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विधिक शब्दावली
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विधिक शब्दावली

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English/Hindi …

English/Hindi
Legal Glossary
Translated from English into Hindi by Darshan Mundy
Superior Court of California, County of Sacramento
720 9th Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: (916) 874-6867  Fax: (916) 874-8229
www.saccourt.com

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  • 1. English/Hindi Legal GlossaryTranslated from English into Hindi by Darshan MundySuperior Court of California, County of Sacramento 720 9th Street Sacramento, CA 95814 Phone: (916) 874-6867 Fax: (916) 874-8229 www.saccourt.com 2007
  • 2. DisclaimerThe Superior Court of California, County of Sacramento ("Court"), has prepared thisLegal Glossary. The Court cannot guarantee that the translations contained therein arecompletely accurate, although reasonable attempts were made to achieve this goal. Thisglossary is to be used for general reference purposes only, should be considered a "work-in-progress," and is not intended to provide legal advice. This glossary is not intended tobe used as a study guide for purposes of passing California court interpreter certificationexaminations, as some terminology might differ when used in specific context.Neither the Administrative Office of the Courts, nor the Superior Court of California,Sacramento County, nor any of its officials or employees assumes any legal liability orresponsibility for the accuracy of these translations. For more information or comments,please contact Ms. Elaine Flores, Administrative Services Officer II of the Court, at (916)874-8663 or via e-mail at florese@saccourt.com.
  • 3. English/Hindi Legal GlossaryTranslated from English into Hindi by Darshan MundySuperior Court of California, County of Sacramento 720 9th Street Sacramento, CA 95814 Phone: (916) 874-6867 Fax: (916) 874-8229 www.saccourt.com 2007
  • 4. ----A----- 1. 1203.03 PC MOTION - Request to cancel, modify, change or terminate probation. 2. 1203.4 PC MOTION - Request to take back guilty plea or set aside a guilty verdict, and dismiss the accusations or information. (Made after probation has either terminated or defendant was discharged from probation prior to termination.) 3. 170.6 PC MOTION - Request to disqualify the assigned judge from hearing a matter. 4. 995 PC MOTION - Request made by a defendant to dismiss a count of information. 5. ABANDONMENT - When a parent leaves a child without enough care, supervision, support, or parental contact for an excessive period of time. 6. ABATE - To put an end to; to cancel out. 7. ABATEMENT OF ACTION - A suit which has been set aside and ended. 8. ABDUCTION – The offense of taking away a wife, child, or ward, by deceitful persuasion, force, or violence. 9. ABROGATE - To repeal or cancel an old law using another law or constitutional power. 10. ABSTRACT - A summary of what a court or government agency does. In Traffic, document that is sent to the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to update driving record. 11. ABSTRACT OF JUDGMENT- Summary of the courts final decision. Can be used as a lien if you file it with the county recorder. 12. ABSTRACT OF RECORD - Short form of the case. 13. ABUSE – (1) immoderate or improper use; (2) to do physical, sexual, or psychological harm to someone. 14. ABUSE OF PROCESS - Misuse of the power of the court. 15. ACCESSORY - A person who helps someone else commit a crime, either before or after the crime. 16. ACCIDENT AND MISFORTUNE – An unintentional event; unforeseen event causing misfortune. 17. ACCOMPLICE - A person that helps someone else commit a crime. Can be on purpose or not. 18. ACCORD - A satisfaction agreed upon between the parties in a lawsuit, which prevents further actions after the claim. 19. ACCORD AND SATISFACTION - Agreement by the parties to settle a claim or dispute in which the parties typically agree to give or accept something. 20. ACCRUAL – The total amount of child support payments that are owed or that are late.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 1
