hi Ismail, for “Konvensyiun Pelajar Islam 2 (1409H / 1988)” - (Al-Qur’an Centre, 15 Lorong 15 Geylang, Singapore) Beginners' Manual on Islam 148
  11. 11. *ADDENDUM: The Education of Muslim. The three-pronged approach in the education of a Muslim is basic for every Muslim and the quantum is gradual for each aspect, until he develops to specialise in specific field/s. The continuity of its acquisition has to be emphasised, especially when a Muslim undergoes a formal/secular school. Unfortunately, in our present condition this has been neglected to a very large extent. This opens the Muslim to the onslaught of secularistic value system. Whatever Islamic teachings have been acquired remains stagnated, to an extent that it became relegated to mere ritualistic formalities. Whatever Islamic values acquired are not improved at par with the pace and standard acquired in formal/secular schools. This leads them to view Islam as backward, or they have a problem in seeing Islamic teachings as relevant and progressive, especially when compared to what they have achieved in the formal/secular schools. The same is also true where a Muslim student specialises in the knowledge of the Deen in the Madrasah, where current findings and achievements especially in science and technology are omitted or that they are not kept up-to-date. This produces Muslim scholars who have difficulty in applying their knowledge of Islam in the context of a modern and fast changing world. The stereotyping of an Ustaz as being a ‘kolot’- backward in thinking is the case in mind. Thus, the effect of secularism is a two-edged sword, which cuts both ways, even in a typically ‘Islamic’ school. Criticism - ‘Ukhrawi’ / ‘Dunyawi’ categorization of knowledge. These terminologies should be taken only as a matter of convenience, and not In principle the view of Islam. In my opinion, it smacks of the secularist notion of things and we must beware of the danger it harbours. Alas, there are many Muslims who, not realizing it, have fallen prey to this notion. The above stated cases are the outcome of it. Islamic concept of knowledge is that either it is beneficial or otherwise. The relevance of knowledge is both in this world as well as in the hereafter. Islam qualifies knowledge on the basis of its benefits, and there are Beginners' Manual on Islam 149
  12. 12. rewards for all kinds of such knowledge. ‘Ukhrawiyah’ knowledge becomes unbeneficial if its relevance is not applied in this world; and ‘Dunyawiyah’ knowledge likewise has no eternal benefits if no thought of the hereafter is applied in its acquisition and application. Thus all beneficial knowledge have ‘Dunyawi’ and ‘Ukhrawi’ values. Thus Islam stresses the seeking of all knowledge as an obligatory duty ‘Fardh’ - categorised in Islam as ‘Ain or Kifayah, i.e. beneficial to the individual or the society. This is the acceptable categorization which, unfortunately, even MENDAKI has not seriously considered but instead it harp on the Ukhrawi / Dunyawi labelling of convenience. Thus the effect of secularization of knowledge is further accentuated amongst the general Muslims. Acquisition of knowledge - Horizontal / Vertical. Another important consideration is the dynamics of acquiring knowledge. One begins to acquire knowledge firstly by the horizontal plane. The actual understanding of it is only basic or just enough superficially. New subject matter is added as one goes on acquiring knowledge. But true growth is achieved when depth is given to whatever one has acquired horizontally, by the vertical aspect. For example in mathematics, one is taught to apply the formulae (TTr2) to derive the area of a given circle -this I deem as the horizontal. When one then studies the derivation of this formula, this is the vertical aspect of the knowledge. In the studies pertaining to “Usuuluddin/Aqidah”, “Fiqh” and “‘Ilmul-Akhlaq/Tasawwuf”, the same mechanics must also apply. This vertical growth is what I see lacking and would very much like to see future improvements for the general education of Muslims. The following categorization may help Muqallid (following by imitating)-horizontalist Muttabi’ (following with understanding)-verticalist Mujtahid (independent originator from the canons)-specialist Beginners' Manual on Islam 150
  13. 13. Attitude in acquiring knowledge - the parable of a Circle “Wisdom begins when one realizes that one does not know” may seem to be a paradox, but it is the measure of wisdom to be humble in that “the more one knows the more will one realize that one does not know.” From the Islamic viewpoint, knowledge is from the Infinite Reality i.e. Allah. When one has been bestowed with some of it, it is like a small circle. Whatever is within that circle represents that knowledge already acquired and outside it is the infinite knowledge. The circumference represents the boundary of the knowledge, which one is aware but which one has not as yet acquired. When these are acquired, the circle will expand. Thus the bigger the circle grow, the wider will the circumference be, i.e. the more one knows the more will one realise of the knowledge which one does not as yet know. “Glory be to You (O! Allah), We have no knowledge saving that which Thou hast taught us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower, the Wise.” Alas today, humility as a mark of being educated has been surmounted by arrogance and status conscious madness of the secularistic materialist. There are some who, having successfully attained academic qualification from the formal institution felt that there is nothing more to be learnt from our Asaatizah. Instead they arrogantly try to muddle in matters of the Deen which they are not competently qualified. Perhaps the term “Muslim Intellectuals” has to be seriously defined. Criteria in Islamic Education - “Ta’alim-wa-tarbiyyah/ Ta’dibiyyah” In today’s society where formal education in the classrooms of school is the trend, there arose a dangerous perception amongst many, that to be educated one must be formally schooled. This is further aggravated by the paper chase syndrome, which places Beginners' Manual on Islam 151
