Cultural Values in the Messageof Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)ByProf. Muhammad Ibn Abdullah AlsoheemKing Saud University- Facult...
(2)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
(3)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)In The Name of Allah, The Beneficient, The Ever MercifulAllah ...
(4)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)and racial pride, which, in a generation, marched to a hundred...
(5)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)concentrated on highlighting such values here in this book, to...
(6)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
(7)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Introduction:All praise is due to Allah who filled with love a...
(8)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Allah says: “And thus have We, by Our command, sentinspiration...
(9)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)empire0F1which dominated and gained control, in only 80 years,...
(10)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)to the right track and guides to happiness in both thislife a...
(11)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)end, having no doubts about their Day of Reckoningin the Here...
(12)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)significant number of texts that support the topic in questio...
(13)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Section Seven : CleanlinessChapter Three: Managerial Values i...
(14)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)who helped me in this work.Praise to Allah, by His grace good...
(15)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Chapter OneScientific ValuesThis chapter discusses three sect...
(16)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)knowledge, sometimes the superiority of gaining knowledge ism...
(17)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)reflection”2F1.Another clear proof is the command of Allah to...
(18)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)the fish in the sea, ask for forgiveness for the seeker ofkno...
(19)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)grass grow there abundantly. Then there is a land, hard andba...
(20)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)worthy of worship but Him) meaning that none but Allah alonei...
(21)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)liars, and the false interpretations of the ignorant’.8F1Fift...
(22)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)39:9) Ibn Al-Qayyim said: “Allah negated equality between His...
(23)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) alihah (God...
(24)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)do; if they did good deeds, so will we, and if they did not, ...
(25)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)to contemplate and consider the Qur`an that He revealed to be...
(26)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)and it will be so clear that he is certainly the Prophet of A...
(27)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, withoutgui...
(28)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)About previous nations, Allah says: “Then when their prophets...
(29)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)embrace Islam. Dr. Bucaille drew a comparison between theQur`...
(30)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Third: Guiding to foundations of many arts and SciencesMore t...
(31)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)indeed forbidden are al-fawahish (great evil sins and everyki...
(32)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)3. Islam promotes management leadership. The Qur`anicverses a...
(33)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)questions: the west always asks ‘how’ and the Islamicciviliza...
(34)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Qur`an told us that we should have good morals whendealing wi...
(35)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)(PBUH) said: “O slaves of Allah, treat yourselves withmedicin...
(36)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)suffers from infectious disease shouldn’t visit a healthypers...
(37)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)First Issue: DefinitionLinguistically defined by FairuzAbadi,...
(38)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)good conduct and dealings.”26F1Deen is defined by Ibn Alkamal...
(39)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)definition from each category only for citation, not fordiscu...
(40)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)In his book entitled “Religion,” Prof. Muhammad AbdullahDraaz...
(41)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)religious commitment.- Their incorrect measures adopted to un...
(42)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Second Issue: Regulations of the True ReligionHaving defined ...
(43)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)6. The true religion must include a system of checks andbalan...
(44)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)and soul, subject to various whims, yet he is asked to carry ...
(45)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)ever appeared and vanished without thinking about man`screati...
(46)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)matter how involved he gets in life`s affairs, he inevitablyw...
(47)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)science or culture. No art or literature can satisfy hisinsat...
(48)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)without being supervised or waiting for reward. Alsoimportant...
(49)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)originated. They disagree with me, (saying) that it is notlik...
(50)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)shining examples that man can draw from its teachingsand prin...
(51)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)unpleasant and discontent. In this case, religion connectshim...
(52)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)these goals, his scientific power becomes fully fledged. As f...
(53)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)shows he was created to stay and remain. These are presentreg...
(54)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)psychological and cultural rules that only The One Whohas ful...
(55)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)The second source is: Man`s thought.A man’s thought, needs, a...
(56)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)several aspects, not as an independent phenomena in itself. S...
(57)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)all things.” (An-Naml 27:88).When the Arabs started to implem...
(58)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)time He created and placed in it the necessary wisdom”51F1.Ta...
(59)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)were unable to know every single detail of His knowledge andm...
(60)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)perfect it.” This means perfecting your work. Therefore, ever...
(61)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Chapter TwoSocial valuesThe values of this chapter highlight ...
(62)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)vocabulary explanation, Ibn Manzoor said: “The middle ofsomet...
(63)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)and moderation in all things, so He, the Almighty Lord,attrib...
(64)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)(PBUH) worshipped (Allah). When they were informed abouthis w...
(65)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)only to worship, depending on others for his sustenance andne...
(66)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)prayer, nor from the practice of giving charity. Their (only)...
(67)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)every time and place of prayer. Eat and drink, but waste not ...
(68)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)your drink, and give charity without excess and without showi...
(69)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Section Two: The Status of Women in IslamIslam doesn’t pay at...
(70)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)according to the best of their actions” (An-Nahl 16:97).The P...
(71)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)of their duties and rights. Abu Said Al-Khudri narrated: “Som...
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Cultural values in the message of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

  1. 1. Cultural Values in the Messageof Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)ByProf. Muhammad Ibn Abdullah AlsoheemKing Saud University- Faculty of EducationIslamic Studies department
  2. 2. (2)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
  3. 3. (3)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)In The Name of Allah, The Beneficient, The Ever MercifulAllah says in the Holy Qur`an: “Allah did confer a greatfavor on the believers when He sent among them a prophet fromamong themselves, reciting unto them the signs of Allah,sanctifying them, and instructing them in scripture and wisdom,while before that, they had been in manifest error.”(Al Imran3:164).Allah also says: “Those who follow the Prophet, theunlettered prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own(scriptures) - in the law (Torah) and the Gospel - he commandsthem what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows themas lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from whatis bad (and impure); he releases them from their heavy burdensand from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those whobelieve in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light whichis sent down with him, it is they who will prosper." (Al-A`raf8:157).In his book ‘The Story of Civilization’, Will Durant declares:“If we judge greatness by influence, he (Muhammad (PBUH))was one of the greatest of the greats in history. He undertook toraise the spiritual and moral level of people harassed intobarbarism by heat and foodless wastes, and he succeeded in thismore completely than any other reformer in history. UponJudaism, Christianity, and his native creed, he built a religionsimple and clear and strong, and a morality of ruthless courage
  4. 4. (4)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)and racial pride, which, in a generation, marched to a hundredvictories, in a century to empire, and remains to this day a virileforce through half the world” Preface.All praise is for Allah, and may peace and blessings be uponthe Prophet of Allah and upon his family, his companions, andthose who are guided by the light of his guidance.The biography of the Prophet (PBUH) is the eminentlypractical implementation of the Divine directives sent down tohim by Allah. These directives include the moral values and theguiding principles that can not only bring happiness tohumanity, but also help people maintain the pure, originaldisposition upon which Allah originated mankind. This is notsurprising, since the Prophet (PBUH) himself was nothing but amercy sent by Allah for all creatures. Allah says: "We sent theenot, but as a mercy for all creatures." (Al-Anbiya` 21:107).We urgently need to implement the guidance of the Prophet(PBUH) - our role model - and the moral values he taught onboth the individual and societal levels. Allah says: “You haveindeed in the Prophet of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and whoengages much in the praise of Allah”.The reality of the Prophet’s character is reflected in oursincere practical implementation of the values he embodied.In this context, Engineer Abdulmohsen Aldrees`s Councilfor the Biography of the Prophet and its Contemporary Study
  5. 5. (5)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)concentrated on highlighting such values here in this book, to beincluded among his earlier releases in the field of Biography ofthe Prophet.For his part, KSU professor Muhammad Ibn AbdullahAlsoheem, the author of this book, has done well in selecting thebook`s material and effectively making use of it to support themain theme of the book, the cultural guiding values in theProphet’s biography.The Council is looking forward to sharing opinions andsuggestions, and cooperating with all interested researchers, totake part altogether in serving the Prophet`s biography throughthe intensive contemporary studies that reflect the moral values,cultural principles, interpersonal relations, and educationalpractices that the Prophet`s biography includes.Peace and blessings be upon our Prophet (Muhammad) andupon his family and companions.The Chair`s SupervisorProfessor Adel Ibn Ali Alshaddyadelalshaddy@hotmail.com
  6. 6. (6)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
  7. 7. (7)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Introduction:All praise is due to Allah who filled with love andglorification the hearts of His beloved servants (Awliya), andremoved from the hearts of others His recognition andappreciation.I testify that there is no God worthy of worship except One,Allah, with whom I associate no partners. With love andreverence we worship Him, and in fear and longing we invokeHis name. I testify that Muhammad is his servant, Prophet, Hisown beloved, best chosen and most trusted for His revelation,was sent down by Allah to save the human soul from self-indulgence and degradation, connecting it to the one whocreated the heavens and the earth. He was, by all means, a rolemodel, and his message was a mercy and guidance for allmankind, giving them glad tidings and saving them fromoppression. Peace and blessings be upon him.A researcher who reflects on the history of civilizations willnote that generally they originated by the banks of rivers and seacoasts. None of them originated except in the vicinity of sourcesof water, except for the Islamic Civilization, for it originated inMakkah which is not near any rivers, oceans or sources ofvegetation. Indeed Makkah is not located by a source of water;rather it is a place of Divine revelation. This revelation is of thesame importance as the soul is to the living beings.
  8. 8. (8)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Allah says: “And thus have We, by Our command, sentinspiration to you: you didn’t know (before) what wasrevelation, and what was faith: but We have made it (Qur`an) alight, wherewith We guide such of Our servants as We will; andverily you shall guide (men) to the straightway; the way ofAllah, to Whom belongs whatever is in the heavens andwhatever is on earth. Behold (how) all affairs tend towardsAllah” (Alshura42: 52,53).That is why the message of our Prophet (PBUH) wascomprehensive. It provided all mankind with a guiding religionto establish an integrated civilization of beliefs, rulings, values,principles, role models, architecture, and theoretical andpractical sciences (literary and humanitarian). This Divinemessage was, by all means, a basis and starting point for thehuman civilization. Of particular note is the way the IslamicCivilization approached the earlier civilizations. It didn’t totallyreject the civilizations that preceded it; rather it accepted thatwhich was good in them, and made invaluable additions to theexcellence of previous civilizations. Furthermore, it rejectedtheir negatives, which other religions and philosophies had beenpreviously unable to deal with. Within a short period of time,the Islamic civilization accomplished great achievements whicheven its opponents testified to their greatness. George Bush, thegrandfather (1797-1859), professor of Hebrew language andoriental literature at New York University said: “He (i.e.,Muhammad PBUH) laid down the basic foundation for an
  9. 9. (9)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)empire0F1which dominated and gained control, in only 80 years,of larger kingdoms and countries than what had been achievedby Rome in 800 years. Away from his political success, moreamazing is the fast growth and transcendency of his religion andits continuing consolidation until now. In fact, there is noexplanation for what has been achieved by Islam and itsProphet, except for saying it was given special care by God. It isin no way possible to justify the Prophet’s human greatachievements merely by the mere resources that he possessed.Such achievements cannot possibly be explained by humanabilities, but we have to admit that they were achieved under thecare and protection of Allah. There is no other explanation forthese astounding achievements”1F2.When you review the foundations upon which a soundcivilization is based, you find that it must have two basicfoundations: basic and auxiliary. The greatest and most apparentfoundations upon which a civilization can be founded are thefollowing:First: A true religion that spiritually revives people andphysically refreshes them - a religion that makes thesociety upright, protects one`s methodology, guides1 The author doesn’t acknowledge the description of Islam as an empire, forIslam is both a religion and State.2 Muhammad (PBUH) the Founder of the Religion of Islam and the Empireof Muslims page 353.