  • 5. 21. ACCUSATION - A formal charge against a person. 22. ACCUSED - The person that is charged with a crime and has to go to criminal court. (See DEFENDANT). 23. ACKNOWLEDGMENT - Saying, testifying, or assuring that something is true. 24. ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF SATISFACTION OF JUDGMENT – A court form that the person who wins the case must fill out, sign, and file with the court when the judgment is fully paid. If there are no liens, the back of the Notice of Entry of Judgment can be signed and filed with the court (See JUDGMENT CREDITOR, JUDGMENT.) 25. ACQUIT - To legally find the innocence of a person charged with a crime. To set free, release or discharge from an obligation, burden or accusation. To find a defendant not guilty in a criminal trial. 26. ACQUITTAL - When a judge or jury finds that the person on trial is not guilty. 27. ACTION - In court, when one person sues someone else to, defend or enforce a right, stop something bad from happening or fix something, or punish them for a crime. 28. ACTION IN PERSONAM - Proceeding against the person for the recovery of a specific object, usually an item of personal property such as an automobile. 29. ACTION IN REM - Proceeding "against the thing" as compared to personal actions (in personam). Usually a proceeding where property is involved. 30. ACTIVE STATUS – A case that is in court but is not settled or decided has active status. (See DISPOSITION, PENDING.) 31. ACTUAL LOSS – This is a showing that the plaintiff or injured party has undergone some loss of property or other thing of value by reason of fraud, forgery, or other illegal action. For the crime of forgery the existence of a specific intent to defraud is an essential element; however, there is no requirement of actual loss to complete the crime. 32. AD LITEM - Comes from Latin meaning for the "purposes of the lawsuit." For example, a guardian ad litem is a person appointed by the court to protect the interests of a minor or legally incompetent person in a lawsuit. 33. ADD-ON - Refers to an additional matter that is added to a specific calendar at a time after the initial preparation of the calendar. 34. ADDENDUM - A thing added or to be added. 35. ADDICTION – A person who has become emotionally dependent on the use of a drug and the effect is an irresistible need to continue its use and has developed a tolerance to the drug and requires larger stronger doses. 36. ADDITUR - The power of a trial court to increase the amount of an award of money to one party made by jury verdict, as a condition of denial of motion for new trial. The defendant must consent to the increased money award, the plaintiff need not consent. 37. ADHESION CONTRACTS – Contract where one party has no real choice as to its terms. 38. ADJOURNMENT - To put off a court hearing until another time or place.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 2
  • 6. 39. ADJUDICATE - When a judge hears and decides a case. 40. ADJUDICATION - The judges decision in a case or action. 41. ADMIN PER SE - Latin meaning,“by itself, inherently.” Requires the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to automatically suspend or cancel the drivers license of a driver whose blood alcohol content measures more than .08%, or who refuses to take a test to measure his/her blood alcohol level. 42. ADMINISTER – (1) to manage; (2) taking a drug by injection, inhalation, ingestion, or any other means, to the body for that persons immediate needs. 43. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE – The way an executive government agency makes and enforces support orders without going to court. 44. ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW OR “AR” – A review of the welfare of a child in long-term foster care by a panel of people selected by the state Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS). The review is conducted at least once a year, in place of a 6-month placement hearing by the Court. The panel reviews a report from DHHS. The review is open to the parents of the child, parents’ attorney and child’s attorney. 