Women have 25% less gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) released in their stomach than men. The larger body weight corresponds with more water circulating in the blood stream and body. The more water in the body, the more it dilutes alcohol circulating in the body. Women tend to have more fat and fat holds onto alcohol longer than muscle. Women have higher estrogen levels and high estrogen levels decrease the rate of alcohol metabolism. Resulting in higher alcohol concentration in blood shortly after consumption.
Pure cocaine was first used in the 1880s as a local anesthetic in eye, nose, and throat surgeries because of its ability to provide anesthesia as well as to constrict blood vessels and limit bleeding Approximately 100 years after cocaine entered into use, a new variation of the substance emerged. This substance, crack, became enormously popular in the mid-1980s due in part to its almost immediate high and the fact that it is inexpensive to produce and buy. Crack is a highly addictive form of cocaine that is typically smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when the substance is heated, presumably from the sodium bicarbonate that is used in the production of crack
Intranasal use, or “snorting,” takes effect within a few minutes, and lasts about 15 to 30 minutes. Injecting produces a “rush” that is felt within 30–45 seconds, and lasts 10 to 20 minutes. Smoking causes a high within seconds, but it lasts only five to 10 minutes.
Cocaine causes the blood vessels to thicken and constrict, reducing the flow of oxygen to the heart. At the same time, cocaine causes the heart muscle to work harder, which can lead to heart attack or stroke, even in healthy people. Cocaine raises blood pressure, which can cause weakened blood vessels in the brain to burst. A person can overdose on even a small amount of cocaine. Overdose can cause seizures and heart failure. It can cause breathing to become weak or stop altogether. There is no antidote to cocaine overdose. When cocaine is used with alcohol, the liver produces cocaethylene, a powerful compound that increases the risk of sudden death beyond the risk of using cocaine alone.
Snorting cocaine can cause sinus infections and loss of smell. It can damage tissues in the nose and cause holes in the bony separation between the nostrils inside the nose. Smoking cocaine can damage the lungs and cause “crack lung.” Symptoms include severe chest pains, breathing problems and fever. Crack lung can be fatal. Injection can cause infections from used needles or impurities in the drug. Sharing needles can also cause hepatitis or HIV infection. Cocaine use in pregnancy may increase risk of miscarriage and premature delivery. It also increases the chance that the baby will be born underweight. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy often also use alcohol, nicotine and other drugs, we do not fully know the extent of the effects of cocaine use on the baby.
Oxycontin is similar to heroin Oxycontin is a pain reliever that was introduced in 1995. Its main component is oxycodone. This drug is specifically meant to treat moderate and severe pain. However, it can also be used to treat a number of other conditions such as anxiety, constipation and also cough symptoms. Within a few years after its introduction, many cases of Oxycontin abuse began to be OxyContin is available as a 10 milligram (mg), 20 mg, 40 mg, or 80 mg tablet. The tablets vary in color and size according to dosage. The tablets are imprinted with the letters OC on one side and the number of milligrams on the opposite side. OxyContin tablets have a controlled-release feature and are designed to be swallowed whole. In order to bypass the controlled-release feature, abusers either chew or crush the tablets. Crushed tablets can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Withdrawal symptoms associated with OxyContin dependency or addiction include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes, and involuntary leg movements. Individuals who take a large dose of OxyContin are at risk of severe respiratory depression that can lead to death. Inexperienced and new users are at particular risk, because they may be unaware of what constitutes a large dose and have not developed a tolerance for the drug. Codeine is a well-known prescription drug that is commonly known as Tylenol 3 in North America. Codeine falls into the category of opiates and is turned into morphine by the body in order to be utilized properly. Codeine is derived from the opium poppy and is related to morphine and heroin.
Doctor Prescribed Mixed with something else, such as alcohol
Special K – K – Hole / That go into a coma and can’t move -Liquid and Powder -Smoked or Snorted GHB – Made out of ethanol, Drain Cleaner
Delta -9 tetrahydrocannabinol
THC connects to specific sites called cannibinoid receptors on nerve cells. Cannibinoid receptors are found in the parts of the brain that influences pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception and coordination.
Tobacco smoke contains nicotine while marijuana contains THC Depending on which part of the plant is smoked, THC can be higher or lower.
What is Chemical Health? Identify drug Categories and Description Identify the effects of drugs on the body, mind and life. Recognize signs and symptoms Understand drugs and the law Drugs and our Society Understand chemical addiction and recovery Demonstrate skills necessary to help a friend or family member with an addiction to drugs.
Drug?A chemical substance that you eat, drink, inject or inhale….. Effects the functions of the central nervous system in many ways.