  10. 10. (10)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)to the right track and guides to happiness in both thislife and the Hereafter.Second: The correct knowledge is that which revealsmysteries, leads to the correct destination, and tells aperson about his real character. This knowledgeprovides its seeker with the practical method, whichif he follows, he will achieve his desired goal, savinghis time and energy by relating the facts of the earlycenturies whose beginning and end have been toldby The Holy Qur`an. It is the knowledge that keepshim busy with studying useful sciences with fruitful,non-controversial and non-contradictory results.Third: There is complete fairness in judgments that makesthe subordinate on par with his superior, the poor onpar with the rich, the person of low status is on parwith the person of high status. Strict fairness that isto be the basic rule for passing judgments on allpeople, whether they are friends or enemies, puttingaside all external variables.Fourth: There are clear, defined and sound objectives thatgladden the heart and elevate the soul. Theseobjectives are achieved by revealing the secrets ofthe mysterious future such that a person is guided bythe light of their Lord. Once guided, these peoplefully recognize the reality of their beginning and
  11. 11. (11)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)end, having no doubts about their Day of Reckoningin the Hereafter and devoting themselves to theirfutures based upon collective work.Fifth: There is a sincere love that makes the society amelting pot of all its segments. This love fills heartswith trust and promotes altruism in such a way thatmakes all members of the society like a single body,whereby if a single part of it is subject to anyproblems then all the organs of the body gather withvigilance and fever; this is a society whose membersbelieve that their brothers and neighbors in need aremost worthy of every penny they have.Islam has come with all such fundamentals, affirming andpromoting them while simultaneously warning against whoevercontradicts or does away with them. This will be clarified laterInshallah.By reviewing both the fundamentals of the management ofcivilization and the texts of the Holy Qur`an and the prophetictraditions, any objective reader can see how strongly thesefundamentals are affirmed in both the Holy Qur`an and theprophetic traditions. The ten rules or principles of management,for instance, were earlier mentioned and recommended byIslam. On the other hand, the first impression the researcher getswhen looking at any topic of this religion is that this topic is themain purpose of Islam. He forms this impression out of the
  12. 12. (12)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)significant number of texts that support the topic in question.That is why it was beyond my ability to collect in this book alltexts supporting this topic. Instead, I only sufficed with whatindicates and highlights its great status in Islam. At the sametime, I couldn’t mention all the aspects of civilization that Islamincluded, but I did my best to indicate the fundamentals of thiscivilization, highlighting the most prominent of thesefundamentals and proving texts from the Holy Qur`an andprophetic tradition.I have divided this research into three main chapters asfollows:Chapter One: Scientific Values including three sections:Section One : KnowledgeSection Two : ReligionSection Three : PerfectionChapter Two: Social Values including seven sections:Section One : ModerationSection Two : The Status of Women in IslamSection Three : LoveSection Four : MercySection Five : PeaceSection Six : Morality
  13. 13. (13)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Section Seven : CleanlinessChapter Three: Managerial Values including six sections:Section One : Inclusiveness Principles and BeliefsSection Two : Rights ProtectionSection Three : Growing and Maintaining MoneySection Four : FairnessSection Five : PowerSection Six : Accepting the Other OpinionI ask Allah to accept this work as done solely for His sakeand in accordance with the teachings of his Prophet Muhammad(PBUH). May Allah make it useful knowledge and a sinceredeed, make it aright path to His religion and defending HisProphet and His book.Allah Alone beseech to correct my work and intention. Idisclaim my strength and power, and from Him I seek guidancefor strong determination. O Allah, I ask you for protecting mywriting and forgiveness for my sins and mistakes, since you arethe Most Benevolent Generous.Finally at the end of this introduction, I`d like to thank Allah,the most worthy of thanks, for bestowing on me the ability tofinish this humble work. I thank Him also for His continuousblessings, asking Him to complete it by forgiving my sins andgiving me a good end to my life. I extend my thanks to those
  14. 14. (14)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)who helped me in this work.Praise to Allah, by His grace good deeds are completed.Peace and blessing upon him who was sent down as a mercy forall creatures.Dr. Muhammad Ibn Abdullah AlsaheemKing Saud University- Faculty of EducationIslamic Studies departmentRiyadh -1428/7/25
  15. 15. (15)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Chapter OneScientific ValuesThis chapter discusses three sections that are relatedregarding proof. The first three sections - knowledge, religionand perfectness - cannot be fully supported without providingclear proof and a compelling argument. This is becauseknowledge is the foundation to understanding religion, and sinceknowledge precedes actions, I begin my discussion with itbefore discussing religion and then perfection.Section One: KnowledgeThis great religion is the religion of knowledge. If askedabout the most prominent aspect of this religion, any objectiveperson would likely point to the lofty status of knowledge inIslam. There isn’t a single issue addressed by the religion exceptthat knowledge contributes in dealing with it in greater detail, asa foundation or inference. The following issues will illustrate thegreat status knowledge has in this religion.First Issue: Explaining the Attention paid toKnowledge in IslamIt is beyond the researcher`s capability to get fullyacquainted with all the aspects showing great attention toknowledge in Islam. Sometimes, there is encouragement to gain
  16. 16. (16)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)knowledge, sometimes the superiority of gaining knowledge ismentioned, sometimes by the mention that the status of thosewho have knowledge is higher than the status of those who fightin the path of Allah, at times by mentioning that the status of aknowledgeable person is higher with Allah than the status of aworshipper, and so on. Some of these will be discussed below:First Aspect: Encouragement to Seeking KnowledgeAmong the proofs for this is the very first verse revealed byAllah to His Prophet (Muhammad PBUH) in the Holy Qur`an.Allah says: "Read: in the name of your Lord who created; Hecreated man out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood. Read andyour Lord is Most Bountiful. He who taught (the use of) the pen,taught man that which he knew not.” (Al`Alaq 96:1-5) IbnAashoor says that among the purposes of this surah: "Thepurpose is to teach Muhammad (PBUH) the Qur`an and how torecite it perfectly, for he was illiterate beforehand, howeverAllah gives him indication that He (Allah) is able to teachwhatever He wills to whomever He chooses, as Allah taughtothers how to write, He can teach whoever He likes fromscratch. It is also an indication that his people will be guidedtowards reading, writing and knowledge. It also directs himtowards contemplating Allah`s creation, particularly Allah’screation of mankind and how amazingly he was developed froma mere clot of congealed blood. This is definitely a point of
  17. 17. (17)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)reflection”2F1.Another clear proof is the command of Allah to His Prophet(PBUH) to start first with seeking knowledge before doing anyaction. Allah says: “Know, therefore, that there is no godworthy of worship except Allah, and ask forgiveness for yourmistakes and for the mistakes of believing men and women. ForAllah knows how you move about and how you dwell in yourhomes.” (Muhammad 47:19) Commenting on this verse, IbnJarir says: "I.e. you (Muhammad PBUH) have to know first thatthere is no God worthy of worship or divinity but Allah, theCreator of all creatures and the Lord of the universe, and that allhave to submit to as their Lord. And you have to ask Him forforgiveness for your previous and future sins, and for the sins ofthose men and women who believe in you”3F2.The Prophet (PBUH) showed us that seeking knowledge is away to paradise. He (PBUH) said: “Whoever treads a path insearch of knowledge, Allah will make easy for him the path toParadise.”4F3The same hadith was reported by Tirmidhi in alonger version as follows: "Whoever follows a path seekingknowledge, Allah will make easy for him the path to Paradise.The angels lower their wings, being pleased with the one whoseeks knowledge. Whoever is in the heavens and on earth, even1 Tafseer of Tahrir and Tanweer 434/15.2 Gam`a Albian 53/26.3 Sahih Muslim 2074/4, 2699.
  18. 18. (18)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)the fish in the sea, ask for forgiveness for the seeker ofknowledge. The superiority of the scholar over the worshipper islike that of the moon over all other heavenly bodies. Thescholars are the heirs of the prophets, for the prophets did notleave behind dinars or dirhams, but they left behind knowledge;and whoever receives it, receives an abundance of goodfortune”5F1.The Prophet (PBUH) also said: “When Allah wishes goodfor someone, He bestows upon him the understanding ofreligion.”6F2Explaining the meaning of this hadith, Ibn Hajarstates: "This clearly shows the superiority of scholars over otherpeople and the virtue of seeking religious knowledge over otherareas of knowledge”7F3.The following Hadith narrated by Abu Musa is anotherexample given by the Prophet (PBUH) for the virtue of seekingknowledge and of the scholars who acquire it, act upon it, andimpart it to others. Abu Musa reported Allahs Prophet (PBUH)as saying: “The similitude of the guidance and knowledge withwhich Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, has sent me is like thatof heavy rain falling upon the earth. There is a good piece ofland which receives the rainfall and as a result, herbage and1 Sunnan Abu Dawood 354/3, Sunnan Tirmihdi 48/5, Sunnan Ibn Majah78/1, Sunnan Al-Darimi 110/1,342.Corrected by Al-Albani in Sahih al-Jami al-Sagheer hadith no.6298.2 Sahih al Bukhari 39/1,71 Sahih Muslim 718/2,1037.3 Fath Al-Bari 165/1.
