Martin Aspeli Extending And Customising Plone 3


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Plone 3 introduces several new features, such as an improved Portlets infrastructure, the Content Rules engine, a more pluggable UI based on viewlets and a more flexible menu system. This tutorial, structured as a series of short walk-throughs, will teach you: - How to make a new portlet the Plone 3 way - How to create a new content rule action or condition - How to plug into the standard UI using viewlets - How to add new drop-down menus to the content menu bar

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Martin Aspeli Extending And Customising Plone 3

  1. 1. Extending and customising Plone 3 Martin Aspeli
  2. 2. A small aside
  3. 3. Agenda Love the buildout Embrace the egg Policy: Repeatable repeatable repeatable! Here a dependency, there a dependency You love GenericSetup Thou shalt write tests! Visual customisation: A cacophony of layers and skins Next steps …
  4. 4. Introduction Zope 2 is great But we want more! Smaller, isolated packages are better But we need better tools to manage them Development and deployment are getting more complex Plan to keep control from the beginning Through-the-web development is not cool anymore
  5. 5. Some terminology Product – A Python package for Zope 2. Often lives in Products/ and is subject to certain magic when Zope starts up. Package – A more general term, but in the Zope world is typically refers to something that is not in the Products.* name space. Egg – A way to distribute packages. Supports automatic dependency management: dependencies can be downloaded from PyPI/The Cheese Shop. Buildout – A way to manage projects, with tools for building Zope instances, downloading Plone, installing eggs and so on (these are known as “recipes”). GenericSetup – A way to configure a Plone site using declarative XML files. Policy product – A pattern whereby a project has a single product which, upon installation, installs all dependencies and customisations in one step.
  6. 6. A buildout First, get easy_install, ZopeSkel and paster These can go in the global Python (most of the time) Watch out for where they get installed $ wget $ easy_install -U ZopeSkel $ paster create --list-templates
  7. 7. A buildout We will use the plone3_buildout template from ZopeSkel $ paster create -t plone3_buildout pc07 Answer the questions the only one you have to answer is password Setting debug mode to on is usually a good idea
  8. 8. A buildout Let’s look at what we got: buildout.cfg is the main configuration file products/ can be used for old-style Products src/ is used for custom eggs var/ is used for Data.fs and logs
  9. 9. A buildout Buildout will generate other directories: bin/ contains executables parts/ contains files managed by buildout eggs/ contains downloaded eggs develop-eggs/ contains egg-links to development eggs
  10. 10. A buildout Let’s build it $ cd pc07 $ python $ ./bin/buildout If you are on Windows I’m sorry to hear that But you can still get it to work - just read the generated README.txt file and set up mingw32. If Python 2.4 is not your default Python Read README.txt
  11. 11. A buildout Believe it or not, you now have a fully working Zope and Plone installation $ ./bin/instance fg More importantly, we can manage other dependencies and packages through buildout.cfg We can also set up ZEO, Varnish, Deliverance, Apache and so on using standard or custom recipes To learn more about buildout, see
  12. 12. Subversion Idiot developers do not use source control We are not idiot developers You don’t need a remote server to run Subversion $ svnadmin create /repo $ svn mkdir file:///repo/pc07/{,/trunk} $ svn co file:///repo/pc07/trunk pc07 # our project Of course, if you have a server, use that instead! In this case, you can use svn+ssh or Apache and mod_dav
  13. 13. Subversion Check in only source code (not generated files or data) $ svn ps svn:ignore ' > eggs > develop-eggs > bin > var > parts > .installed.cfg' . $ svn add products buildout.cfg src README.txt $ svn commit Other developers can now use the same buildout You can move it to a staging or live server
  14. 14. A policy product This is a package that performs all the customisations and installs all the dependencies to turn vanilla Plone site into your application or site Create a new egg $ cd src/ $ paster create -t plone example.policy Namespace is example, package is policy, Zope 2 product is True, Zip-safe is False
  15. 15. A policy product This package is an egg! declares dependencies, metadata example/policy/ contains actual code Let’s add to svn, but ignore the generated egg-info $ svn add -N example.policy $ cd example.policy $ svn ps svn:ignore '*.egg-info' . $ svn add docs example README.txt setup.cfg $ svn commit