Controlled Substance Act -1970 Controlledsubstances are divided into schedules (I, II, III, IV and V) Brings together a number of laws regulating the manufacture and distribution of narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, anabolic steroids, and chemicals used in the illicit production of controlled substances.
Drug Classification Schedule I - No accepted medical use in the US and have a high abuse potential. 1. Heroin 2. LSD 3. MDMA 4. Marijuana ***
Schedule II Strong potential for abuse or addiction but that also have legitimate medical use.1. Opium2. Morphine3. Methadone
Schedule III Less potential for abuse or addiction than Schedule I or II drugs and have a useful medical purpose. Included are short-acting barbiturates and amphetamines. Amphetamine Barbiturate Valium Xanax Anabolic Steroids Codeine
Schedule IV Medicallyuseful category of drugs that have less potential for abuse or addiction than those of Schedules I, II, and III. Diazepam and chloral hydrate.
Schedule V Medicallyuseful category of drugs that have less potential for abuse or addiction than those of Schedules I through IV.
DepressantsSlow down the central nervous system and the person may experience: Decreased heart rate Decreased blood pressure Decreased energy Breathing slows down
Depressants - Alcohol Fermentation: Process in which grains, barley,rye,fruits,vegetabl es, yeast or water are combined to produce alcohol. Most widely used and abused legal drugStandard drink delivers1/2 oz. of pure alcohol.
What Factors Influence Alcohol’sEffects? Amount consumed Speed consumed Body weight % of body fat Gender Food in the system Other drugs Age BAC
Meth History Synthesized in 1893, from amphetamine by a German chemist and used for medicinal purposes in the 1930’s. Used widely by the military during World War II to enhance alertness in pilots and ground troops. 1950’s & 1960’s is when it became prevalent in the US as a recreational drug. Drug Classification Schedule I
Stimulant - Cocaine White/Pinkish color that resembles powder Derived from the leaves of the South American coca plant, which grows in Bolivia, Peru, and Columbia. Injected, smoked or snorted
Cocaine…. Pure cocaine was first isolated from the leaves of the cocoa bush in the 1860’s. In the 1880s, psychiatrist Sigmund Freud wrote scientific papers that praised cocaine as a treatment for many ailments, like depression and alcohol. Cocaine was legally available in medicines and soft drinks.
Ecstasy Research Long lasting damage Releaseslarge to serotonin and amounts of dopamine. norepinehrine, which Interferes with body’s increases heart rate ability to control it’s and blood pressure. temperature.
Ecstasy – Schedule 11913 – Alexander Shulgin was granted a patent to prescribe ecstasy to control bleeding and used as a diet pill.1959 – Aviators alert1984 – Epidemic – Signs of danger and addiction1985 -U.S Drug Enforcement Agency banned the drug.
Hallucinogens - PCP Bitter-tasting, white crystalline powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. Dyed in various colors and is often sold as tablets, capsules, liquid or powder.
PCP -AKA, Angel Dust Effects of PCP on the CNS are Even in low doses, unpredictable: physical effects may Euphoria last for months. Anxiety Disorientation Numbness Slurred speech Aggression Volatile Feelings of strength and power
Odorless, colorless substance with a bitter taste. Ingested in tablets, capsules, and occasionally in liquid form. AKA - Acid
Psilocybin - Magic Mushroom From South America, Mexico, and the U.S Fresh or dried Ingested orally, brewed as tea or added to other foods to mask bitter flavor.
Cannabis - Marijuana Most commonly abused illicit drug in the U.S. Dry, shredded green and brown mix of flowers,Main active stems and leaves derived from theingredient is hemp plantTHC Cannabis Sativa.
Marijuana – Schedule I Carcinogens – Tar, Carbon Monoxide, Ammonia & Hydrogen Cyanide . THC can stimulate the growth of cancer cells Research has found 3 joints a day can cause as much damage as 20 cigarettes.
Steroids Synthetic derivative of the male hormone testosterone.
Steroids Cont. AggressionMale: Violent Shrink testicles Depression Breast enlargements Baldness AcneFemale: Hair growth High blood pressure Deep voice Heart Attack Breast reduction Stunt growth Increase muscle mass
Inhalants Substances with breathable fumes that are sniffed and inhaled to give a hallucinogenic or mind-altering high. Spray paint Nail polish remover Glue White out Aerosol cans
Effects of Inhalants Nausea Nose bleeds Slows heart rate Slows down breathing Headaches Death
List 8 Categories of Drugs Stimulants Depressants Hallucinogens Cannabis Narcotics Steroids Inhalants Prescription