45. ADMINISTRATOR - 1. Man who represents the estate of a person who dies without a will. 2. A court official. 46. ADMINISTRATRIX - Woman who represents the estate of a person who dies without a will. 47. ADMISSIBLE - Pertinent and proper to be considered in reaching a decision. 48. ADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE - Evidence that can be legally and properly be used in court. 49. ADMISSION - Saying that certain facts are true. But not saying you are guilty. (Compare with CONFESSION). 50. ADMONISH - To warn, advise, or scold. 51. ADMONITION - Advice or caution by the court to the jury respecting their duty or conduct as jurors, and the purpose for which evidence may be considered. 52. ADMONITION TO JURORS - What the judge says to the jury about what they must do and how they must behave, what evidence they can use to make their decision (called "admissible" evidence), and how they can use that evidence to make a decision. 53. ADOPTION - The way to make the relationship between a parent and child legal when they are not related by blood. 54. ADOPTIVE ADMISSION – Action by a party that communicates agreement with the statements of another person. 55. ADVERSARY SYSTEM - The system of trial practice in the United States and some other countries in which each of the opposing (or "adversary") parties has the opportunity to present and establish opposing positions before the court. 56. ADVERSE WITNESS – A person called to testify for the other side. 57. AFFIANT - A person who makes and signs an affidavit.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 3
  • 7. 58. AFFIDAVIT - A written statement that someone swears to under oath in front of someone that is legally authorized, like a judge or notary public. 59. AFFIRMATION – When an appellate court says that the lower court’s decision was right. 60. AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSE - When a defendant or person responding to a civil case has a reason that would make him or her "not guilty" or not at fault and gives the court new evidence to prove that. The defense has to prove what it says (called BURDEN OF PROOF). The defense has to explain this defense in their ANSWER. 61. AFFIRMED - In appellate courts, it means that the decision of the trial court is correct. 62. AFTER ACQUIRED INTENT – When the defendant did not intend to commit a crime until after the crime had been committed. 63. AGENT - Someone who has authority to act for another. 64. AGENCY – One person acts for or represents another by authority. In Traffic, the department issuing the citation. 65. AGGRAVATION - Circumstances that may be considered as magnifying, or adding to, the degree of punishment. 66. AGGRAVATED ARSON – Aggravated Arson – Deliberately setting fire with specific intent to cause injury or damage structures where defendant has been previously convicted of arson, the damage exceeds $5m, or at least 5 residences were damaged. 67. AGGRAVATED BATTERY - Unlawful use of force against another such as using a dangerous weapon. 68. AGGRAVATED MAYHEM – Causing permanent disability or disfigurement with specific intent to cause the injury and with extreme indifference to well-being of other person. 69. AGGRAVATED TRESPASS – Unlawfully entering property of another with specific intent to carry out prior threat of serious bodily injury. 70. AGGRAVATING FACTORS - Any factors associated with the commission of a crime which increase the seriousness of the offense. 71. AGGREGATE TERM - The total length of imprisonment 72. AGREED STATEMENT OF FACTS - Statement of all important facts, which all the parties agree is true and correct, and which is submitted to a court for a decision. 73. AGREEMENT - When the people involved in a legal dispute agree about something. 74. AID AND ABET - to help or assist, in committing a crime. 75. AIDER AND ABETTOR – One who has criminal intent and assists another to commit a crime. 76. ALLEGE - To say, declare, or charge that something is truce even though it is not proved yet. 77. ALLEGED - Said to be true as described; a person who is accused, but has not yet been tried in court. 78. ALLEGATION - A statement or claim that is made and has not been proved to be true or false.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 4
