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    final defence final defence Presentation Transcript

    • Final Defence
    • ? New Technology Traveler Internet Destination Destination Destination Destination Destination Destination Destination Destination Destination Destination Destination
    • INTERNET USE FOR TOURISM (IUT): A Case Survey on Students of Assumption University Thailand
    • Table of Content
      • Generalities of the Study
      • Review of Related Literature and Studies
      • Research Framework
      • Research Methodology
      • Result and Discussion
      • Conclusion and Recommendation
      • Question and Answers
    • CHAPTER 1: Generalities of the Study
      • Background of the study
        • Online tourism and its evolution
        • Online tourism behavior
        • International student tourist
      • Statement of the problem & Research objectives
    • Background of the study: Tourism website evolution & Online tourism behavior
      • Simple and isolated
      • Interactive and integrated
      • Linked and dynamic
      • Online ordering/booking
      • High-level, full-function and comprehensive
      • Access useful and up-to-date information
      • Asks questions
      • Search for tourist product catalogues
      • Online bookings
      • Online payments
      • Passively get travel information
    • Background of the study: International student tourist
      • Economic impact of youth travel is significant for the global tourism industry
      • Usually appreciate change in their environments
      • Greater amount of disposable time
      • Relative absence of responsibility
      • Lack of mental and physical constraints
      • They have received little attention in tourism research
    • Statement of the problem & Research objectives
      • RQ1: What are the factors that influence the international college student to employ IUT ?
      • RQ2: To what extent the international college student are involved in IUT ?
      • RQ3: What constitutes appealing feature in a tourism related website for international college student users?
      • To identify the factors influencing international college student (ICS) to use internet in their decision making behaviors.
      • To describe the internet use for tourism (IUT) behavior of ICS.
      • To identify the relationship between the intensity of IUT and users’ characteristics
      • To understand the essential elements in developing the marketing of IUT.
    • CHAPTER 2: Review of Related Literature and Studies
      • Intensity of IUT
      • Mathieson & Wall Model on Five-Stage Process of Travel-Buying Behavior
      • Empirical studies and critical analysis
    • Intensity of IUT
      • Bonn, Furr and Hausman (2000)
        • Request destination information
        • Purchase travel-related services.
      • Cheyne, Downes and Legg (2005)
        • Gathering general information
        • Planning trips
        • Arranging trips.
      Internet
    • Mathieson & Wall Model on Five-Stage Process of Travel-Buying Behavior Tourist Profile: Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics Trip features Trip distance Trip pressure Trip cost Domestic pressure Party size Trip duration Confidence in travel intermediaries Perceived risk and uncertainty of travel Travel desire Information search Image of Destination (+ or -) Information search continued Assessment of travel alternatives Travel decisions Travel arrangements Travel experience and evaluation Travel Awareness Destination resources and characteristics Primary resources Tourist facilities and services Political and economic and social structure Geography and environment Infrastructure Internal accessibility
    • Empirical studies and critical analysis
      • Bonn, Furr and Hausman (2000): Using Internet Technology to Request Travel Information and Purchase Travel Service: A Comparison of X’ers, Boomers and Mature Market Segments Visiting Florida .
      • Cheyne , Downes and Legg (2005): Travel Agent vs. Internet: What Influences Travel Consumer Choices?
      • Hyde and Lawson (2003): The Nature of Independent Travel .
      • Lu and Lu (2004): Development, Distribution and Evaluation of Online Tourism Services in China .
      • Kim, Jogaratnam and Noh (2006): conducted the research of Travel Decisions of Students at a US University: Segmenting the international market .
    • Empirical studies and critical analysis (cont.)
      • Age group had definite influence on IUT.
      • The tourists, who visited the destination for the second time , intended to use internet
      • Language is an important factor that influences the IUT behavior
      • Only a minority of FIT has a plan on attractions, activities or travel route
      • Success factors and Dissatisfy factors of website
      • The student market is substantially concrete enough to provide the detailed studies
    • CHAPTER 3: Research Framework
      • Theoretical framework
      • Conceptual framework
    • Theoretical framework Tourist Profile: Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics Trip features Trip distance Trip pressure Trip cost Domestic pressure Party size Trip duration Confidence in travel intermediaries Perceived risk and uncertainty of travel Travel desire Information search Image of Destination (+ or -) Information search continued Assessment of travel alternatives Travel decisions Travel arrangements Travel experience and evaluation Travel Awareness Destination resources and characteristics occupation , education , net income and age are taken out. nationality , student’s identification number (ID) , Grade Point Average (GPA) , disposable money , total family income , living party , weekday internet use , weekend internet use , and push factors are added. IUT related Travel Awareness Key characteristics of the destination Travel desire IUT used on Information gathering IUT used on Travel decisions IUT used on Travel arrangements IUT as a long term consumer relationship tool Tourist Profile: Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics IUT related Travel Awareness Trip features Destination resources and characteristics Trip distance Trip cost Party size Trip duration Confidence in IUT Key characteristics of the destination Primary resources Tourist facilities and services Political and economic and social structure Geography and environment Infrastructure Internal accessibility
    • Conceptual framework
      • Research objectives
        • To identify the factors influencing international college student (ICS) to use internet in their decision making behaviors.