  19. 19. (19)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)grass grow there abundantly. Then there is a land, hard andbarren, which retains water and Allah makes the people derivebenefit from it, for they drink it, provide it to others and grazewith it. Then there is another land which is barren. Neither iswater retained in it, nor is the grass grown in it. And that is thesimilitude of the one who seeks the understanding of the religionof Allah, and it becomes a source of benefit to him with whichAllah sent me. The other is the similitude of one who does notpay attention to (the revealed knowledge) and thus does notaccept that guidance of Allah with which I have been sent”.Second Aspect: Excellence of Knowledge and ScholarsThe best indication for the status of knowledge and scholarsis the association of their witness with that of Allah to HisOneness, which is the greatest and most glorified thing you canever witness to. Allah says: “There is no god worthy of worshipbut He: that is the witness of Allah, His angels, and thoseendued with knowledge, standing firm for justice. There is nogod worthy of worship but Him, the Exalted in Power, the Wise.The religion with Allah is Islam (submission to His Will). ThePeople of the Book did not dissent except through envy of eachother after knowledge had come to them. But if anyone deniesthe signs of Allah, then Allah is swift in calling to account.” (Al-I`mran 3:19-18) In his commentary, Ibn Kathir says: “Allah haswitnessed - and His witness is sufficient since He is the MostTruthful and Fair Witness – He witnessed that (there is no god
  20. 20. (20)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)worthy of worship but Him) meaning that none but Allah aloneis deserving of worship by all creatures who are His servants,and He created them, that they are in need of Him, and He is theSulf Sufficient and not in need of anything or anyone. as Hesaid, “He witnesses to what He has revealed”. Then Allahcoupled His witnessing with that of witnessing by the angels andthe scholars, as He says, “There is no god worthy of worship butHim: this is the witness of Allah, His angels and those enduedwith knowledge.” This association of the witness of Allah withthat of those endued with knowledge indicates the specialexcellence of the scholar”Among several aspects mentioned by Ibn Al-Qayyim toindicate the excellence of knowledge and those endued with it,is that related to the verse in question. Commenting on thisverse, Ibn Al- Qayyim says:“This is an indication of theexcellence of knowledge and those endued with it for manyreasons as He made them witness the greatest thing that can bewitnessed. First: they are the only chosen people of all mankindto such great witness. Second: there is the association of theirwitness with that of Allah. Third: there is the association of theirwitness with that of angels. Fourth: it is an implicit indication totheir truthfulness and purity, since Allah only calls to witnessthose who are just and trustworthy witnesses. The Prophet(PBUH) said:‘This knowledge will be carried by the trustworthyones of every generation – they will expel from it the alterationsmade by those going beyond bounds, the false claims of the
  21. 21. (21)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)liars, and the false interpretations of the ignorant’.8F1Fifth: thewitness is started by Allah, and He is the best to ever witness,then by the best chosen of His creatures, the angels and scholars.So this is sufficient as an honor for them. Sixth: Allah madethem witness the greatness of the witness, la ilaha illa Allah,which itself implies that the witnesses are surely of great statusand excellence. Seventh: Allah made their witness a proofagainst those who deny His Oneness. So they are like his proofand evidence indicating His Oneness. Eighth: there is only oneverb used for the witness of Allah, the angels, and those enduedwith knowledge. This shows how strongly associated thewitness of scholars is with that of Allah, as if He bore witness toHis Oneness on their tongues and they merely acknowledgedand confirmed it with firm belief”9F2.In several verses, Allah the Exalted in Power showed us howHe raises up the scholars in ranks. Allah says: “Allah will raiseup to (suitable) ranks (and degrees) those of you who believeand who have been granted knowledge. And Allah is well-acquainted with all you do.” (Al-Mujadilah 58:11) Also, Allahshowed us how disparate the scholars are from those who arenot knowledgeable. Allah says: “Say: Are those equal, thosewho know and those who do not know? It is those who areendued with understanding that receive admonition.” (Az-Zumar1 Sunan al Kubra lil Bayhaqi 209/10, Corrected by Imam Ahmed, existed inAl Badr Almunir for Ibn Almolqn, and weakened by others.2 Muftah Dar Alsa`da 63-66.
  22. 22. (22)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)39:9) Ibn Al-Qayyim said: “Allah negated equality between Hispeople and others, just like He negated equality between peopleof Paradise and people of Hell and said ‘Are those who knowand those who do not know equal?” He also said ‘The people ofParadise and the people of Hell are not equal.’ This Thisindicates what great honor and virtue they have10F1.Third Aspect: Devising The Scientific MethodThis religion developed a reliable scientific method for itsfollowers to employ when considering, inferring, contemplating,reasoning, and pondering and how to deal with the future. Itintroduced the basics of every field of knowledge to man,providing him with a starting point and reference. The followingare some examples.First: The Scientific Method for InferenceThis method is based upon solid ground and unshakablebases. It is not driven by whims or subjected to inheritedtradition, and it is impartial to the desires of the rulers. Thesebases are as follows:Firstly, the method depends on evidence and rejects what hasnot been supported by it. That’s why Allah (High exalted is he)offered ample scientific and logical proof to support one`sbelief. For instance, Allah says: “Or have they taken (forworship) alihah (Gods) from the earth who raise the dead? Had1 Muftah Dar Alsa`da 65.
  23. 23. (23)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) alihah (Gods)besides Allah, then verily both would have been ruined.Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, (High is He) aboveall that (evil) they associate with Him! He cannot be questionedas to what He does, while they will be questioned. Or have theytaken for worship (other) alihah (Gods) besides Him? Say:‘Bring your proof.’ This (the Quran) is the reminder for thosewith Me and the reminder for those before me. But most of themknow not the truth, so they are averse.” (Al-Anbiya 21- 21:42)In these verses, look how Allah brought logical proof and askedthe rejecters of truth to bring their proof, saying: “Bring yourproof.” Allah provides us with additional proof in the next versewhen He mentions that it is not befitting for Him to eat, sincewhoever eats, needs in return to go to the bathroom. Allah says:“The Messiah [Îsa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary), was nomore than a prophet; many were the prophets that passed awaybefore him. His mother [Maryam (Mary)] was a siddiqah [i.e.she believed in the words of Allah and His books]. They bothused to eat food (like any other human being, while Allah doesnot eat). Look how We make the ayat (proofs, evidence, verses,lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to them; yet look how theyare deluded away (from the truth).” (Al-Maidah 5:75)The Prophet (PBUH) also forbade blindly following otherswithout seeking the truth or asking for proof. Abu-Huthaifareported that the Prophet (PBUH) said: “Don’t be a blindfollower of others, saying, ‘We will do the same as the people
  24. 24. (24)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)do; if they did good deeds, so will we, and if they did not, thenwe will not either.’ Rather, get used to saying, ‘We will do gooddeeds if the people did, but we will not do wrong if they didwrong.’”11F1.Secondly, warning against blind imitation and following inthe footsteps of parents and ancestors who have gone astray,Allah says: “Nay! They say: ‘We found our fathers following acertain way and religion, and we guide ourselves by theirfootsteps.’ And similarly, We sent not a warner before you (OMuhammad) to any town (people) but the luxurious ones amongthem said: ‘We found our fathers following a certain way andreligion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.’” (Az-Zukhruf 43:22-24) The verse clearly shows that people whodon’t free themselves from subordination to parents andancestors leave the truth, even if it is clearly supported by proofand instead follow what they are accustomed to from theirancestors.Thirdly, urging man to contemplate and consider what hasbeen suggested to him by using logic to discover the truth, inwhich case to follow it, and falsehood, in which case to avoid it,Allah says: “Do they not then consider the Quran carefully?Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have foundtherein much discrepancy.” (Aal Imran 3:82) Allah calls for man1 Sunan Tirmidhi 364/4,2007: (fair unfamiliar hadith) weakened by Al-Albany .
  25. 25. (25)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)to contemplate and consider the Qur`an that He revealed to berecited until the Day of Judgment; if one finds even a singlecontradiction or mistake in it, then it was not sent by Allah.Allah says: “Had it been from other than Allah, they wouldsurely have found therein much discrepancy.” However, since itis completely free from errors and contradictions, we know thatit was sent by Allah. Consider the kind invitation and eloquentexhortation that the following verse includes. Allah says: “Say(to them O Muhammad) ‘I exhort you to one (thing) only: thatyou stand up for Allahs sake in pairs and singly, and reflect(within yourselves the life history of the Prophet).’ There is nomadness in your companion (Muhammad). He is only a warnerto you in face of a severe torment.” (Saba 34:46) Explaining thisverse Ibn-Jarir said: "It has been said regarding its meaning thatstand up in pairs for Allah`s sake, not following yourinclinations. Be sincere and ask each other have we everwitnessed Muhammad utter madness? Then, singly, everyonethinks over and contemplates, asking himself if Muhammadreally utters madness. In doing so you will conclude that he is awarner to you.”12F1Ibn-Kathir comments: “It means that Allahtells Muhammad (PBUH) to ask people to get rid of theirstubbornness and fanaticism, and to sincerely in pairs and singlythink about this man who came to them with Allah`s message: ishe really mad or not? In doing so, they will discover the truth1 Jam`a Albayan 22/4 104-105.
  26. 26. (26)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)and it will be so clear that he is certainly the Prophet of Allah.”13F1.Fourthly, the method establishes proof for believing in theunseen by making use of concrete and tangible examples. This isvery clear when we provide evidence for the Oneness of Allah,the Day of Resurrection and other such matters. Allah says: “Hesets forth for you a parable from your own selves: Do you havepartners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. yourslaves) to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed onyou, whom you fear as you fear each other? Thus do We explainthe signs in detail to a people who have sense.” (Ar-Room30:28) Allah also says: “And among His Signs (in this), is thatyou see the earth barren, but when We send down water (rain) toit, it is stirred to life and growth (of vegetation). Verily, He Whogives it life, surely, is able to give life to the dead (on the Day ofResurrection). Indeed He is Able to do all things.” (Fussilat41:39)Fifthly, the method encourages the seekers of truth to eschewignorant inclinations and lusts. His goal should be seeking thetruth and freeing himself of falsehood, and not following onesdesires blindly. Allah says:“And if the truth had been inaccordance with their desires, verily, the heavens and the earth,and whosoever is therein would have been corrupted.” (Al-Muminoon 23:71) He also says: "But if they do not followingyou, then know that they only follow their own lusts. And who1 Tafseer Al-Quran Al`zeem 2/271.