  • 8. 79. ALLEGED FATHER – A man who may be the father of the child. 80. ALIAS - Known by another name; or means "also known as" which A.K.A. is short for. 81. ALIBI - A defense claim that the accused was somewhere else at the time a crime was committed. 82. ALIMONY - Money the court orders you to pay to a spouse or ex-spouse. (See SPOUSAL SUPPORT). 83. ALLOCUTION - Defendants statement to try to reduce punishment. 84. ALTERATION, FORGERY BY – Adding, erasing, or changing a document with the specific intent to cause it to appear different from what it originally was intended to be to cheat another person. 85. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) - Methods of resolving disputes without official court proceedings. These methods include MEDIATION and ARBITRATION. 86. AMEND - To add to or change a claim that has been filed in court. 87. AMENDMENT - A change made by correction, addition, or deletion. 88. AMICUS CURIAE (A-MIKUS KURIE) - Someone that gives advice to the court about the law in a case, but is not part of the case. Comes from the Latin for "friend of the court." 89. ANNOTATION - A case summary or commentary on the law cases, statutes, and rules. 90. ANNUAL REVIEW - Yearly judicial review. 91. ANNULMENT – A legal action that says your marriage was never legally valid because of unsound mind, incest, bigamy, being too young to consent, fraud, force, or physical incapacity. 92. ANONYMOUS – When someones name is kept secret. 93. ANSWER - A statement that a defendant writes to answer a civil complaint and says what defense they will use. 94. ANTICIPATORY BREACH - When a person who is to perform as set forth in a contract, clearly indicates to the other party that he will not or cannot perform. 95. APPEAL - When someone that loses at least part of a case asks a higher court (called an "APPELLATE COURT") to review the decision and say if it is right. This is called "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." The person that appeals is called the "APPELLANT." The other person is called the "APPELLEE." 96. APPEARANCE - Going to court. Or a legal paper that says you will participate in the court process. 97. APPEARANCE PROGRESS REPORT (APR) – A court order for a report by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) on an issue requested by the court. 98. APPELLANT - Someone that APPEALS a courts decision. (Compare with APPELLEE.)English/Hindi Legal Glossary 5
  • 9. 99. APPELLATE - Having to do with appeals. An APPELLATE COURT can review a lower courts (called a "TRIAL COURT" or "superior court." Decision. For example, California Court of Appeal review the decisions of the superior courts. 100. APPELLATE COURT - A court that can review how the law was used to decide a case in a lower court. 101. APPELLATE JURISDICTION - The appellate court has the right to review and change the lower court decision. 102. APPELLEE - A person that answers an appeal in higher court. 103. ARBITRATION - When a person that isnt involved in the case looks at the evidence, hears the arguments, and makes a decision. (Compare with MEDIATION.) 104. ARGUMENT - Remarks made by an attorney to a judge or jury on the facts of the case or on points of law. 105. ARMING CLAUSE - A conduct enhancement alleging that defendant or an accomplice was armed. 106. ARRAIGN - Process where the person who is accused is brought before the court to hear the criminal charge(s) against him or her and to plead guilty, not guilty or no contest. 107. ARRAIGNMENT - When a person that is accused of committing a crime is taken to court, told about the charges, and asked to plead "guilty" or "not guilty." 108. ARREARAGE – Child support that is overdue or unpaid. 109. ARREST - The legal capture of a person who is charged with a crime. 110. ARREST OF JUDGMENT - Postponing the result of a judgment already entered. 111. ARSON - The malicious burning of someones own house or of someone elses house, or of someones commercial or industrial property. 112. ASSAULT - When someone tries or threatens to hurt someone else. Can include violence, but is not battery. (See BATTERY.) 