        • To describe the internet use for tourism (IUT) behavior of ICS.
        • To identify the relationship between the intensity of IUT and users’ characteristics.
        • To understand the essential elements in developing the marketing of IUT.
      Tourist Profile Gender Nationality Student ID GPA Disposable money Total family income Living party Weekday internet use Weekend internet use Push factors Characteristics of the destination IUT related Travel Awareness Travel desire Trip features Trip distance Travel party Familiar about the trip Trip duration Trip cost Transportation Confidence in IUT Intensity of IUT Not use IUT at all IUT used on Information gathering IUT used on Travel decisions IUT used on Travel arrangements IUT as a long term consumer relationship tool
    • CHAPTER 4: Research Methodology
      • Respondents and sampling procedures
      • Collection of data/gathering procedures
    • Respondents and sampling procedures Research Instrument: self-administered questionnaire Target Population: 17,798 undergraduate AU students Sample Size: 381 Sampling Method : non-probability sampling Pre-test: 30 student travelers
    • Collection of data/gathering procedures
      • Totally 400 questionnaires will be distributed
      • Distribute 300 questionnaires by hand in Assumption University ( 200 in Hua Mak campus and 100 in Suvarnabhumi campus ).
      • Another 100 questionnaires will be distributed through E-mail to reach the students who do not take summer school .
      • The collection period is within April, 2008 .
    • CHAPTER 5: Result and Discussion
    • Summary of Descriptive Analysis 18.8 36.6 27.2 10.4 7.0 Below 3,000 Baht 3,000 – 10,000 Baht 10,001 – 20,000 Baht 20,001 – 50,000 Baht 50,000 Baht Disposable Money 7.8 46.5 35.0 10.7 Below 2 2.00 – 3.00 3.01 – 3.80 3.81 – 4.00 GPA 25.7 23.4 32.6 18.4 3.3 52.5 44.3 Undergraduate: Below 471 471 – 486 491 – 496 Above 496 Graduate: 471 – 486 491 – 496 Above 496 Education/Student ID 59.3 19.1 8.6 Thai Chinese Indian Nationality 43.9 56.1 Male Female Gender Percentage Findings Descriptive analysis
    • Summary of Descriptive Analysis (cont.) 12.3 44.6 28.7 8.6 5.7 Below 5,000 Baht 5,000 – 20,000 Baht 20,001 – 50,000 Baht 50,001 – 100,000 Baht More than 100,000 Baht Expenditure of Travel Per Year 15.1 39.2 20.6 6.8 18.3 Travel 1 time or less per year Travel 2 – 3 times per year Travel 4 – 5 times per year Travel 6 – 8 times per year Travel more than 8 times per year Frequency of Travel 29.8 41.8 Use 1 – 2 hours Use 2 – 5 hours Internet Usage 8.1 16.7 24.0 15.4 35.8 Live alone Live with 1 person Live with 2 persons Live with 3 persons Live with more than 4 persons Living Party 5.2 26.1 26.1 17.5 25.1 Below 20,000 Baht 20,000 – 50,000 Baht 50,001 – 100,000 Baht 100,001 – 150,000 Baht Above 150,000 Baht Total Family Income Per Month Percentage Findings Descriptive analysis
    • Summary of Descriptive Analysis (cont.) 43.9 29.8 Air Private car/van Main Transportation 29.5 Advertising and promotion online Awareness from Internet 46.0 44.9 38.6 Sun sea and sand Attractions Time and cost Pull Factors 44.9 43.6 32.9 Looking for fun and entertainment Seeing and learning Nature Push Factors 56.0 15.2 14.9 13.9 Thailand China Other country in Asia Other countries Destination 44.4 27.4 22.2 18.3 Somebody else book for them Got phone number from internet, and then Call for booking Booking on the hotel website Booking on online travel agent website Booking Method Percentage Findings Descriptive analysis
    • Summary of IUT behaviors 10.8 8.3 9.5 Tours 8.0 9.4 9.3 Currency 13.9 18.5 14.2 Packages 19.1 15.1 17.3 Flights 11.4 7.6 5.7 Car Hire 15.1 17.0 21.4 Destination 21.7 24.2 22.6 Accommodation 66.5 64.5 69.4 User Arranging (%) Planning (%) Searching (%) IUT Behaviors
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing Rejected Independent Sample t-test H o 1 H o 1: There is no difference among tourists in Travel Desire when classified by IUT related Travel Awareness. Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Traveler Destination
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) Rejected One way ANOVA H o 2 H o 2: There is no difference among tourists in Intensity of using IUT when classified by Travel Desire . Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Traveler Destination Internet
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) (IUT) Thai greater than Non-Thai Rejected Independent Sample t-test Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA Nationality (IUT) Female greater than Male (REG) Female greater than Male Rejected Rejected Independent Sample t-test G ender Accepted Accepted Independent Sample t-test Education H o 3: There is no difference among tourists in Intensity of using IUT when classified by Traveler’s profile. Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Traveler Internet
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) Traveler Internet H o 3: There is no difference among tourists in intensity of using IUT when classified by Traveler’s profile. Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis (REG) Below 3,000 Baht smaller than 10,001 – 20,000 Baht 3,000 – 10,000 Baht smaller than 10,001 – 20,000 Baht Above 50,000 Baht smaller than 10,001 – 20,000 Baht Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA Disposable income (REG) Below 2 smaller than 3.01 – 3.80 Rejected Accepted One way ANOVA GPA (IUT) Below 471 greater than Above 496 491 – 496 greater than 471 – 486 491 – 496 greater than Above 496 Rejected Undergraduate Accepted One way ANOVA Graduate Student ID