  27. 27. (27)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, withoutguidance from Allah? Verily Allah guides not the people whoare zalimun (wrong-doers, disobedient to Allah, andpolytheists). And indeed now We have conveyed the Word (thisQuran in which is the news of everything) to them, in order thatthey may remember (or receive admonition).” (Al - Qassas28:50-51).Sixthly, following the method causes one to feel humbledbefore scientific facts, even if it contradicts what he hadassumed in the past. This is because the Quran tells us that manwas brought out from his mother`s womb when he knewnothing. Allah says: “And Allah has brought you out from thewombs of your mothers while you know nothing. And He gaveyou hearing, sight, and hearts that you might give thanks (toAllah).” (An-Nahl 16:78) Allah also says that what mankind hasacquired of knowledge is very little compared to what He hasgiven them. Allah says: “And of knowledge, you (mankind)have been given only a little.” (Al-Israa 17:85) It is enough forman to compare the amount of knowledge of the generation ofthe 19th century acquired compared to those of the 20th centuryto realize that what he knows is less than what he doesn’t know.This can be strong motivation to seek more knowledge, feelhumble and not mistakenly stop acquiring knowledge thinkingthat one reached the peak of wisdom. It is worth noting a subtlebenefit here, that when man becomes proud and haughty, heautomatically rejects even the truth of which there is no doubt.
  28. 28. (28)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)About previous nations, Allah says: “Then when their prophetscame to them with clear proofs, they were glad (and proud) withthat which they had of the knowledge (of worldly things). Andthat at which they used to mock, surrounded them (i.e. thepunishment).” (Ghafir 40:83)Second: Agreement of the Modern Scientific Data withWhat Islam Has BroughtHowever fiercely hostile the Church appeared towardsmodern scientific theories, passing death sentences andimprisonment for every scholar who formulated a theory orilluminated a fact contrary to the Church’s beliefs, the Qur`an,conversely, encourages people - as we mentioned previously - toseek knowledge and impart what they have acquired to others.Several verses in Qur`an illustrate the lofty status of thescholars, and their elevated rank with Allah. Several other versestell us about how the heavens, the earth, and the first man andhis offspring later were created. The Qur’an depicts the event ofancient history and explains cloud formation, wind movement,and other scientific facts which have been discovered onlyrecently by modern science. The Quran preceded these scientificfacts and that is why the Qur`an is distinctly superior to theother divinely revealed scriptures to the extent that non-Muslimscholars remain unable to find a single mistake in it. This facthas been acknowledged by many fair Western researchers, and ithas led the famous French physician Maurice Bucaille to
  29. 29. (29)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)embrace Islam. Dr. Bucaille drew a comparison between theQur`an and Biblical narrations regarding specific subjects in thelight of modern scientific discoveries. He came to the realizationthat the Qur`an is in perfect agreement with the modern datawhile, on the hand, the Torah and the Bible of today includestatements which are scientifically unacceptable. He collectedall the points he discussed in a book entitled “The Bible, theQur`an, and Science,” which was translated into severallanguages.At the end of the book, he concludes:“Contradictions, improbabilities, and incompatibilities withmodern scientific data can be easily explained in terms of whathas been said above. Christians are nevertheless very surprisedwhen they realize this….” Then about the Qur`an he states:“The Qur`an follows the two revelations that preceded it and isnot only free from contradictions in narrations, the sign of thevarious human manipulations to be found in the Gospels, butprovides a quality all of its own for those who examine itobjectively and in the light of science, i.e. it’s in completeagreement with modern scientific data. What is more, statementsare to be found in it (as has been shown) that are connected withscience; and yet it is unthinkable that a man of Muhammad`s(PBUH) time could have been the author of them. Modernscientific knowledge therefore allows us to understand certainverses which, until now, have been impossible to interpret” 14F1.1 The Bible, The Quran and science p 285.
  30. 30. (30)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Third: Guiding to foundations of many arts and SciencesMore than a religion of worship, Islam is a complete andcomprehensive way of life. Its teachings left nothing of thebasic aspects connected to human life unexplained. I will notmention this at length here, but suffice with some key points:1. Islam teaches its adherents how to deal with the news theyreceive. Allah guided us how to receive news and evidencesbe sure about them. Allah says: “O you who believe! If aFasiq (evil person) comes to you with any news, verify it,lest you should harm people in ignorance, and afterwardsyou become regretful for what you have done.” (Al-Hujraat49:6) Also, to not follow that which you have noknowledge, claiming that you have heard and seen. Allahsays: “And follow not, O man, (i.e., don’t say or witness)that of which you have no knowledge. Verily, the hearing,sight, and hearts of each person will be questioned (byAllah).” (Al-Isra 17:36) In his explanation, Ibn Jarir said, itsmeaning is said to be “Do not say of which you have noknowledge. It is also said that it means do not say I sawwhen you did not see, or I heard when you did not hear,because you will be questioned by Allah on all of this”. Forman`s hearing, sight and heart will be questioned abouttheir actions. What is more, saying against Allah what youdon’t know is a greater evil than committing shirk. Allahsays: “Say (O Muhammad): ‘The things that my Lord has
  31. 31. (31)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)indeed forbidden are al-fawahish (great evil sins and everykind of unlawful sexual intercourse) whether committedopenly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteousoppression, joining partners (in worship) with Allah forwhich He has given no authority, and saying things aboutAllah of which you have no knowledge.’” (Al-Araf 7:33)Lying, itself, is warned against in general, and especiallythe kinds of lies which are spread amongst people. Thegravity of spreading lies is illustrated in the statement of theProphet, who said: “As for the man I came upon, whosesides of mouth, nostrils and eyes were torn off from front toback, he is the symbol of the man who goes out of his housein the morning and tells lies that are spread all over theworld”.2. Islam encourages making use of the available means ofpower so the Islamic nation should not be unexpectedlyattacked. Allah says: “And make ready against them all youcan of power.” (Al-Anfal 8:60) Power, here, is unrestrictedand includes the different sciences, especially militaryintelligence and technology, such as planes and tanks. Aslong as we are asked to make ready all we can of power, itis obligatory to adopt empirical science, which is today`smeasure of power. Allah says: “O you who believe! Takeyour precautions.” (Al-Nisa 4:71) This Divine command isembodied today by remote sensory technology like radar.
  32. 32. (32)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)3. Islam promotes management leadership. The Qur`anicverses and Prophetic sayings referring to that point areinnumerable. They all stress man`s general and individualresponsibility: that all are asked to work and will bequestioned about their deeds. Allah says regardingindividual responsibility: “O Man! Verily, you are returningto your Lord with your deeds and actions (good or bad), asure returning, and you will meet (the results of your deedswhich you did).” (Al-Inshiqaq 85:6) Also, Allah says: “Sowhosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom shallsee it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of anatom shall see it.”(Al-Zalzalah 99:7:8) Regarding collectiveresponsibility, Allah says: “And say (O Muhammad): ‘Do(good) deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) HisProphet and the believers. And you will be brought back tothe All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He willinform you of what you used to do.’” (At-Tawbah 9:105)Here, in the following verse we are being taught that theworker has to possess two basic qualities: strength andtrustworthiness. Allah, Glory be to Him, says: "The best ofmen for you to hire is the strong, the trustworthy.” (Al-Qasas 28:26) With such principles, a Muslim appreciatesthe gravity of this responsibility. Because of his concernabout being questioned later for his deeds, he refrains fromcausing harm to others. The difference between the Islamiccivilization and western civilization is based on two
  33. 33. (33)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)questions: the west always asks ‘how’ and the Islamiccivilization always asks ‘why’. The first question isdestructive, because it is asking about the way of doingsomething, neglecting its results. The nuclear bomb wasnothing but an outcome to such a question, since thequestion was about how to annihilate an enemy and save itsproperties! But the second question was a positive one sinceit asked about the result before starting the action15F1.4. Islam emphasizes the essence of morals. Allah says in theQuran: “By the nafs (Adam or a person or a soul), and HeWho perfected him in proportion. Then He showed himwhat is wrong for him and what is right for him. Indeed hesucceeds who purifies himself (i.e. obeys and performs allthat Allah ordered, by following the true Faith of IslamicMonotheism and by doing righteous good deeds). Andindeed he fails who corrupts himself (i.e. disobeys whatAllah has ordered by rejecting the true faith of Islamicmonotheism, or by following polytheism, or by doing everykind of evil wicked deed).” (Ash-Shams 91:7:10) TheProphet (PBUH) taught his companions (may Allah bepleased with them) that the best of people is the best ingood morals. He (PBUH) said: “The best amongst you arethose who have the best manners and character.”16F2The Holy1 Wa`ood al-Islam 44.2 Sahih Muslim 1810/4.2321.
  34. 34. (34)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Qur`an told us that we should have good morals whendealing with everyone. Allah says: “And speak good topeople.” (Al-Baqarah 2:83) Also, the Prophet (PBUH) toldus that a sign of a person’s complete faith is him loving forhis brother what he loves for himself. The Prophet (PBHH)said: “None of you would be a true believer until he wishesfor his Muslim brother what he wishes for himself”17F1.5. Islam has established sound economic principles. It’s notpossible for a civilization to flourish without a sound androbust economy. For this purpose, buying and selling arepermitted while interest is prohibited. Allah says: “AndAllah has made selling lawful, and has prohibited riba(interest).” The Prophet (PBUH) forbade also what canundermine economy, like monopoly and cheating.Furthermore, Allah warned against extravagance, theterminal illness that can damage economy. Allah theExalted says: “O Children of Adam! Take your adornment(by wearing your clean clothes), while praying and goingaround (the tawwaf of) the Kabah. And eat and drink, butwaste not by extravagance. Certainly He (Allah) likes notal-musrifun (those who waste by extravagance)” (Al-Araf7:31).6. Islam has prescribed general health principles. The Prophet(PBHU) encouraged us to treat ourselves with medicine. He1 Al-Bukhari 14/13,1/Muslim 67/1,45.
  35. 35. (35)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)(PBUH) said: “O slaves of Allah, treat yourselves withmedicine, for Allah does not send down a disease exceptthat He sent down with it its cure, except for old age.”18F1Sothe Quran points to the well known principle regardinghuman health, which is that ‘prevention is better than cure.’A precursor to this adage is the statement of the Prophet(PBUH):“If whoever eats seven ajwa dates in the morning,neither magic nor poison will hurt him that day.”19F2In ImaamMuslim`s narration: “He who eats seven dates (of the landsituated) between these two lava plains in the morning, nopoison will harm him until the evening.”20F3It is insight thattries to prevent diseases from spreading before people areaffected by them. Despite this, the Prophet (PBUH) forbadeentering countries stricken by epidemic. He (PBUH) said:“If a plague strikes a land, then do not enter it and if itstrikes a place while you are in it, then do not go out fromit.”21F4The Prophet (PBUH) also warned against visitingpeople with infectious disease. He (PBUH) said: “Whoever1 Sunan Ibn Majah 1137/2 . This hadith and its narrators proven to becorrect by Al_Bousiri in Msbah Alzogaga 187/2, Al-Albani in hiscommentary on Sunan, and in Sahih Ibn Haban 426/13 while he reportedthat Sufian said: “It has the strongest isnad ever” and by Al-Hakim in AlMustdrk 1/209 and By Al–Zahabi in Al Tlkhees.2 Sahih Al-Bukhari 2075/,130.3 Sahih Muslim 1618/3,2047.4 Sahih Al-Bukhari 30/7, Al-Ahadith Al Mukhtarah 161/3, correct isnad.
