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  • Natural/synthetic substance: produces physiological/ psychological effects. Narcotics: (analgesics) relieve pain by depressing the central nervous system. The most common source for these narcotic drugs is opium, extracted from poppies.
  • Morphine: extracted from opium/synthesize heroin. Heroin: drowsiness/sense of well-being/three to four hours.
  • OxyContin: (oxycodone) same physiological effects on the body as opium narcotics. -chronic pain. Methadone: synthetic opiate -given to heroin addicts -given for pain
  • varies in different parts of the plant, generally decreasing in the following sequence: resin, flowers, leaves, with little THC in the stem, roots or seeds. Marijuana does not cause physical dependency, but the risk of harm is in heavy, long-term use.
  • Other hallucinogens include LSD, mescaline, PCP, psilocybin, and MDMA (Ecstasy). LSD is synthesized from lysergic acid, and can cause hallucinations that can last for 12 hours. Phencyclidine, or PCP, is often synthesized in clandestine laboratories and is often smoked, ingested, sniffed. Phencyclidine is often mixed with other drugs, such as LSD, or amphetamine, and is sold as a powder (“angel dust”), capsule, or tablet. Oral intake of PCP first leads to feelings of strength and invulnerability, which may turn to depression, tendencies toward violence, and suicide.
  • Depressants are another class of drugs. Depressants are substances used to depress the functions of the central nervous system. Depressants calm irritability and anxiety and may induce sleep. These include alcohol (ethanol), barbiturates, tranquilizers, and various substances that can be sniffed, such as airplane glue, model cement, or aerosol gas propellants such as freon.
  • Alcohol (ethyl alcohol) enters the body’s bloodstream and quickly travels to the brain, where it acts to suppress the brain’s control of thought processes and muscle coordination. Barbiturates, or “downers,” are normally taken orally and create a feeling of well-being, relax the body, and produce sleep. Tranquilizers, unlike barbiturates, produce a relaxing tranquility without impairment of high-thinking faculties or inducing sleep. Sniffing has immediate effects such as exhilaration, but impairs judgment and may cause liver, heart, and brain damage, or even death.
  • which in its free-base form is known as crack . Stimulants are substances taken to increase alertness or activity, followed by a decrease in fatigue and a loss of appetite.
  • Meth: -snorted/injected/smoked/orally -newest drug scourge -highly addictive Cocaine: coca leaves -alertness/vigor -suppression of hunger/fatigue/boredom. -Crack is cocaine mixed with baking soda and water, then heated. -Crack is often smoked in glass pipes, and like cocaine stimulates the brain’s pleasure center. -1980’s-epeidemic in U.S.
  • Synthetic drugs: -nightclubs/bars/raves -MDMA (Ecstasy) -GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) -Rohypnol (“Roofies”) -Ketamine (Special K) -GHB/Rohypnol: -CNS depressants -date rape/robbery drugs
  • Ecstacy: (X) Methylenedioxymethamphetamine -synthetic/mind-altering -enhances self-awareness -decreases inhibitions -seizures/stroke/kidney failure/cardiac arrest Ketamine: -animal anesthetic -impaired motor functions/high blood pressure/amnesia/mild respiratory depression.
  • Synthetic: -abused by individuals who are interested in accelerating muscle growth. -unpredictable effects on mood and personality/ depression/diminished sex drive/halting bone growth/liver cancer.
  • Controlled Substances Act: -Five schedules of classification - potential for abuse/physical and psychological dependence/medical value
  • such as cocaine, PCP, and most amphetamine and barbiturate prescriptions. Schedule III drugs have less potential for abuse and a currently accepted medical use such as all barbiturate prescriptions not covered under Schedule II, such as codeine and anabolic steroids
  • such as darvon, phenobarbital, and some tranquilizers such as diazepam (valium) and chlordiazepoxide (librium). Schedule V drugs must show low abuse potential and have medical use such as opiate drug mixtures that contain nonnarcotic medicinal ingredients.
  • The field investigator has the responsibility of ensuring that the evidence is properly packaged and labeled for the laboratory. Generally common sense is the best guide, keeping in mind that the package must prevent the loss of the contents and/or cross-contamination. Often the original container in which the drug was seized will suffice. All packages must be marked with information that is sufficient to ensure identification by the officer in the future and establish the chain of custody. To aid the drug analyst, the investigator should supply any background information that may relate to a drug’s identity.