  16. 16. A policy product We need to tell buildout about the package. Declare it as a development egg (so buildout doesn’t search the Cheese Shop for it!) Add it to the egg “working set” for the Zope 2 instance Install a ZCML slug so that Zope finds it at startup
  17. 17. A policy product Edit buildout.cfg: [buildout] ... eggs = elementtree example.policy develop = src/example.policy [instance] ... zcml = example.policy
  18. 18. A policy product Re-run ./bin/buildout $ ./bin/buildout -o Develop: '/Users/optilude/tmp/eggs/pc07/src/example.policy' ... We can run buildout in offline mode (-o) to make it a bit faster The egg is now ready. We can run the generated tests just to check. $ ./bin/instance test -s example.policy
  19. 19. Installing dependencies Most sites use third party products As a developer, you may want to use a particular Python library (not necessarily a Zope product) We would like to make the process of obtaining and installing these as automated as possible
  20. 20. Installing dependencies If it is an old-school product without a release, add it to the top-level products/ directory (note lowercase “p”) Do not add anything inside parts/ as buildout may delete your changes To track a package in Subversion, use svn:externals: $ cd products $ svn ps svn:externals 'RichDocument svn/collective/RichDocument/trunk' . $ svn up $ svn commit
  21. 21. Installing dependencies If it is an old-school product with a release, you can have buildout download and configure it for you. Edit buildout.cfg: [productdistros] ... urls = RichDocument-3.0.1.tar.gz nested-packages = version-suffix-packages = Then re-run ./bin/buildout See for more about the other options
  22. 22. Installing dependencies If your dependency is an egg in the Cheese Shop, add it to in the policy product and re-run buildout: install_requires=[ 'setuptools', 'plone.browserlayer>=1.0rc1,<1.1dev',], Re-run ./bin/buildout to get the new package. Be careful: Some of the newer Zope 3 eggs declare parts of Zope 3.4 as transitive dependencies. This may break Zope 2.10. For now, you must find a version without copious dependencies. To learn more about how setuptools handles versions:
  23. 23. Installing dependencies If there is no release, put the egg in the src/ directory Add it to the develop option in buildout.cfg [buildout] ... develop = src/example.policy src/some.package You can still use the policy product’s to declare it as a dependency install_requires=[ 'setuptools', 'some.package', ],
  24. 24. Installing dependencies For a package outside Products.*, we must include it in ZCML processing explicitly Edit src/example.policy/example/policy/configure.zcml: <configure xmlns=quot;; xmlns:five=quot;; i18n_domain=quot;example.policyquot;> <include package=quot;plone.browserlayerquot; /> ... </configure>
  25. 25. Installing dependencies We should ensure that installable Zope 2 products are installed when the policy product itself is installed Create src/example.policy/example/policy/Extensions/ and add this boilerplate: import transaction from Products.CMFCore.utils import getToolByName PRODUCT_DEPENDENCIES = ('RichDocument', 'plone.browerlayer') # Edit this list to add new dependencies EXTENSION_PROFILES = () # ('example.policy:default',) # Our profile - we’ll activate this in a moment def install(self, reinstall=False): portal_quickinstaller = getToolByName(self, 'portal_quickinstaller') portal_setup = getToolByName(self, 'portal_setup') for product in PRODUCT_DEPENDENCIES: if reinstall and portal_quickinstaller.isProductInstalled(product): portal_quickinstaller.reinstallProducts([product]) transaction.savepoint() elif not portal_quickinstaller.isProductInstalled(product): portal_quickinstaller.installProduct(product) transaction.savepoint() for extension_id in EXTENSION_PROFILES: portal_setup.runAllImportStepsFromProfile('profile-%s' % extension_id, purge_old=False) product_name = extension_id.split(':')[0] portal_quickinstaller.notifyInstalled(product_name) transaction.savepoint()
  26. 26. Customisation with GS GenericSetup lets us define customisations via XML Two types of profiles: Base profile: A complete configuration. Plone is installed using one of these. Extension profile: Bolts onto a base profile to amend or change configuration. This is the most useful kind for third party developers. Managed via portal_setup, but portal_quickinstaller knows how to install them too
  27. 27. Customisation with GS First we must create and register a profile $ mkdir -p example.policy/example/policy/profiles/default Edit configure.zcml and add: <configure ... xmlns:genericsetup=quot; genericsetupquot;> <genericsetup:registerProfile name=quot;defaultquot; title=quot;Example policy productquot; directory=quot;profiles/defaultquot; description=quot;Install our example customisationsquot; provides=quot;Products.GenericSetup.interfaces.EXTENSIONquot; /> ...