  36. 36. (36)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)suffers from infectious disease shouldn’t visit a healthyperson”22F1.The Prophet (PBUH) also commanded taking adequateprecautions for preventing harm. He (PBUH) said: “Extinguishthe lamps when you go to bed; close your doors; tie the mouthsof your water skins, and cover the food and drinks.” These aresafety instructions for lamps that burn oil or wax for light. He(PBUH) also mentioned closing doors and covering the food anddrinks so as to prevent infection with vermin, microbes, andbacteria.Since it takes too long to refer to the basics and theprinciples of every art and science, it suffices to shed light onthe principles of knowledge, health, economy, media, morals,and power in Islam.Section Two: ReligionReligion is one of the most important, if not the greatest,components of civilization and life in general. That’s why thereis no nation without a religion. This indicates that religion is aninborn human instinct, that Islam, the true religion as you willsee below, came to satisfy. Many issues come under this, as willbe discussed below.1 Sahih Al-Bukhari2177/5,543 Sahih Muslim 1743/4,2221.
  37. 37. (37)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)First Issue: DefinitionLinguistically defined by FairuzAbadi, the Arabic word deen(religion) in English means recompense, habit, ritual, thecontinuous raining, humiliation, reckoning, subduing,overwhelming, haughtiness, dominance, rulership, assumingpower and planning. Dayyaan in Arabic (the doer of deen)means the one who subdues, judges, rules, manages andpunishes and gives reward on everything good or evil. Allah theExalted says quoting the people: “Shall we indeed (be raisedup) to receive reward or punishment (according to our deeds)?”(As-Saaffat 37:53)23F1.Deen is idiomatically defined by Al-Raghib in his book “TheVocabulary of the Qur`an” as: “Originally used to refer toobedience and recompense, but it was borrowed to indicateshariah (religious rules).”24F2FairuzAbadi said: “Deen (Religion)is a word that encompasses whatever is used to worship Allahwith.”25F3It was defined by some Muslim scholars as:“a divine suitablemethod for people of sound mind, leading them to success in lifeand hereafter.” Draz said: "To sum it up, we can conclude thatreligion is a Divine method that leads to the correct belief and to1 Al Qamos Al Moheet, Deen Root1/1546. Mukhtar Al-Sahah1/99.2 Al Mufradaat p 175.3 Al Qamos Al Moheet, Deen Root1/1546.
  38. 38. (38)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)good conduct and dealings.”26F1Deen is defined by Ibn Alkamalas: “(a) Divine method which calls upon people of sound mindto accept what the Prophet (PBUH) came with”27F2.These were some definitions for religion by Muslimscholars. As for Western scholars, the definition of religion wascharacterized by a variety of things due to their different beliefs,sources of knowledge, religions, and arts. The definition ofphilosophers is completely different from that of socialists andintellectuals. Here are some of these definitions to see howdifferent they are. In Philosophical Lexicon, religion wasdefined as “a group of holy beliefs and rituals that are believedin a group of people to meet the needs of individuals andsociety, likewise.”28F3On the other hand, religion is defined byWestern socialists as “a social system based on the existence ofone or more natural or supernatural powers, explaining therelation between human beings and those powers. This notiongets supported under any specific culture to become a social-type system. Such types or systems are what is called religion”29F4.Ahmed Agibah mentioned some of the definitions forreligion and divided them into three categories. Every categoryincluded a number of definitions. We will select here a1 Al Deen page 33.2 Altarefat 344/1. Abgd Alalom 337/2. Hwashi Alshrwany 21/1.3 Philosophical Lexicon p 86.4 Social Science Lexicon p 270.
  39. 39. (39)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)definition from each category only for citation, not fordiscussion.The first definition of religion is one of the mystical-approach definitions: "(Religion is) a group of duties to beperformed by the creatures to their Creator, and duties of ahuman being towards Allah, people, and themselves".The second definition of religion is one of the sense-baseddefinitions: "(Religion is the) natural reaction to what one`smind is busy with, paralyzing one`s ability and leading societyto lose its coherence".The third definition of religion is one of the comparativeapproaches: “(Religion is) man`s conduct being guided by theconnection he feels between his soul and another hidden soul.He believes that this hidden soul takes control over him and theentire world and likes to get connected with it”30F1.Reviewing such Western definitions, the radical differencebetween them becomes very clear. This radical difference comesfrom the scholar`s different cultural and religious sourcesincluding Greek, Roman, Christian and modern philosophies. Sodifficult did they find it to come up with a standard definitionthat as James Freezer says: “Most likely, no other topic has beenlong disputed like religion”31F2.1 Studies on Old Pagan Religions p21/27.2 Al-Ghosn Alzahby p 217.
  40. 40. (40)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)In his book entitled “Religion,” Prof. Muhammad AbdullahDraaz mentioned some definitions and considered their basiccomponents to come up with the final definition for religion. Hesaid: “Religion is to believe in heavenly unseen object or objectscharacterized by the ability to feel, choose, control and manageman`s affairs - a belief that makes man invoke that sublimeobject in fear and hope, exalting it in submission.”32F1In short:“Religion is to believe in what is worthy of worship andobedience.” This is the psychological perspective of religion, i.e.to be religiously committed. Far from the psychologicalperspective, religion as abstract fact can be defined as "a groupof theoretical laws which identify the attributes of the Divineobject and the practical rules that show how to performworship”33F2.For his part, Rawf Shalby attributes the dispute over definingreligion to the following:- The inherited delusions of ancient pagan nations relatedto religion.- The lack of a clear concept for religion in their religiousscriptures.- The vagueness of their inherited beliefs.- Their incomplete hypotheses that test religion and1 Religion p 52.2 Religion p 52.
  41. 41. (41)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)religious commitment.- Their incorrect measures adopted to understand andexplain religion34F1.We can also add:- Their lack of awareness of the true religion, which iswhy their definitions are based on the knowledge of theirown religions.- Not differentiating between the revealed and the man-made religions.A comparison between the definitions of Western andMuslim scholars shows that each gave a definition based on theconcepts he was raised upon. For the Muslim scholar, he wasraised upon the true religion revealed by Allah, and as a resulthe believed in Allah as he was taught. On the other hand, theWestern scholar didn’t find the true religion, but he livedwavering between man-made philosophy and distorted religionAs a result, he gave a definition for what he is not only unable tounderstand but also unable to believe in.1 Ya Ahl Al kitaab p 48 quoted from Studies on Ancient Pagan Religionspage 31.
  42. 42. (42)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Second Issue: Regulations of the True ReligionHaving defined religion, we must delineate the aspects thatdifferentiate between the true religion and the distorted ormanmade religions.1. The true religion must be sent down by Allah via an angelto a prophet so as to convey its message to mankind.Consequently, whoever comes up with a religion callingfor worshipping himself is undoubtedly calling to a falsereligion.2. The true religion must call for none but Allah to beworshipped while prohibiting all possible avenues leadingto polytheism.3. The true religion must be in agreement with the principlesthat all prophets and messengers espoused.4. The true religion must include guidance to Allah`s rulesand clarify for man all important details related to Allahthe Exalted, including His attributes, names, and actions.Furthermore, the true religion must clarify details relatedto the universe, the unseen, and purification or corruptionof the human soul.5. The true religion must not contain incongruities, i.e. togive one command to do something, while anothercommand abolishes the former command or permits whatit has forbidden without reason.
  43. 43. (43)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)6. The true religion must include a system of checks andbalances, prohibitions, commands and morals to protectpeople`s religion, souls, families, minds, and wealth, in theform of commands, prohibitions and manners.7. The true religion must be a mercy that frees people fromdoing injustice to themselves and others.8. The true religion must call for good morals and actions.9. The true religion must provide the means to achievehappiness for its adherents.10. The true religion must lead to the truth, and prohibitfalsehood, and guidance not deviation35F1.Third Issue: The Need for ReligionHaving elaborated the aspects that differentiate between thetrue and the false religion, it is appropriate to address thequestion of whether man really needs to know the true religion,or is it a sort of dispensable intellectual luxury.Answering this question requires first bringing to mind thestory of man`s creation; from what he was made, and why hewas created? In the beginning, man was created from clay, andthen the soul was breathed into him. So he is structured of body1 Al-Islam Asooloh Wa Mabad`oh for the writer p 57-59 Regulations inmore detail.
  44. 44. (44)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)and soul, subject to various whims, yet he is asked to carry outAllah`s commands. He will be questioned about whether hecarried them out well or badly.Man is religiously committed throughout all times and in allplaces throughout man’s history. Man can’t live withoutreligion. This is what made several studies affirm the need ofman for religion. Man’s need for religion is, as Ibn Al - Qayyimsaid, more dire than his need for a physician, food and drink36F1.There are many reasons for why man needs religion.Numerous answers were given by researchers regarding thispoint; however they all confirm the need for religion.The 20th Larus Lexicon states: “All human races are bornwith religious instinct, even the most barbaric and the onesclosest to animalism…. Divinity and supernatural interest areeverlasting universal human instincts”37F2.Arnold Twenbi says: "Just like the essence of human natureis stable, so also the essence of religion. Indeed religion is adistinctive quality for human nature"38F3.Dr. Draaz cites the consensus of the religious historians onthis point saying: “The fact that all religious historians haveagreed upon is that no human group or even a large nation has1 Muftah Dar Al-Sada 2/383.2 Religion p 82.3 Studies on Ancient Religions p 43.
  45. 45. (45)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)ever appeared and vanished without thinking about man`screation and his final destination, the universe, and itsphenomena; they all formed their own views on such subjects.Irrespective of how wrong or correct these views were,forthright or conflicting, at the end, they consider how thosegroups and nations perceived the overwhelming power whichcontrols the entire universe phenomena and to which allcreatures will ultimately return”39F1.Dr. Qaradawi says: “The need for religion in general, andparticularly for Islam, is not secondary or marginal. It is aninherent and essential need connected to the essence of life andthe secret of existence going down to great depths of the humansoul.” The following are, in short, the reasons we need religion,according to Dr. Qaradawi:First: The mind needs to recognize the essential facts ofexistence, which can be summed up as follows:1. Man`s need for a religious doctrine stems from his need todiscover himself and his surroundings in the universe, i.e. todiscover the answers to the questions with whichphilosophies have been long occupied and have failed toprovide an adequate answer.. Since the beginning ofcreation, man has been searching for answers to suchpressing questions: From where? To where? Why? No1 Religion p 38.
