Unit One – P e a c e & JUSTICE <ul><li>What is justice? – an equivocal term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ giving one his/her due” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ assuring everyone has what they need to live with dignity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask this question, “is it fair?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Types of Justice : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributive Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retributive Justice </li></ul></ul>
Distributive Justice – fair share <ul><ul><li>Also known as economic justice , is about fairness in what people receive, from goods to attention. If people do not think that they are getting their fair share of something, they will seek first to gain what they believe they deserve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( http://changingminds.org/explanations/trust/four_justice.htm ) </li></ul></ul>
Procedural Justice – fair play <ul><li>If people believe that a fair process was used in deciding what is to be distributed, then they may well accept an imbalance in what they receive in comparison to others. </li></ul><ul><li>( http://changingminds.org/explanations/trust/four_justice.htm ) </li></ul>
Restorative Justice - forgive <ul><li>The first thing that the betrayed person may seek from the betrayer is some form of restoration for the betrayal. </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration means putting things back as they were, so this justice may include some act of contrition to demonstrate one is truly sorry. This may include action and even extra payment to the offended party. </li></ul><ul><li>Restorative justice is also known as corrective justice . </li></ul><ul><li>( http://changingminds.org/explanations/trust/four_justice.htm ) </li></ul>
Retributive Justice - revenge <ul><li>Restoration may well not be enough for the betrayed person and they may seek revenge of some sort. In this way they can feel the satisfaction of seeing the other person suffer in the same way that they have suffered. </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge can be many times more severe than reparation as the hurt party seeks to make the other person suffer in return. </li></ul><ul><li>( http://changingminds.org/explanations/trust/four_justice.htm ) </li></ul>
Our course is concerned with <ul><li>Distributive – concern for basic needs and personal dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural – concern for social structures </li></ul><ul><li>Restorative – concern for solidarity when nothing else can be done at the moment </li></ul>
Concern for basic needs means… providing direct service to help ensure that everyone’s basic needs are met through works of mercy – charity.
What ARE basic needs? <ul><li>Food Clothing Shelter </li></ul>Healthcare Education Love
Concern for social structures means… <ul><li>Working to change the fundamental social systems, behaviors/attitudes, or ideas so that they distribute the goods of a community (nation) more fairly, respecting the human dignity of all. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple actions by individuals change the world by changing others. </li></ul>
- Catholic teaching states that, "God destined the earth and all it contains for ... all people so that all created things would be shared fairly by all [humankind]" (Vatican II). <ul><ul><ul><li>- all resources (food, clothing, timber) ultimately come from God and should be used as God desires. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- St. Ambrose, an early Church leader, addressed this point to the rich church members: "You are not making a gift to the poor man from your possessions, but you are returning what is his. For what is common has been given for the use of all, [but] you make exclusive use of it. The earth belongs to all, not to the rich."
In the world, over 1 billion people go to bed malnourished or undernourished every night <ul><li>The United States has 6% of the </li></ul><ul><li>world's population yet consumes over </li></ul><ul><li>22% of the world's resources </li></ul><ul><li>(oil, food, timber, etc.) </li></ul>In the last decade in Oregon, the average income of the bottom fifth of families dropped 3 percent and the average income of the top fifth rose 9.2 percent In the United States, the number of billionaires triple in the last decade, yet at the same time half the families could not afford a 5% down payment and the monthly payments for a medium-priced house in their region of the country. Prisons are the fastest growing housing type in the country. Second is mobile homes. Oregonian, Aug. 27, 1995
How the Bible Calls for Justice: <ul><li>4 examples... </li></ul>
A) The Jubilee Principle <ul><ul><ul><li>In Old Testament times, ___?___ was the basic means of producing wealth in Israel. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: Land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Leviticus 25, it says that every 50 years, God directs that all land was to be returned to its original owners (Lev. 25:10-24). </li></ul></ul></ul>
Imagine a typical farm community in Israel. A family could lose their land because of: <ul><li>physical handicaps </li></ul><ul><li>death of a breadwinner </li></ul><ul><li>lack of natural ability </li></ul><ul><li>drought, locust, other natural disasters </li></ul>
The Jubilee Principle assured that the gap between the rich and the poor was minimal because the means of producing wealth (land) was to be equalized regularly. "Because he disapproves of extremes of wealth among His people, God ordains equalizing mechanisms like the year of Jubilee" (Sider, 90).
The theological support for this is the fact that God owns the land. "The land shall not be sold in perpetuity, for the land is mine; for you are strangers and sojourners with me" (Lev. 25:23).
B. The Sabbatical Year or "Year of the Lord's Favor” <ul><li>the Old Testament law also provides for liberation of soil, slaves and debtors every seven years. </li></ul>7 7 7 7 7 7
<ul><li>1. Land: Every 7 years farmers are not to plant crops (Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:2-7). This has both an ecological and humanitarian purpose. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helps preserve the fertility of the soil. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>"For six years you shall sow your land and gather in its yield; but the seventh year you shall yet it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat (Ex. 23:10 11). In the 7th year the poor are free to gather for themselves whatever grows by itself in the fields and vineyards. These are called “volunteers.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>2. Slaves: Hebrew slaves also receive their freedom in the sabbatical year (Deut. 15:12-18). Poverty sometimes forced Israelites to sell themselves as slaves to more prosperous neighbors (Lev. 25:3940). But this inequality, God decrees, is not to be permanent. </li></ul>However, what would soon happen to a slave if he/she was let go after many years?
<ul><li>In addition, masters are to share the proceeds of their joint labors with the departing ex-slaves. "And when you let him go free from you, you shall not let him go empty-handed; you shall furnish him liberally out of your flock, out of your threshing floor, and out of your wine press, as the Lord your God has blessed you, you shall give to him" (Deut 15:12-14; see also Ex. 21:2-6) </li></ul>
3. Loans: Every 7 years all debts are to be canceled! (Deut. 15:1-6).
C. Laws of Tithing- the law calls for one-tenth of all farm produce and/or money, whether animal, grain or wine, to be set aside as a tithe. "At the end of every three years you shall bring forth all the tithe of your produce in the same year... and the sojourner, the fatherless, and the widow, who are within your towns, shall come and eat and be filled: that the Lord your God may bless you" (Deut 14:28-29; see also Lav. 27:30-32; Deut 26:12-15; Num 18:21-32).
$70,000 per year family <ul><li>$70,000 </li></ul><ul><li>/ 52 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>/ 10% </li></ul><ul><li>= $134.60 per week </li></ul>
God's law decreed that farmers should leave some of the harvest, including the corners of grain fields, for the poor. For example, grapes that had been dropped accidentally were to be left. "You shall leave them for the poor and the sojourners: I am the Lord your God" (Lev. 19:9-10) D. Laws of Gleaning -
Jesus and Justice (Briefly) <ul><li>Jesus’ first public words in Luke 4 seem to rekindle this economic fairness </li></ul>“ When he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath day, as was his custom. He stood up to read, and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He unrolled the scroll and found the place where it was written: ‘ The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.’ And he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. Then he began to say to them, ‘Today this scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.’”
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