  28. 28. Customisation with GS If we didn’t have Extensions/, the quick- installer would have found this profile and made it available for installation In the future, we will be able to declare profile dependencies Until then, we use to install dependencies and then trigger our own profile Now we can un-comment this line in EXTENSION_PROFILES = ('example.policy:default',)
  29. 29. Customisation with GS Look at parts/plone/CMFPlone/profiles/default This is Plone’s base profile. Copy any of these files into your product’s extension profile and modify as appropriate. For example, create profiles/default/propertiestool.xml: <object name=quot;portal_propertiesquot;> <object name=quot;navtree_propertiesquot;> <property name=quot;metaTypesNotToListquot; type=quot;linesquot; purge=quot;falsequot;> <element value=quot;News Itemquot;/> </property> </object> <object name=quot;site_propertiesquot;> <property name=quot;allowAnonymousViewAboutquot; type=quot;booleanquot;>False</property> </object> </object> When this is installed, portal_properties will be changed
  30. 30. Customisation with GS Some useful handlers: properties.xml – sets properties at the root of the site propertiestools.xml – manages portal_properties rolemap.xml – Creates roles and sets permissions at the root of the site actions.xml – Sets up actions in portal_actions catalog.xml – Creates catalog indexes/metadata workflows.xml – Maps and creates workflow definitions (kept in the workflows/ folder)
  31. 31. Customisation with GS It is not terribly hard to write your own GenericSetup import/export handler However, sometimes we just need to write some Python code For this, we can use the “import-various” hack This registers a new handler, but instead of parsing an XML file we simply execute some custom code
  32. 32. Customisation with GS Create profiles/default/example.policy_various.txt. This is a “flag” - it can be empty Create profiles/default/import_steps.xml: <import-steps> <import-step id=quot;example.policy_variousquot; version=quot;20071012-01quot; handler=quot;example.policy.setuphandlers.importVariousquot; title=quot;Various Example Settingsquot;> <dependency step=quot;catalogquot;/> <dependency step=quot;propertiestoolquot;/> </import-step> </import-steps>
  33. 33. Customisation with GS Create def importVarious(context): if context.readDataFile('example.policy_various.txt') is None: return site = context.getSite() # Now do something useful We need to check for the flag - otherwise, the handler could run for other profiles as well Try to avoid using an import-various step if you can
  34. 34. Installation tests Idiot developers don’t write tests Remember - we’re not idiot developers The most basic tests just check that our customisations are in effect There was a generated. That’s nice, but it’s a bit simple for our needs. Get rid of it.
  35. 35. Installation tests Create src/example.policy/example/policy/tests/, and within it, and then from Products.Five import zcml from Products.Five import fiveconfigure from Testing import ZopeTestCase as ztc from Products.PloneTestCase import PloneTestCase as ptc from Products.PloneTestCase.layer import onsetup ztc.installProduct('SimpleAttachment') ztc.installProduct('RichDocument') @onsetup def setup_package(): import example.policy zcml.load_config('configure.zcml', example.policy) ztc.installPackage('plone.browserlayer') ztc.installPackage('example.policy') setup_package() ptc.setupPloneSite(products=['example.policy']) class ExamplePolicyTestCase(ptc.PloneTestCase): quot;quot;quot;Common test base class quot;quot;quot; This sets up a Plone site for testing with our example
  36. 36. Installation tests Now create tests/ import unittest from example.policy.tests.base import ExamplePolicyTestCase from Products.CMFCore.utils import getToolByName class TestSetup(ExamplePolicyTestCase): def afterSetUp(self): = getToolByName(self.portal, 'portal_properties') self.types = getToolByName(self.portal, 'portal_types') def test_metaTypesNotToList_set(self): navtree_props = mtntl = navtree_props.getProperty('metaTypesNotToList') self.failUnless('News Item' in mtntl) def test_allowAnonymousViewAbout_set(self): site_props = allow = site_props.getProperty('allowAnonymousViewAbout') self.assertEquals(False, allow) def test_rich_document_installed(self): self.failUnless('RichDocument' in self.types.objectIds()) def test_suite(): suite = unittest.TestSuite() suite.addTest(unittest.makeSuite(TestSetup)) return suite This tests that we got the basic setup right
  37. 37. Installation tests To run the tests, go to the root of the buildout and do: $ ./bin/instance test -s example.policy You should also try it through-the-web!
  38. 38. Visual customisation Visual components include Resources in layers found in portal_skins Zope 3-style browser views Zope 3-style viewlets Zope 3-style browser resources (images, stylesheets) Zope 3 resources are customised with the ‘layer’ ZCML attribute Resources in portal_skins are customised in ‘skin layers’ - these have nothing to do with each other!