  46. 46. (46)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)matter how involved he gets in life`s affairs, he inevitablywill find himself one day asking these everlasting questions:a. He will ask himself: “From where did I and that vastuniverse come? Did I come to life by myself, or there is aCreator who caused me to exist? Who is this Creator?What is my connection to Him?” And likewise you ask:“Did this entire vast universe with its land and sky,animals and plants, objects and orbits, originate by itselfor by the will of a Creator?”b. What is after life… and what is after death? Where is thedestination after this short journey on the earth? Is lifenothing but one`s getting out of wombs and being buriedin land, nothing else?c. Why was man created? Why was he preferred overanimals with intellect and free will? Why have thecreatures of the heavens and earth been subjected to him?Was he created for a purpose? Does he have a task in thislife? Or was he only created to eat and die like theanimals? And if there is a purpose for life, what is it?How does he know it? All these questions address onlyman`s mental aspects, but still there are other aspects thatneed to be addressed. These are man`s feeling and soul.Unlike electronic systems, man has a mind, feeling, andsoul. This is the pattern by which Allah has mademankind. Consequently, man is not easily convinced by
  47. 47. (47)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)science or culture. No art or literature can satisfy hisinsatiable desires, and no pleasure or entertainment canfill his void. He stays naturally worried, spirituallyhungry and thirsty, feeling void and yearning forcompletion, until he believes in Allah to feel security,serenity, satiability and to discover himself.2. Additionally, the oscillations between hope and pain inman`s life result in an even more dire need for religion.Man has an innate need for support when faced with thetype of adversity which can result in fear, anxiety, and theloss of hope. In such cases, religion comes to give himstrength after weakness, hope in a moment of despair andfear, and patience in misery, tribulation, and severelystraightened circumstances.Belief in Allah and justice, mercy, reward and recompensewill make man feel better psychologically and spiritually.Hence, he gains pleasure and feels optimism, and with openarms and a bright outlook, he starts his life. Despite thedifficulties and sufferings he must go through in this shortlifetime, he will be always patient and satisfied. He will findsolace and feel hope and serenity for which neither science,philosophy, wealth, progeny, nor power can substitute.3. Furthermore, man has a social need for religion.. This isrelated to the need for motives and regulations. Man needsto have motives for doing good deeds and performing duties
  48. 48. (48)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)without being supervised or waiting for reward. Alsoimportant to man’s life are regulations that organizerelations and impose social justice and encourage thesuppression of personal desires in deference to the interestsof society. It is not correct to suffice with laws to establishsuch motives and regulations, since it is easy to break orflout laws. Thus, it was necessary for such moral motivesand regulations to stem from inside, not outside, the humansoul. It is man`s heart, or conscience, which, if it is whole,will render all his deeds whole, and which, if it is diseased,will render all of his deeds diseased40F1.In addition to the reasons that Qardawi mentioned, Dr.Ahmed Ali Ageebah mentions other individual and socialfactors which make religion necessary for man. He says:- Man is religiously committed due to his nature, so hisneed for religion is an indispensable instinct. Supportinghis notion, he cites the monologue which has beenmentioned by the philosopher Auguste in his book“Philosophy of Religions”, in which he talks to himselfsaying: “Why am I religiously committed? Never did Iutter this question except I found myself responding: I amreligiously committed simply because I can’t be any otherway. It is the original disposition upon which I was1 Islamic Salsbil Network, topic of The Need for Religion, Article by YousfAl Qardawi.
  49. 49. (49)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)originated. They disagree with me, (saying) that it is notlike this, but it is attributed to the influence of what youhave been raised upon or what may be due to your mode.Here I object, (saying) that I have always been thinkingthe same. However, the result of this debate is that theissue seems to have become more complicated, rather thanresolved. What is more, social life needs religion moreurgently than my personal one. It is not less religiouslycommitted than my soul.”41F1The (original disposition) thatthe philosopher mentioned has been expressed in theQur`an as (fitrah)42F2Allah says:“So set you (O Muhammad)your face towards the religion (of pure Islamicmonotheism) Hanif (worship none but Allah alone).Allahs fitrah (i.e. Allahs Islamic monotheism) with whichHe has created mankind. No change let there be in khalq-illah (i.e. the religion of Allah - Islamic monotheism): thatis the straight religion, but most men know not.” (Ar-Room 60:30).- Between the conflict of life`s requirements and thesurrounding environmental demands, man lives, and onlyreligion and its beliefs can settle this conflict.- The true religion is the source of values, morals and1 Studies on Ancient Pagan Religions p 66.2 The natural inborn inclination of man to worship his creator(i.e Islamicmonotheism) prior to the corruption of his nature by external influences.
  50. 50. (50)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)shining examples that man can draw from its teachingsand principles based on belief in Allah.- The failed attempts made to reject religion are itself anabsolute and clear proof for the necessity of religion.Murad Hoffman,who was the former German Ambassadorto Morocco, says: “It is a source of worry to find onlysome Westerners solicitous of what is inflecting theirsociety…. The loss of meaning, the absence of the sublimegoal while the spiritual void is increasing with the shadowof turning man`s life into meaningless issue. Indeed, likeBrave Mansour said: ‘Atheism puts its tax on every singleperson in the West’”43F1.Dr. Ahmed Ali Ageebah also cited a study carried out byTalcott Parsons supporting the need for religion due to severalinborn human qualities. Among these qualities are thefollowing:1. Man is often beset by worry when fearing failure whenhe is about to start an action. It is religion that givesassurance, conviction and certainty.2. Man is incapable of withstanding pressure, thus he feels1 Islam in the Year of 2000 p 41. He reverted to Islam in 1980 AD. Heworked as an ambassador to some Islamic countries and visited others.Such environments granted him opportunities for reading the Quran, hethen embraced Islam and was convinced that it was the truth he wasseeking.
  51. 51. (51)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)unpleasant and discontent. In this case, religion connectshim with the heaven so that he can overcome despair.3. Man is tested with inequity in opportunity and success inlife. That’s why man becomes sad and grieved when anopportunity is missed. He becomes subdued to otherseven when asking for his own legitimate rights. Nothingbut true religion shows him how to measure the realgains of this life, leaving him satisfied and content. Thisis what is called believing in destiny. Allah says: “Nocalamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves, but it isinscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)before we are brought into existence. Verily, that is easyfor Allah in order that you may not grieve at the thingsthat you fail to get, nor rejoice over that which has beengiven to you. And Allah likes not prideful boasters.” (Al-Hadid 57-22:23).Ibn Al-Qayyim adds one more very strong reason for theneed for religion, which is the need for both theoretical scientificpower and willing scientific power. He says: “Man has twopowers. The first one is the theoretical scientific power while theother is the willing scientific power. No happiness can he attainunless he perfects the two powers. Perfecting the scientificpower comes through knowing his Creator, His names andattributes, and the correct path to Him. In addition, man mustalso discover himself and identify his defects. Upon achieving
  52. 52. (52)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)these goals, his scientific power becomes fully fledged. As forthe willing scientific power, it cannot be obtained until heobserves Allah`s limits, sincerely, truthfully obeying Hiscommandments, giving Him thanks for His blessings andbenevolence, and by realizing his shortcomings in fulfilling thecommandments. There is no way of having those two powerswithout the support of Allah, so man is always obliged to askAllah’s guidance to the right path that Allah`s pious worshipperswere guided to.”44F1Dr. Draz and Dr. Ageebah stressed the samepoint, where Dr. Draz said: “Religion is essential to completingman`s scientific power, since it is the only thing that can satisfyman`s hunger. It also essential to his sentiment that profoundemotions of love, longing, thanking and modesty can be alwaysdisplayed and felt; all these have their correct place in religion.Finally, it is essential for man to be full of absolutedetermination through proper motivation so that he doesn’t sinkinto the depths of despair.”45F2He adds: "In short, brilliant mindsalways leave little-known temporal facts behind and seekknowledge while sticking to well-known, timeless facts. Varioussciences and branches of knowledge don’t contain these facts,but they are in need of them. Such are the holy facts that truereligions came with. This has two indications: firstly, it showswhat man is seeking, not unlike the fact that a trace leads to theone who left the trace. Secondly, that man has something that1 Al-Fouad p18-19.2 Religion p 97-98.
  53. 53. (53)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)shows he was created to stay and remain. These are presentregardless if man pretends to forget or disregard them46F1.Fourth Issue: The Source of ReligionViews are very diverse regarding this point, yet all attributereligion to only two sources:The first source is: The divine revelation from Allah theExalted, the Creator of the entire universe. So, it is notsurprising for religion to be an inborn inclination for mankind,and this is what adherents of the three great religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam) believe. For Judaism and Christianity, noevidence for revelation is left to them except the books theyinherited from their forefathers; however these books are bitterlycriticized and have been proven to be changed and distorted.Yet, Muslims have more than one source of evidence for theirtrue religion, including the following:1. Allah presented in the Noble Quran an everlasting andcomprehensive challenge to mankind and the jinn, evenif they support one another, to come up with somethinglike this Qur`an, or ten verses like it, or even a singlechapter like it.2. The Qur`an presents firm beliefs that cannot be refutedor invalidated. In addition, it also presents social,1 Religion p 97-98.
  54. 54. (54)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)psychological and cultural rules that only The One Whohas full knowledge of the secrets of the universe, thesoul, and who knows what happened in the past, ishappening at present and will be in the future.3. It has been proven that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)was famous among his tribe for being truthful, havingnever told a lie in his entire life, neither before nor afterhis prophetic mission.4. There is no broken connection between the time whenthe Quran was revealed, to when it was memorized, towhen it was recorded and transmitted by multitude ofpeople, without a single change or distortion as wasfaced by the books of previous religions47F1.5. Islam is in perfect agreement with modern scientific datawith regard to historical events, universal facts, and thehuman experience.6. The Christians and the Jews who embraced Islam earlyon testified that this religion is the absolute truth and thatits message is the same all prophets came with.Moreover, it goes perfectly with man`s nature andsatisfies human soul requirements.1 Man in the Light of Religions p 26-27.