  • The challenge or difficulty of forensic drug identification comes in selecting analytical procedures that will ensure a specific identification of a drug. This plan, or scheme of analysis, is divided into two phases. Screening test that is nonspecific and preliminary in nature to reduce the possibilities to a manageable number. Confirmation test that is a single test that specifically identifies a substance.
  • Faced with the prospect that the unknown substance may be any one of a thousand or more commonly encountered drugs, the analyst must employ screening tests to reduce these possibilities to a small and manageable number. This objective is often accomplished by subjecting the material to a series of color tests that will produce characteristic colors for the more commonly encountered illicit drugs. Microcrystalline tests can also be used to identify specific drug substances by studying the size and shape of crystals formed when the drug is mixed with specific reagents.
  • Once this preliminary analysis is completed, a confirmational determination is pursued. Forensic chemists will employ a specific test to identify a drug substance to the exclusion of all other known chemical substances. Typically infrared spectrophotometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used to specifically identify a drug substance.
  • Another consideration in selecting an analytical technique is the need for either a qualitative or a quantitative determination. The former relates just to the identity of the material, whereas the latter requires the determination of the percent composition of the components of a mixture.
  • Chromatography is a means of separating and tentatively identifying the components of a mixture. The theory of chromatography is based on the observation that chemical substances have a tendency to partially escape into the surrounding environment when dissolved in a liquid or when absorbed on a solid surface. Those materials that have a preference for the moving phase will slowly pull ahead and separate from those substances that prefer to remain in the stationary phase.
  • Thin Layer Chromotography (TLC) uses a solid stationary phase usually coated onto a glass plate and a mobile liquid phase to separate the components of the mixture. The liquid will slowly rise up the plate by capillary action causing the sample to become distributed between the stationary phase and the moving liquid phase. Because most compounds are colorless, the materials must be visualized by placing the plates under ultraviolet light or spraying the plate with a chemical reagent. The distance a spot travels up a thin-layer plate can be assigned a numerical value known as the R f value.
  • In GC, the moving phase is actually a gas called the carrier gas, which flows through a column. The stationary phase is a thin film of liquid contained within the column. After a mixture has traversed the length of the column, it will emerge separated into its components. The written record of this separation is called a chromatogram. The time required for a component to emerge from a GC column is known as retention time
  • Light is described as a continuous wave. When white light passes though a prism, it is dispersed into a continuous spectrum of colors. Waves are described in terms such as: Wavelength, the distance between two successive crests (or one trough to the next trough). Frequency, the number of crests (or troughs) passing any one given point per unit of time. The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of radiation energy from the most energetic cosmic rays to the least energetic radio waves. Visible light is only a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Just as a substance can absorb visible light to produce color, many of the invisible radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum are likewise absorbed. Spectrophotometry, an important analytical tool, measures the quantity of radiation that a particular material absorbs as a function of wavelength and frequency.
  • The spectrophotometer is the instrument used to measure and record the absorption spectrum of a chemical substance. The components of a spectrophotometer are: A radiation source A monochromator or frequency selector A sample holder A detector to convert electromagnetic radiation into an electrical signal A recorder to produce a record of the signal Absorption spectra can be done in the visible, ultraviolet (UV) or infrared (IR) regions.
  • Currently, most forensic laboratories use UV and IR spectrophotometers to characterize chemical compounds. The simplicity of the UV spectrum facilitates its use as a tool for determining a material’s probable identity, although it may not provide a definitive result. The IR spectrum provides a far more complex pattern. Different materials always have distinctively different infrared spectra; each IR spectrum is therefore equivalent to a “fingerprint” of that substance.
  • In the mass spectrometer, a beam of high-energy electrons collide with a material, producing positively charged ions. These positive ions almost instantaneously decompose into numerous fragments, which are separated according to their masses. The unique feature of mass spectrometry is that under carefully controlled conditions, no two substances produce the same fragmentation pattern.
  • A direct connection between the GC column and the mass spectrometer allows each component to flow into the mass spectrometer as it emerges from the GC. The separation of a mixture’s components is first accomplished by the GC. Then, fragmentation of each component by high-energy electrons in the mass spectrometer, will produce a distinct pattern, somewhat like a “fingerprint”, of the substance being examined.

Fs Ch 10 Fs Ch 10 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 10 Drugs
  • Introduction
    • Natural/synthetic substance: produces physiological/ psychological effects.
    • Narcotics: (analgesics) relieve pain by depressing the central nervous system.