  39. 39. Visual customisation In portal_skins in the ZMI, on the Properties tab, find your skin This lists a number of layers, which refer to folders inside portal_skins itself Bar custom, these folders are actually files on the file system Layers higher up take precedence when looking for a template, image or other resource
  40. 40. Visual customisation Edit example.policy/example/policy/ from Products.CMFCore.DirectoryView import registerDirectory GLOBALS = globals() registerDirectory('skins', GLOBALS) Add the folder skins/example_policy Copy from parts/plone/CMFPlone/skins/* into here and change as necessary If the file has an associated .metadata file, get this too!
  41. 41. Visual customisation To install the new layer, create profiles/default/skins.xml: <object name=quot;portal_skinsquot;> <object name=quot;example_policyquot; meta_type=quot;Filesystem Directory Viewquot; directory=quot;example.policy:skins/example_policyquot;/> <skin-path name=quot;*quot;> <layer name=quot;example_policyquot; insert-after=quot;customquot;/> </skin-path> </object> Install or re-install in Plone and look at portal_skins
  42. 42. Visual customisation Zope 3 also has the concept of a layer A Zope 3 layer is just an interface All the browser ZCML directives can take a layer If given, the view/viewlet/resource is only available when this layer is in effect - this can also be used to override a particular resource (by name) With plone.theme, we can associated a layer with a theme With plone.browserlayer, we can install a layer for a particular product.
  43. 43. Visual customisation Create an interface in from zope.interface import Interface class IExamplePolicy(Interface): quot;quot;quot;This marker is used for Zope 3 layers quot;quot;quot; Then create profiles/default/browserlayer.xml: <layers> <layer name=quot;example.policy.layerquot; interface=quot;example.policy.interfaces.IExamplePolicyquot; /> </layers> With this, the IExamplePolicy layer is applied (as a marker interface on the request) on each request in this Plone site after the product has been installed.
  44. 44. Visual customisation Let’s create a viewlet that is installed with this package A viewlet is a small snippet of HTML that is inserted in the page, inside a viewlet manager Create browser/ and browser/ In configure.zcml add: <include package=quot;.browserquot; />
  45. 45. Visual customisation Create browser/configure.zcml: <configure xmlns=quot;; xmlns:browser=quot;; i18n_domain=quot;example.policyquot;> <browser:viewlet name=quot;example.footerquot; manager=quot;; class=quot;.footer.FooterViewletquot; permission=quot;zope2.Viewquot; layer=quot;..interfaces.IExamplePolicyquot; /> </configure> Look at to find standard viewlet managers and viewlets This is in eggs/{version}.egg/...
  46. 46. Visual customisation Create browser/ from import ViewletBase from Products.Five.browser.pagetemplatefile import ViewPageTemplateFile class FooterViewlet(ViewletBase): quot;quot;quot;Create an extra footer quot;quot;quot; template = ViewPageTemplateFile('') def update(self): super(FooterViewlet, self).update() # calculate stuff here def render(self): return self.template()
  47. 47. Visual customisation Create browser/ <div> We hope you liked <a tal:attributes=quot;href view/portal_urlquot;>our site</a> </div> Now restart Plone, install the product, and you should see the viewlet Use the /@@mange-viewlets view to move things around Then make that permanent with viewlets.xml
  48. 48. Visual customisation Our viewlet had a unique name (and layer) We can also override a browser resource by context type (for attribute) or layer – using the same name Here, we override a browser view For simplicity, we specify a template only, and re-use the same class Some views have templates only For a class-only view, the __call__() method is called – it can render a template (or do nothing)
  49. 49. Visual customisation Add this to browser/configure.zcml: <include package=quot;; /> <browser:page for=quot;Products.CMFCore.interfaces.ISiteRootquot; name=quot;dashboardquot; permission=quot;; class=quot;; template=quot;dashboard.ptquot; layer=quot;..interfaces.IExamplePolicyquot; /> We copied this from We include first to ensure we have the permission
  50. 50. Visual customisation Copy’s to browser/ Make a change, e.g. change title to: <h1 class=quot;documentFirstHeadingquot; i18n:translate=quot;heading_dashboardquot;> <span tal:replace=quot;namequot; i18n:name=quot;user_namequot; />'s really cool dashboard </h1>
  51. 51. Next steps Archetypes content types Forms and formlib Themes New workflows Portlets Other components Deployment buildouts