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) Traveler Internet H o 3: There is no difference among tourists in intensity of using IUT when classified by Traveler’s profile. Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Average overall expenditure per year (IUT) 1 time and less smaller than 4 – 5 times 1 time and less smaller than More than 8 times Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA Frequency of travel Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Internet use (IUT) None smaller than 3 persons 3 persons greater than 4 and above (REG) None smaller than 1 person None smaller than 3 persons 2 persons smaller than 3 persons 3 persons greater than 4 persons Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA Living party Rejected Accepted One way ANOVA Total family income
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) (IUT) Positive Rejected Independent Sample t-test Pull Factors – Attractions (IUT) Positive Rejected Independent Sample t-test Pull Factors – Event (IUT) Positive Rejected Independent Sample t-test Pull Factors – Time & Cost Accepted Independent Sample t-test Pull Factors – Sun & Beach H o 4: There is no difference among tourists in Intensity of using IUT when classified by Characteristics of the destination . Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Destination Internet
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) Destination Internet H o 4: There is no difference among tourists in Intensity of using IUT when classified by Characteristics of the destination . Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Accepted Independent Sample t-test Pull Factors – Natural Environment (IUT) Positive Rejected Independent Sample t-test Pull Factors – Family
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) Destination Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Confident about the cheap price they offered Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Confident about the knowledge and expertise of their service Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Distance of trip Ho5: There is no difference among tourists in intensity of using IUT when classified by Trip features . Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Internet Traveler
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) Destination Internet Traveler Ho5: There is no difference among tourists in intensity of using IUT when classified by Trip features . Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Rejected Accepted One way ANOVA Confident about them when they provide personalization service Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Confident about them when they provide a large amount of helpful, up-to-date and attractive information Rejected Accepted One way ANOVA Confident about their ease of purchasing Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Confident when making payment Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA Confident about what I arrange through the internet is what I will get
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) Destination Internet Traveler Ho5: There is no difference among tourists in intensity of using IUT when classified by Trip features . Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA Awareness that influence the desire of travel Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Distance of trip Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Confident about them when they had the ability to deal with complex travel arrangement Accepted Rejected One way ANOVA Confident about them when they have high speed of searching and browsing Accepted Rejected One way ANOVA Confident about them when they have refinement page and interface design Accepted Accepted One way ANOVA Confident about them when they offer unbiased advice
    • Summary of Hypotheses Testing (cont.) Destination Internet Traveler Ho5: There is no difference among tourists in intensity of using IUT when classified by Trip features . Remarks Result (REG) Result (IUT) Statistics Test Hypothesis Accepted One way ANOVA The language of website (IUT) Below 3,000 Baht smaller than 3,000 – 10,000 Baht Below 3,000 Baht smaller than 10,001 – 25,000 Baht Below 3,000 Baht smaller than Above 50,000 Baht (REG) 10,001 – 25,000 Baht greater than Above 50,000 Baht Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA The cost of this trip per person (IUT) 1 day 1 night – 3 day 2 nigh smaller than More than 3 day 2 night – 1 week 1 day 1 night – 3 days 2 nights smaller than More than 1 week – 2 weeks (REG) Not stay overnight greater than 1 day 1 night – 3 days 2 nights Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA The duration that they stay (IUT) Girlfriend/ boyfriend couple greater than More than 5 friends (REG) One friend smaller than Girlfriend/boyfriend couple Rejected Rejected One way ANOVA Number of people they travel with
    • Discussion
      • Gender and citizenship play slightly differently roles in IUT.