  55. 55. (55)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)The second source is: Man`s thought.A man’s thought, needs, and requirements of hissurroundings. Some claim that whatever is not proven bytheoretical knowledge does not exist and is void. That is whythey tried to study why various religions started in societies;however, they did not study revelation and what is beyondnorms. This is why they differed in the origin of mankind andhow religion started. Despite numerous studies, they remainperplexed; neither did they reach a conclusion and neither weretheir doubts removed.For a civilization’s renaissance, there has to be a truereligion that achieves individual and social, religious andpolitical, intellectual and scientific goals. That’s why the formerpresident of USA College once said in a speech: “Our countryneeds to be more religiously committed. I perceive not asuccessful and effective solution for equality and combatingevils better than religion. All governmental and educationalsystems are doomed to vanish. Reward and punishment rule issoon to lose its effect if not based on reform and sacrifice. Sinceadvice is the core point of religion, there is no way of enjoyingenlightened civilization as long as we are deprived from faith”48F1.The true religion I mean here is Islam, as Muhammad Asad(formerly Leopold Weiss - an Austrian ) said: “Unlike all otherreligions, Islam categorizes the human soul as one of man`s1 Religion and Science p173 quoted from studies on religion p 77.
  56. 56. (56)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)several aspects, not as an independent phenomena in itself. So,from an Islamic perspective, man`s soul’s elevation is laterallyachieved with all his other natural aspects. His physical drive isa supplement to his nature, not a result of original sin - thisconcept is totally rejected in Islam - but rather a great positivepower conferred on man by Allah, so it should be accepted andwisely utilized. In this regard, man`s problem lies not in how tooutstrip his physical demands, but in how to balance betweenthem and the demands of his soul in such a way to have a goodlife.It is easy now to conclude that unlike the Christian notionthat man is born with sin and Hinduism’s belief that man is adegraded and unclean being whose soul reaches perfectionthrough stages of reincarnation, man from an Islamicperspective is born pure and does good deeds by nature. Allahsays: “Verily, We created man in the best stature (i.e. in a stateof purity which is not possible to degrade except due todespicable manners thereafter). Then We reduced him to thelowest of the low.” (AT-Tin 95:4-6)49F1.Section Three: PerfectionDefinition: Ibn Manthor said to perfect something is to do itin the best way. Allah says: “The Work of Allah, Who perfected1 The Way to Islam p152.
  57. 57. (57)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)all things.” (An-Naml 27:88).When the Arabs started to implement the manners of theQuran, their standards and values changed; thus the Arabs, whodid not do justice due to lineage, they started to see gainingmanners and perfection as real aspects of mankind.So, precision means to perfect whatever you do, whether it ismaterial or moral. In this sense, precision proves indispensableto any civilization or industry hoping to flourish. Consequently,industrial and scientific institutions are now paying due concernto precision. They have established the highest standards for allproducts, educational or industrial. These standards later becameso widely known that made manufacturers and producers strivehard to meet them and ensure that their products have thenecessary characteristics.Islam, as the last message, didn’t overlook this aspect, but itstexts came to highlight, confirm it and invite to it. They indicatehow perfect Allah the Exalted made everything, calling upon allto perfect their work and how Allah loves this from His slaves.Allah says: “The work of Allah, Who perfected all things” (An-Naml 27:88).In his commentary, Ibn Abbas said “He perfectedeverything.” Mujahid said: “He perfected everything and madeeverything in the best way.” Almost the same explanation isattributed to Qatadda 50F1. Also, Ibn Kathir said: “Perfected every1 Gama Al-Bayan 20/21.
  58. 58. (58)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)time He created and placed in it the necessary wisdom”51F1.Talking about the harmony between Allah`s legislation andHis creation, and that just like Allah created His creation withcomplete perfection, so also He legislated with completewisdom, Ibn Al-Qayyim said: “Allah, Who legislated suchpunishments and linked them with causes, is the knowner of theunseen and the seen, the most wise of judges. He is theOmniscient Who encompasses everything in His knowledge; Heknows what happened, what and how something will be, andwhat didn’t happen. Allah is the most knowledgeable of everysingle detail, hidden and apparent, which people`s knowledgecan seldom encompass. Allah wisely manages the entireuniverse, and He made His creation in perfection and measuredeverything exactly according to its due measurement, giving useyes with which to see, ears with which to listen, a nose withwhich to smell, a tongue and lips with which to speak, handswith which to strike, and legs with which to walk. He alsocreated animals in due proportion, giving each of them what itneeds based on its characteristics, body parts and stature, for Hisperfection and precision encompass everything. As He, theExalted says: ‘The work of Allah, Who perfected all things.’(An-Naml 27:88) Understanding that Allah has made Hiscreation in complete perfection, it is more fitting for Hismanagement and command to be even more perfect. Even if we1 Tafsir Al-Quran Alatheem 3/379.
  59. 59. (59)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)were unable to know every single detail of His knowledge andmanagement, we can`t deny it all”52F1.As for his part, the Prophet (PBUH) called upon people andinduced them to perfect their work. On the authority of Aisha(may Allah be pleased with her) The Prophet of Allah (PBUH)said: “Allah loves that whenever any of you does something,you should perfect it.”53F2There was a solar eclipse on the day theProphet`s son Ibrahim’s died, and people attributed the eclipseto his death. However, the Prophet (PBUH) responded: “The sunis not eclipsed due to the birth or death of anyone.” In the samesituation the Prophet`s eye (PBUH) caught a little gap betweenthe bricks of the grave, and he immediately ordered hiscompanions to fill it, telling them: “Allah loves that wheneverany of you does something, you should perfect it.”54F3So see howthis was only a gap that caused no harm nor benefit to the dead,yet the Prophet didn’t allow it to remain in that condition, and heordered that it too should get its share of perfection. When askedby the companions if it can harm or benefit the dead, he repliedwith what was quoted above.In his commentary, Al Manawi said: “ Regarding the hadithAllah loves that whenever any of you do something, you should1 Alam Al Moqaeen 120/2.2 Al Muagam Al Aawst 275/1, Musnd Aba Yaly, 349/7, Shoab Aliman334/4, Mugama Alzwaed 98/4, Kashf Alkhfaa 286/1, corrected by AlAlbani in Alsilsila Alsahiha 306/24.3 Al Mugm Al Kabeer 306/24.
  60. 60. (60)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)perfect it.” This means perfecting your work. Therefore, everyworker has to master his job. Regardless of the amount ofrecompense, he has to do his work to perfection as prescribed.He mentioned the story of a worker who finished some workand gave it to his customer. Upon getting back home at night, hethought that he didn’t do his job well, so he didn’t go to sleep.Instead, he returned to working on it again, but this time he didhis work to perfection. He returned to the customer in themorning, giving him the second version instead. The customerthanked him, then the worker explained that he didn’t make itagain for the customer’s sake, but he became worried that therecould be something wrong with his work. So to be fair, he had todo it once again55F1.Having finished the topic of perfection, we have now cometo the end of the knowledge section. The following section is asequence for the essence of this section, but with differentdetails.1 Fayd Alqdeer 2/287-286.
  61. 61. (61)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Chapter TwoSocial valuesThe values of this chapter highlight an issue which hasalways engaged the minds of sociologists, sociology researchers,and scholars; this issue is sociology itself. The values of thischapter lie in the core of sociology and its basis, as well as inconfirming that this religion (Islam) has discussed everythingthat human beings may need, and everything that life mayrequire. I tried to discuss the most prominent values of thisissue, nevertheless I can’t handle them all, as I mentioned in theintroduction.This subject consists of seven sections:Section One: ModerationAccording to Arabic dictionaries, the word “middle" meansthe balance between two things.56F1Ibn Manzoor (one of theArabic linguists) said: “The middle of something is the centerbetween its two ends, and middle sometimes means the fairestpoint between two extremes. Additionally, when using this wordto describe the attitude of a man, it means moderation.” In his1 Lesan Al Arab dictionary, “wasat” entry, 7/430, 427.
  62. 62. (62)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)vocabulary explanation, Ibn Manzoor said: “The middle ofsomething is the point that divides it into two equal parts”57F1.So “middle" indicates what is fair and what is good, which,in our case, is the center between two extremes, withoutextravagance and unreasonable excess, and also withoutnegligence or excessive leniency.This true religion (Islam) is balanced and fair; since thisvalue is so important that security and stability of nations andindividuals depend on it. Islam orders its followers to be fair,and urges them to stick to moderation; it also indicated thatextreme loss is the consequence of abandoning moderation,whether by adopting extremism or negligence.Allah the Almighty described the Islamic nation as fair andmoderate. As He says: “Thus have We made you a justlybalanced nation, that you might be witnesses over the nations,and the Prophet a witness over yourselves” (Al-Baqarah 2:143)In his interpretation of this verse, Ibn Jarir said: “Allah theAlmighty described the Islamic nation as middle due to itsmoderation regarding all religious affairs. The Muslims aren’textremists like the Christians, who exaggerated in religion byinventing monasticism and attributing to Jesus what they believein now, nor are the Muslims like the Jews, who changed thewords of their holy book , killed their prophets and lied againsttheir Lord and denied Him. Allah the Almighty likes fairness1 Ibn Manzoor vocabularies, page 522.
  63. 63. (63)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)and moderation in all things, so He, the Almighty Lord,attributed these characteristics to Muslims, as they are orderedto be moderate and fair in all matters”58F1.Allah has made this moderate religion (Islam) a straight waywhich leads humans to what Allah the Almighty has createdthem for and enables them to achieve their most lofty goals.Allah, to whom belongs might and majesty, says: “Verily, this ismy way leading straight: follow it; do not follow (other) paths:they will scatter you about from His (great) path; thus does Hecommand you, that you may be righteous.” (Al-Anam 6:153)Islam enables mankind to achieve both worldly objectives andsecurity, safety, and victory in the afterlife. Allah says: “Thenthose who believe in Allah, and hold fast to Him, soon will Headmit them to mercy and grace from Himself, and guide them toHimself by a straight way.” (An-Nisaa 4:175) So they havemercy in this life and the Hereafter, as they are promised toreceive mercy and bliss in the afterlife.An example for Islamic moderation is that Muslims areordered not to exaggerate in their worship beyond what Allahhas legislated, lest they fall into innovation and heresy, and so asnot to overburden themselves. Imam Al Bukhari narrated on theauthority of Hamid Ibn Abi Hamid Al Taweel that he heardAnas Ibn Malik saying: “A group of three men came to thehouses of the wives of the Prophet (PBUH) asking how he1 Jame’ Albayan 2/6.