113. ASSAULT WITH A DEADLY WEAPON - When someone tries to hurt someone and there is threat to do bodily harm without justification by use of a weapon like a gun or a knife. 114. ASSESSMENT – Additional charges added to a case. 115. ASSIGNEE - A person or business that is put in the place of the original creditor, such as a collection agency. You can assign your JUDGMENT to another person or business. 116. ASSIGNMENT – Choosing someone to do something. Usually for: Cases - when the court uses a calendar to give (or "assign" cases to judges; Lawyers - when lawyers are chosen (or "appointed") to represent juveniles, conservatees or defendants; and Judges - when judges are sent (or "assigned") to different courts to fill in while other judges are on vacation, sick, etc., or to help with cases in a court.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 6
  • 10. 117. ASSIGNMENT OF SUPPORT RIGHTS – When a person who gets public assistance agrees to give the state any child support they get in the future. The person gets money and other benefits from the state. So the state can use part of the child support to pay for the cost of that public assistance. 118. ASSIGNMENT ORDER – A court order (made after a MOTION that says a JUDGMENT DEBTOR must assign certain rights to the JUDGMENT CREDITOR. Useful for payments that the judgment debtor would usually get, like rent from tenants, wages from the federal government, sales commissions, royalties, a businesss accounts receivable, or installment payments on IOUs (also called "PROMISSORY NOTES" or JUDGMENTS). 119. ASSUMPTION OF RISK - A defense to a lawsuit for personal injury. The essence of the defense is that the plaintiff assumed the known risk of whatever dangerous condition caused the injury. 120. AT ISSUE - The time in a lawsuit when the complaining party has stated his or her claim and the other side has responded with a denial and the matter is ready to be tried. 121. AT ISSUE MEMORANDUM – A legal paper filed in a civil case that says the case is ready to go to trial. 122. ATTACHMENT - (1) Document attached to court papers to give more information; (2) A way to collect judgment: by getting a court order that says you can take a piece of property. 123. ATTACHMENT FOR DEFAULTER - A process by the court for the arrest of a person other than a defendant. (See ATTACHMENT, BENCH WARRANT.) 124. ATTEMPT - An effort to do an act or commit a crime. 125. ATTEST - To witness, to affirm to be true or genuine, to certify. 126. ATTESTATION – The act of witnessing something in writing, at the request of a party. 127. ATTORNEY - Someone that is qualified to represent clients in court and to give them legal advice. (See COUNSEL). 128. ATTORNEY OF RECORD - The lawyer whose name is listed in a case record as representing someone in the case. 129. ATTORNEY-AT-LAW - An advocate, counsel, or official agent employed in preparing, managing, and trying cases in the courts. 130. ATTORNEY-IN-FACT - A private person (who is not necessarily a lawyer) authorized by someone to act in his or her place, either for some particular purpose, or for the transaction of business in general. This authority is given in writing, called a power of attorney. 131. AUDIT – When records or accounts are looked at to check that they are right and complete. 132. AUTHENTICATE - To give authority or legal authenticity to a statute, record, or other written document. 133. AUTO TAMPERING - The manipulation of an automobile and its parts for a specific purpose. 134. AUTOMATED ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT OF INTERSTATE CASES (AEI) – Part of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) that lets states fins, put a lien on, and take property from people in a different state who owe money.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 7
  • 11. 135. AUTOMATED VOICE RESPONSE SYSTEM (AVR) – Phone system that gives information to people over the phone. 136. AVERAGE ADULT PERSON – A hypothetical person who is used as an example of the entire community. This hypothetical person represents the interests of all, including persons religious and irreligious; persons of all nationalities, all adult ages and all economic, educational and social standings; persons with normal, healthy, average contemporary.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 8