  14. 14. exclusive importance to certificates and degrees, leaving behind the most vital criteria that is the man himself. Do not misunderstand this for I am not trying to de-emphasise academic achievements from the formal school system nor am I advocating the abolition of the formal examination system, but rather my concern is the narrow thinking amongst many Muslims who regard only those with paper qualification as being the educated. What they fail to consider is the criteria emphasised by Islam for one to be considered as educated - that of ‘ilm (knowledge) and Tarbiyyah (training), and Ta’dibiyyah (education) manifested by and embodied in the person — not the paper. The input of knowledge must be internalised with training and from the earliest period of Islam, the Muslims have evolved the ‘Halaqah ‘or study circle as being an important aspect in their education. It Is quite different from the classroom system of today In that the ‘halaqah’ is not space-confined nor does it follow a semester oriented time frame, but rather it revolves around the teacher who oversees the progress and development of the group of students in the halaqah. It is not always input of knowledge (Ta’alim) but it place special regard to group discussion and evaluation, very much like the now recognised method recently introduced in today’s formal school i.e. (S.A.P.schools). This is especially important where certain knowledge is not meant to be merely understood but to be realised and manifested in the students especially the Akhlaqul-Karimah. Thus for those who think that to be able to organise classes without regard to Tarbiyyah/Ta’adibiyyah as being sufficient in Islamic education, has probably not been informed of this aspect. Likewise for the Muslim students, to have attended religious classes is not enough unless that knowledge has been internalised and they are able to apply them in their life, - the halaqah environment being the best place for its realization. (It is worthwhile to consider the Tarbiyyah system, as laid down by Ash-shahid Hassan Al- Banna). Beginners' Manual on Islam 152
  15. 15. Respect for knowledge “Allah will exalt those who believe among you, and those who have knowledge, to a high ranks. Allah is informed of what ye do.” (Q : Mujaadilah: 11) Amongst some of the unhealthy signs today is when Muslims, who are affected by the secularistic ideas and ideals, have begun to look down and arrogantly deny the special ranks of our Asaatizah and ‘Ulama’. This reflects very much the kind of respects they have towards the knowledge of the Deen, of which these Assaatiz and Ulama’ possess and strive to pass them on. As individuals, everyone has his or her shortcomings and weaknesses. Yet, let not these be the cause for us to be disrespectful for the knowledge that they possess. If western scholars are looked upon with special esteem inspite of them being confirmed atheists and polytheists, it would indicate a jaundiced bias towards the knowledge of the Deen if a different attitude is shown towards our Asaatizah and ‘Ulama’ because of certain of their personal weaknesses. Evidently, another indication, which perhaps may be indirect, is the kind of remuneration given for the services of our Assaatiz as compared to tutors of other subjects. The concept of “Ikhlas” (sincerity) has obviously been abused. We are facing a vicious cycle, which has reduced the Ustaz to the level of an endangered species. The lack of discipline and seriousness when attending religious classes is another unhealthy trend, if compared to when they attend formal/secular schools. It is pertinent to realise that the number of Assaatiz is not self-replacing, due to the decrease in the intake in Madrasah’s, perhaps due to our society’s neglect in correcting this misperception of the importance of the services of the Asaatizah. Beginners' Manual on Islam 153
  16. 16. TAWHIIDIC PARADIGM: EDUCATIONAL CHART IN THE PRIMARY DEVELOPMENT OF A MUSLIM IIMAN ‘AMAL IHSAN (Faith/Conviction/Belief) (Practical / Deeds) (Righteous Conduct) AL-AQAA’ID ‘ILM-FIQH ‘ILM AL-AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF (Theology) (Practical Laws) (Science of human disposition) Purpose/Obejective Purpose / Oblectives Purpose / Objective • Development of Certainty • Development of correct • Development of Righteous Personality • Awareness of Truth/Reality practices Perfection of Self What is involved? What is involved? What is involved? • Reforming the Self (Nafs) • ‘Aql (reasoning/intellect) • Knowing the way or the law • Instincts & finer feelings • Best behaviour in relationship • Capability in implementing with Allah, who ownself and (innate perceptions) them in life with others What is the Effect? What is the Effect? What is the Effect? 154 Firm conviction, strong principle, Community of people enjoining all that is good Development of Personality traits founded committed to; The concept of Unity and and forbidding evil and wrong; advocating the of Love of Allah, of His Prophet Muhammad, Justice of Allah; the True purpose, role fulfillment of the ‘AMANAH’ (trust) as Allah’s his family and Companions; Striving to purify and destiny of Man KHALIFAH (representative); estabilishing the the Self and adorning it with the Exalted Brotherhood of Man Moral traits of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The perfect Man) Relevant knowledge: Relevant knowledge Relevant knowledge This aspect of development requires Languages, Logic & Philosophy, Epistemology, Biology, Botany, Chemistry, All applied sciences, technology and skills that Practical behaviour, the aspect of being Physical Sciences, Astronomy, Geology, can assist in the fulfillment of establishing justice, and becoming. Its area of concern is the History, Anthropology, Marine & Space order, peace, harmony, prosperity, etc. on earth. Inner Self. The knowledge relevant perhaps sciences, etc. is Philosophy, Psychology and other behavioural sciences etc Beginners' Manual on Islam Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (Pergas)
  17. 17. NOTES: Beginners' Manual on Islam 155