  64. 64. (64)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)(PBUH) worshipped (Allah). When they were informed abouthis worship, they considered their worship insufficient, and theysaid, ‘Where are we from the Prophet, as his past and future sinshave been forgiven.’ Then one of them said, ‘I will offer theprayer throughout the night forever.’ The other said, ‘I will fastthroughout the year and will not break my fast.’ The third said,‘I will keep away from women and will never marry.’" AllahsProphet came to them and asked, ‘Are you the same people whosaid so-and-so? By Allah, I am more submissive to Allah andmore afraid of Him than you; yet I fast and break my fast; I dosleep and pray; and I also marry women. Therefore, the one whodoes not follow my tradition in religion is not from me (not oneof my followers)’”59F1.In a narration, the Prophet (PBUH) once entered the mosqueand saw a rope hanging in between its two pillars. He inquired,“What is this rope?” The people said, “This rope is for Zainabwho, when she feels tired, holds it (to keep standing for theprayer).” The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Remove the rope. Youshould pray as long as you feel active, and when you get tired,sit down”60F2.Another example for Islam’s moderation is that it enables itsfollowers to combine between worshipping and worldly desiresin a balanced way, so that a Muslim should not devote himself1 Sahih Al Bukhari, hadith 5,4776/1949, Sahih Muslim, hadith1401, 2/1020.2 Sahih Al Bukhari, hadith 1109,1/386, Sahih Muslim hadith784, 1/541.
  65. 65. (65)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)only to worship, depending on others for his sustenance andneglecting the rights of his dependents (wife, parents, andchildren). Similarly, he also should not indulge in worldlydesires to the extent that he neglects his religion, devotinghimself to earning money, forgetting about his Lord, and notrepenting for his sins. Allah the Almighty guides us tounderstand how to strike a balance between the two sides, as Hesays: “But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed onthee, the abode of the Hereafter, but don’t forget your portion inthis world; but do good, as Allah has been good to you, and seeknot (occasions for) mischief in the land, for Allah does not lovethose who do mischief.” (Al-Qasas 28:77) Ibn Jarir said: “Allahthe Almighty tells us about the advice Qarun received from hispeople. They told Qarun not to act insolently towards them,deceived by the abundance of wealth, and to seek with the(wealth) which Allah had bestowed on him, the abode of theHereafter by obeying Allah in this life. Ibn Jarir then quoted theinterpretation of Al Hasan for what is meant by “but don’t forgetyour portion in this world.” Al Hasan said: “What Allah permitsyou to have in this life is quite enough and sufficient for you.”61F1Allah the Almighty Lord says: “In houses, which Allah haspermitted to be raised and to mention His Name. In them He isglorified in the mornings and in the evenings, (again and again),by men whom neither business nor merchandise can divert fromthe remembrance of Allah, or from the establishment of regular1 Jame’ Al Bayan 20/111-112.
  66. 66. (66)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)prayer, nor from the practice of giving charity. Their (only) fearis for the day when hearts and eyes will be transformed (in aworld wholly new), that Allah may reward them according tothe best of their deeds, and add even more for them out of Hisgrace, for Allah provides for whom He will, without measure”(An-Nur 24:36-38).Such people don’t let their business divert them fromestablishing regular prayers and or prevent them from givingcharity. In his explanation to this verse, Qatada said: “Peoplewere trading and doing their regular business, but when it wastime to establish one of Allah’s ordinances, they didn’t let theirbusiness or merchandise divert them from it.”62F1Ibn Kathir said:“It means that they didn’t let the beauty of life and its fancies,and the profit of trading distract them from the remembrance ofAllah, Who created them and provides sustenance to them. Theyare sure that His reward is much better than they already havebecause what they have must vanish, and what is with Allah willremain”63F2.As Allah ordered us to maintain this balance, He alsopermitted us to enjoy the comforts of this life of wearing nicegarments and eating delicious food. He, the Almighty Lord, alsoordered us to wear our best clothes when going to the mosque.He says: “O Children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel at1 Sahih Al Bukhari 2/726.2 Tafsir Al Quran Al Azim 3/296.
  67. 67. (67)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)every time and place of prayer. Eat and drink, but waste not byexcess, for Allah does not love not the wasters. Say: ‘Who hasforbidden the beautiful (gifts) of Allah, which He has producedfor His servants, and the things, clean and pure, (which He hasprovided) for sustenance?’ Say: ‘They are, in the life of thisworld, for those who believe, (and) solely for them on the Dayof Judgment.’ Thus do We explain the signs in detail for thosewho understand” (Al-Araf 7:31-32).The Prophet (PBUH) used to observe his companions, and ifhe noticed that someone was breaking this balance, he used todeliver advice and guide him to the right way. Abi Alahwasnarrated on the authority of his father that the Prophet (PBUH)saw him (his father) wearing torn garments and looking poor.The Prophet (PBUH) asked him: “Do you have property?” Heanswered: “Yes, I do.” Then the Prophet (PBUH) asked: “Whatkind of property?” He answered: “From all kinds, I have money;I have horses, camels, and servants.” The Prophet (PBUH) said:“As Allah granted you such wealth, it should be seen on you.”64F1The Prophet (PBUH) used to tell his companions that Allahlikes to see the effect of His bounties upon His worshippers.Amro Bin Shua’yb narrated from his father, who narrated fromhis father, that the Prophet (PBUH) said: “Enjoy your food and1 Sunan al-NisaI 8/181, approved by Al-Albani in his commentary on AlSunan, Sahih Ibn Hibbaan 11/234, Al-Mustadrak on the two Sahihs 1/76,Al Hakim said: “it is an authentic hadith [sahih]”, and Al Zahabi said thesame in his commentary.
  68. 68. (68)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)your drink, and give charity without excess and without showingoff. Allah, the Almighty Lord, likes to see the effect of Hisbounties upon His worshipers”65F1. Abdullaah Ibn Masoodnarrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “No one will enterParadise who has an atoms weight of pride in his heart.” A mansaid, “What if a man likes his clothes to look good and his shoesto look good?” The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Allah is beautifuland loves beauty. Pride means denying the truth and lookingdown on people”66F2.Islam came to strike a balance between material and spiritualneeds; it isn’t just spiritual like idolatrous eastern religionsincluding Zoroastrianism and Confucianism, nor is itmaterialistic and extravagant in fulfilling bodily needs likecapitalism. Rather, Islam, as I mentioned before, is a moderateapproach, which satisfies the human being’s needs, and at thesame time makes Allah pleased with them in the way that bringsthem happiness in this life and in the Hereafter.1 Al Musnad 2/311, approved as a good hadith by the New Encyclopediaauthenticators, Sunan Al Tirmizi 5/123 and he said: “hood hadith”, Al-Mustadrak 4/150, Al Hakim said : “good hadith” and the same did AlZahabi.2 Related by Muslim (no. 91, 1/93).
  69. 69. (69)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)Section Two: The Status of Women in IslamIslam doesn’t pay attention to women only, but it paysattention to the human being in all life circumstances andconditions. Since its inception, Islam has ensured what is knownnowadays as “human rights”, and it also confirmed the necessityof caring for animals, birds, plants, and even inanimate objects.Islam has outstanding respect for women, yet the issue ofwomen in Islam is highly controversial. Islam honors andrespects women of all social levels, whether she is a mother, awife, a daughter or a sister. Allah the Almighty made respectingparents and dealing with them in a good manner a part ofworship. He says: “Your Lord has decreed that you worshipnone but Him, and that you be kind to parents. When one orboth of them attain old age in this life, say not to them a word ofcontempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honour"(Al-Israa 17:23) He also clarified the rights and duties ofhusband and wife towards each other, saying: “And womenshall have rights similar to the rights against them, according towhat is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) overthem. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.” (Al-Baqarah2:228) Allah informs us that men and women are equal in thislife and the afterlife with regard to the reward for their gooddeeds. He says: “Whoever works righteousness, man or woman,and has faith, verily, to him will We give a new life, a life that isgood and pure, and We will bestow on such their reward
  70. 70. (70)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)according to the best of their actions” (An-Nahl 16:97).The Prophet (PBUH) instructed men to deal with women in agood manner. He said in his famous farewell sermon deliveredat `Arafah: “Fear Allah with regards to women, you have takenthem in the trust of Allah and have made their private parts halalwith the word of Allah”67F1.Islam also ordered men to be gentle towards women and tocare for their feelings. The Prophet (PBUH) says: “There isnothing that you spend for Allahs sake but you will be rewardedfor it, even the food that you raise up to your wifes mouth”68F2.As the Arabs, in the days of pre-Islamic ignorance, used tofeel sad when informed of the birth of a female child, theProphet (PBUH) promised those who have daughters of greatreward from Allah. He (PBUH) says: “Whoever had daughtersand was patient with raising them, the daughters would be aprotection for him from the Hell fire”69F3.The Prophet (PBUH) respected women and dealt with themin a very unique way, so that when women complained to himthat they couldn’t listen to his lessons as much as men, hededicated a day per week for teaching them and informing them1 Sahih Muslim, hadith no 1218,2/889.2 Agreed upon, Sahih Al Bukhari, hadith 2591,3/1006, Sahih Muslim,hadith1628, 3/1251.3 Sunan Al Termiddi 4/319, Abu Issa described it as a ‘good’ hadith, SunanIbn Maja 2/1210.
  71. 71. (71)Cultural Values in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)of their duties and rights. Abu Said Al-Khudri narrated: “Somewomen requested the Prophet (PBUH) to fix a day for them, asthe men were taking all his time. With that, he promised themone day for religious lessons and commandments. Once, duringsuch a lesson, the Prophet (PBUH) said, ‘A woman whose threechildren die will be shielded by them from the Hell fire.’ At that,a woman asked, ‘If only two die?’ He replied, ‘Even two (willshield her from the Hellfire)’”70F1.Though the Prophet (PBUH) was burdened by hismissionary duties and always engaged by the affairs of the newborn nation, he noticed the absence of the woman who used toclean the mosque, although she was one of the common peoplewho was never noticed or missed. However, the Prophet(PBUH) noticed her absence, and that indicates his fairness andhis keenness to give everyone his due rights. Abu Hurairanarrated: “A black man, or a black woman, used to sweep themosque and he, or she, died. The Prophet (PBUH) asked abouther (or him). He was told that she (or he) had died. He said,‘Why did you not inform me? Show me his grave (or hergrave).’ So he went to her (his) grave and offered her (or his)funeral prayer”71F2.The Prophet (PBUH) told us also about the great reward andthe honorable status of the woman who dedicated herself to1 Sahih Al Bukhari, hadith 101, 1/50, Sahih Muslim, hadith2633, 4/2028.2 Sahih Muslim, hadith 956, 2/659, Sahih Al Bukhari, hadith 448, 1/176.

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