    • The most common source for these narcotic drugs is opium, extracted from poppies.
  • Family
    • Drugs, guns and money
  • Opiates
    • Morphine: extracted from opium/synthesize heroin.
    • Heroin: drowsiness/sense of well-being/three to four hours.
  • Other Opiates
    • OxyContin: (oxycodone) same physiological effects on the body as opium narcotics.
    • -chronic pain.
    • Methadone: synthetic opiate
    • -given to heroin addicts
    • -given for pain
  • Drugs
    • Black tar heroin
    • Black tar heroin
  • Foil packets
    • This is a clue
    • Little balloons are a clue
    • Not for kiddie parties!
    • Balloons recovered from stomach during an autopsy
    • Syringe
    • This is a clue as to what happened.
    • Heroin
    • Personal use?
    • Packaged at this quality usually indicates international smugglers. The scorpion indicates this originated in Asia
  • Hallucinogens
    • Hallucinogens: changes in normal thought processes/perceptions/moods.
    • -marijuana
    • -controversial
  • Marijuana
    • Cannabis Plant:
    • -THC- tetrahydrocannabinol
    • -THC content varies.
    • -THC-rich resin: hashish .
    • A little marijuana
    • A lot of marijuana
    • Holy smokes. A weekend in Vegas ha ha.
  •  
  •  
    • No trying to explain away as personal consumption.
    • This will buy a distribution charge as well.
  • Other Hallucinogens
    • LSD
    • -synthesized from lysergic acid
    • -hallucinations >12 hours
    • Phencyclidine: (PCP)
    • -Angel dust
    • -smoked, ingested, sniffed.
    • -mixed with other drugs
    • -feelings of strength/invulnerability/depression/violence and suicide.
  • Depressants
    • Depressants:
    • -functions of the central nervous system
    • -calm irritability/anxiety/induce sleep
    • -alcohol
    • -barbiturates
    • -tranquilizers
    • -inhalants
  • Depressants
    • Alcohol:
    • -bloodstream to the brain
    • -suppress thought processes/muscle coordination
    • Barbiturates: “downers”
    • -orally/well-being/relax the body/produce sleep
    • Tranquilizers: orally
    • -relaxing tranquility
    • -no impairment of high-thinking faculties or inducing sleep.
    • Sniffing: (huffing)immediate effects
    • -exhilaration/impairs judgment/organ damage/death
  • Stimulants
    • Amphetamines
    • -meth (crank)
    • -speed
    • -cocaine (crack/ice/rock)
    • -increase alertness/activity
    • -decrease in fatigue
    • -loss of appetite
    • -awake/sleep for days
  • Stimulants
    • Meth:
    • -snorted/injected/smoked/orally
    • -newest drug scourge
    • -highly addictive
    • Cocaine: coca leaves
    • -alertness/vigor
    • -suppression of hunger/fatigue/boredom
    • -Crack: cocaine mixed with baking soda/water/heated
    • -glass pipes
    • -1980’s-epidemic in U.S.
    • Bag of meth
    • Not your average street addict’s choice of pipes
    • That is more like what you’ll see on the streets.
    • Meth
    • A little more meth
    • Personal carry on at the airport?
    • A lot more meth. Manufacturing has shifted to Mexico.
    • More meth
    • Crystal meth. Knowing what goes into the making you have to wonder exactly what is that brownish coloring?
    • Little plastic baggies indicate distribution. Within 1000 feet of a school gets you five extra years federal time.
  •  
    • Cocaine; The powder is finer than heroin or meth
    • Cocaine. Note the $100 bill used for snorting. In the 1980s it was considered the rich party crowd’s drug of choice.
    • Crack/rock/ice cocaine
    • Oops! Hello federal prison here I come
  • Club Drugs
    • Synthetic drugs:
    • -MDMA (Ecstasy)
    • -GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate)
    • -Rohypnol (“Roofies”)
    • -Ketamine (Special K)
    • -GHB/Rohypnol:
    • -CNS depressants
    • -date rape/robbery drugs
  • Club Drugs
    • Ecstacy: (X) Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
    • -synthetic/mind-altering
    • -enhances self-awareness
    • -decreases inhibitions
    • -seizures/stroke/kidney failure/cardiac arrest
    • Ketamine: (Special K)
    • -animal anesthetic
    • -impaired motor functions/high blood pressure/amnesia/mild respiratory depression.
    • Harmless looking enough. Ecstasy.
    • Some rave!