      • The mature students seem to spend more time in IUT than the freshmen do.
      • Personalization service appears to be the principal concern as viewed by the majority of the respondents.
    • Discussion
      • Respondents with strong academic performance within the GPA of 3.01 to 3.80 shows their active registration in tourism related website more than students whose GPA is below 2 .
      • Disposable income —be it dependant on family’s funding or self-supported one—has negative effect on the intensity of IUT .
      • Respondents with Disposable Income from Baht 10,001 to – Baht 20,000 are likely to accept online register in tourism related website.
    • Discussion
      • Time and Cost comprise the pull factor, which has positive influence toward intensity of IUT .
      • Students whose personal trip-expenses range from Baht 10,001 to Baht 25,000 appear to adopt IUT more than those with the cost of trip per person above Baht 50,000 .
      • Younger generation is more likely to trust internet.
    • Discussion
      • Internet features an efficient tool for travel after travelers have acquired some ideas of the places and wanted to look for more information and cost-effective arrangements.
      • Online travel starts from other online activity .
    • CHAPTER 6: Conclusion and Recommendation
      • Conclusion
      • Recommendation
      • Suggestion for Further Research
    • Conclusions
      • RO 1: To identify the factors influencing international college student (ICS) to use internet in their decision making behaviors.
        • Gender, nationality, years in the university, personal economy, students’ livelihood, students’ frequency of travel, time spent and season of the trip, their budget planning or allowances, family’s influence, historical, cultural and aesthetic components of the places, internet reliability, page refinement, interface design, high speed of searching and browsing, online awareness, familiarity of the places visited, their company, duration of their stay, and their personal expenditure
    • Conclusions (cont.)
      • RO 2: To describe the internet use for tourism (IUT) behavior of ICS.
        • IUT for searching (69.4%), IUT for planning (64.5%), arranging of their trip (66.5%).
        • 46.7% of respondents registering on tourism related website .
    • Conclusions (cont.)
      • RO 3: To identify the relationship between the intensity of IUT and users’ characteristics
        • Intensity of IUT and online registration more from female students than male students.
        • Residents of Thailand use internet more than the non-residents .
        • The freshmen students ’ IUT turns out to be smaller than their senior and junior counterparts.
        • maturity in social and academic conduct
        • The users’ factors on income and spending plan
        • Characteristics of the students living , livelihood , and exposure to traveling.
    • Conclusions (cont.)
      • RO 4: To understand the essential elements in developing the marketing of IUT.
        • Tourist’s profile, marketing segmentation
        • Custom-made package for group
        • Online awareness or appealing advertising.
        • Website design
        • Reliability of IUT and related technological features
        • Long-term relationship building.
    • Recommendations
      • Tourist’s profile and marketing segmentation.
        • Gender division, cultural aspect, ranges of age of the internet user, family size, allowance or budget in a travel, travel frequency upon the internet marketers’ creation of packages.
    • Recommendations (cont.)
      • Package offered.
        • Numbers of company (4-people-group student-travelers).
        • Affordable budget, cost-effectiveness
        • Festivities, vacation, seasons
    • Recommendations (cont.)
      • Website design.
        • Refinement page and interface design
        • High speed of searching and browsing
        • Personalization service
    • Recommendations (cont.)
      • Online awareness.
        • Online travel starts from other online activity
    • Recommendations (cont.)
      • Long term relationship building
        • Ensuring the repeat purchasing and save promotion expenses
        • Encompasses the technical elements to assure the customers’ satisfaction through reliability of the website, ease of purchasing, and personalization service .
    • Suggestions for further research
      • A study on interaction between registered users and their websites.
        • The study will not only indicate users’ behavior and expectation in the tourism related internet development, but also help facilitate businesses who use the tourism related internet in improving their websites accordingly.
    • Suggestions for further research (cont.)
      • A comparative study on internet using between romance travelers and family travelers.
        • Travelers may engage themselves in IUT differently when they plan to travel with different size of the company, as well as with different purpose . The result from the comparison of IUT behavior between romancers and family people is likely to help in developing web design and package specific for their needs.
    • Suggestions for further research (cont.)
      • A study on the influence and effectiveness of advertising or online awareness.
        • Online awareness seems prevalent in this study, and a future study on their influence and effectiveness should interest the advertisers or marketers in finding innovative approaches to appeal to the tourist internet users.
    • Question and Answers