    • Wow. This is what got Sammy “the Bull” Gravano into trouble.
  • Anabolic Steroids
    • Synthetic:
    • -accelerating muscle growth
    • -unpredictable effects on mood and personality/ depression/diminished sex drive/halting bone growth/liver cancer
    • -popular among male high school athletes
    • Steroids
  • Drug-Control Laws
    • Controlled Substances Act:
    • -Five schedules of classification
    • - potential for abuse/physical and psychological dependence/medical value
  • Schedules of Classification
    • Schedule I:
    • -High potential for abuse/no medical use
    • Schedule II:
    • -High potential for abuse/medical use with severe restrictions
    • Schedule III:
    • -less potential for abuse/medical use
  • Schedules of Classification
    • Schedule IV:
    • -low potential for abuse/current medical use
    • Schedule V:
    • -low abuse potential/medical use
  • Collection and Preservation of Drug Evidence
    • Properly package/label
    • -Prevent loss
    • -Chain of custody
    • -Background info to analyst
  • Drug Identification
    • Select analytical procedures
    • Two phases:
      • Screening test
      • Confirmation test
  • Preliminary Analysis
    • Screening tests:
    • -reduce vast possibilities to manageable number
    • -color tests
    • -microcrystalline tests-size/shape of crystals formed when mixed with specific reagents
  • Confirmational Determination
    • After initial analysis:
    • -confirmational determination
    • -specific test to identify a drug substance to the exclusion of all other known chemical substances
    • -infrared spectrophotometry/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • Qualitative vs. Quantitative
    • Qualitative:
    • -identity of the material
    • Quantitative:
    • -determination of percent composition of the components of a mixture
  • Chromatography
    • Chromatography:
    • -means of separating/tentatively identifying components of a mixture
    • -chemical substances partially escape into the surrounding environment when dissolved in liquid/absorbed on solid surface
    • -moving phase
    • -stationary phase
  • TLC
    • Thin Layer Chromotography (TLC):
    • -solid stationary phase coated onto glass plate
    • -mobile liquid phase to separate the components of the mixture
    • -liquid slowly rises up the plate (capillary action) causing sample to become distributed between the stationary phase/moving liquid phase
    • -colorless-visualized by placing plates under ultraviolet light/ or spraying with chemical reagent
    • -distance spot travels up thin-layer plate assigned numerical value (R f value)
  • Gas Chromatography
    • GC:
    • -moving phase-carrier gas flows through column
    • -stationary phase-thin film of liquid contained in column
    • -mixture traverses length of the column-emerge separated into components
    • -chromatogram
    • -retention time: time required for component to emerge from GC column
  • Theory of Light
    • Light-continuous wave
    • -white light though a prism-dispersed into a continuous spectrum
    • Waves:
    • -Wavelength-distance between two successive crests (or one trough to the next trough)
    • -Frequency-number of crests (or troughs) passing any one given point per unit of time
    • -electromagnetic spectrum-entire range of radiation energy
    • -Visible light-small part of electromagnetic spectrum
  • Spectrophotometry
    • Just as a substance can absorb visible light to produce color, many of the invisible radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum are likewise absorbed
    • Spectrophotometry-measures quantity of radiation a particular material absorbs as a function of wavelength/frequency
  • The Spectrophotometer
    • Spectrophotometer:
    • -measure/record absorption spectrum of chemical substance
    • Components:
    • -R adiation source
    • -Monochromator/frequency selector
    • -sample holder
    • -detector to convert electromagnetic radiation to electrical signal
    • -recorder to produce a record of the signal
    • -Absorption spectra-visible/ultraviolet (UV)/infrared (IR)
  • UVand IR Spectrophotometry
    • UV and IR spectrophotometers:
    • -used by most labs today
    • -simple but no definitive results
    • -IR spectrum: more complex pattern
    • -IR spectrum- “fingerprint” of substance
  • Mass Spectrometry
    • Mass spectrometry:
    • -beam of high-energy electrons collide with material
    • -produce positively charged ions
    • -decompose into numerous fragments
    • -separated according to masses
    • -no two substances produce the same fragmentation pattern
  • GC and Mass
    • Direct connection between the GC column/mass spectrometer:
    • -component flows into the mass spectrometer as exits GC
    • -separation components by GC
    • -fragmentation by high-energy electrons in the produce a distinct pattern (“fingerprint”) of substance
    • Friends go together
    • A little more money
    • Still hanging together
    • A lot more money
    • A S$%*load more money!