  • 12. 1) eksku % jí djus] lakks/ku djus] cnys vFkok lekIr djus ds fy, ;kfpdk 2) ih-lh-eksku % nks"k Lohdkj djus dh nyhy dks okfil ysus] nks"kh djkj nsus ds fu.kZ; dks fujDr djus rFkk vkjksiksa vFkok lwpuk dks [kkfjt djus ds fy, ;kfpdkA ;g ;kfpdk ;k rks ij[k vk/khu vo/kh ds lekIr gksus ij vFkok tc ,slh vo/kh lekIr gksus ls iwoZ izfroknh dks cjh dj fn, tkus ij dh tkrh gSA 3) ch-lh-eksku % fdlh tt dks fdlh ekeys dh lquokbZ djus ds v;ksX; Bgjkus ds fy, ;kfpdkA 4) ih-lh- eksku % fdlh izfroknh }kjk fdlh vkjksi dks [kkfjt djus ds fy, ;kfpdk 5) vcUMueSaV % tc dksbZ ekrk ;k firk vius cPps dks yEcs le; ds fy, i;kZIr ns[kHkky fujh{k.k] lgkjs vFkok ekrk&firk ls laca/k ds fcuk NksM+ nsA 6) vcsV % vUr djuk] lekIr djuk 7) vcsVeSaV vkQ ,sDku % og eqdíek ftls fujLr dj fn;k x;k gS vkSj tks lekIr gks x;k gSA 8) ,sDMDku % fdlh dh ifRu] cPps vFkok laj{k.k esa jgus okys cPps dks cgyk&Qqlyk dj] cy&iz;ksx vFkok fgalk }kjk Hkxk ys tkus dk vijk/k 9) ,sczksxsV % fdlh dkuwu vFkok lafo/kkfud kfDr ds iz;ksx }kjk fdlh iqjkus dkuwu dks jí djuk 10) ,sClVªSDV % fdlh vnkyr vFkok ljdkjh ,tsalh dh dk;Zokgh dk lkjA ;krk;kr esa] og nLrkost tks MªkbZfoax fjdkMZ dks iwjk djus ds fy, eksVj Oghdyt+ foHkkx dks Hkstk tkrk gSA 11) ,sClVªSDV vkQ tteSaV % vnkyr ds vafre fu.kZ; dk lkjA bldk iz;ksx dhnu ds rkSj ij fd;k tk ldrk gS] ;fn vki mls dkÅaVh fjdkMZj ds ikl nk;j djsa rks 12) ,sClVªSDVj vkQ fjdkMZ % eqdíes dk laf{kIr :iEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 9
  • 13. 13) ,sD;wt+ % ¼1½ vla;fer vFkok vuqfpr iz;ksx ¼2½ fdlh dks kkjhfjd] ;kSu&laca/kh vFkok ekufld gkfu igqapkuk 14) ,sD;wt vkQ izkSlsl % vnkyr ds vf/kdkjksa dk nq"iz;ksx 15) ,sDlSljh % og O;fDr tks fdlh nwljs O;fDr dh vijk/k djus ls igys vFkok ckn esa lgk;rk djrk gSA 16) ,sDlhMS.V ,s.M fel % dksbZ & xSj bjknru ?kVuk] nqHkkZX;iw.kZ vizR;kfkr ?kVuk Qkjpwu 17) vDEIykbZl % og O;fDr tks fdlh nwljs dh vijk/k djus esa lgk;rk djrk gSA blesa mldk LokFkZ gks Hkh ldrk gS] ;k ugha Hkh 18) ,sdkSMZ % fdlh eqdíes esa nksuksa i{kksa ds chp fdlhckr ij lgefr] tks nkos ds ckn ds fookn dks jksdrk gSA 19) ,sdkSMZ ,s.M % i{kksa }kjk nkos vFkok eqdíes dks fuiVkus ds fy, nh xbZ og lgefr lSfVlQSDku ftlesa os dqN nsus vFkok Lohdkj djus ds fy, lger gksrs gSaA 21) ,sD;wtsku % fdlh O;fDr ds fo:) vkSipkfjd nks"kkjksi.k 22) ,sD;wTM % og O;fDr ftlds fo:) fdlh vijk/k dk nks"k yxk;k x;k gks vkSj ftls vijk/k laca/kh vnkyr esa tkuk iM+sA 23) ,sDukSyteSaV % fdlh ckr dks dguk] izekf.kr djuk vFkok mlds ckjs eas fookl fnykuk 24) ,sDukysteSaV vkQ % vnkyr dk og QkeZ tks eqdíek thrus okys dks fu.kZ; dh iwjh Qhl lSfVlQSDku vkQ pqdkus ds ckn Hkj dj vius gLrk{kj lfgr vnkyr dks nsuk gksrk tteSaV gSA ;fn gLrk{kj djus ds fy, dksbZ LFkku u nkkZ, x, gksa rks fu.kZ; dh izfof"V ds uksfVl ds fiNyh vksj gLrk{kj fd, tk ldrs gSaA ns[kks] tteSaV ØSfMVj] tteSaV 25) ,sfDoV % ftl O;fDr ij vijk/k dk nks"k yxk;k x;k gks mls dkuwuh rkSj ijEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 10
  • 14. funksZ"k lkfcr djukA cjh dj nsuk] eqDr dj nsuk vFkok fdlh nkf;Ro Hkkj vFkok vkjksi ls eqDr dj nsukA vkijkf/kd eqdíes dh lquokbZ esa fdlh izfroknh dks funksZ"k ikukA 26) ,sfDoV~Vy % tc dksbZ tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My ;g ik;s fd ftl O;fDr ds fo:) eqdíek pyk;k tk jgk gS og funksZ"k gSA 27) ,sDku % vnkyr esa] tc dksbZ O;fDr nwljs O;fDr ds fo:) cpko ds fy, vFkok viuk vf/kdkj ykxw djokus ds fy,] fdlh cqjh ?kVuk dks jksdus ds fy, fdlh dk;Z dks fu;af=kr djus ds fy, vFkok mls fdlh vijk/k dh ltk fnyokus ds fy, mlds fo:) eqdíek nk;j djrk gSA 28) ,sDku bu ijlksue % fdlh O;fDr ds fo:) fdlh foks"k oLrq] vDlj fdlh futh laifÙk dh oLrq tSls fd dksbZ okgu vkfn] dh cjkenxh ds fy, eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh 29) ,sDku bu jSe % O;fDrxr dk;Zokgh dh rqyuk esa ^ml oLrq* ds fo:) dk;ZokghA vDlj og eqdíek ftlesa laifÙk dk laca/k gksA 30) ,sfDVo LVsVl % og eqdíek tks vnkyr esa gS] ijUrq ftldk fu.kZ; ugha gqvk gS] mls ,fDVo LVsVl dgk tkrk gSA ns[kks] fMLiksthku] iSfMaxA 31) ,sDpqvy ykSl % fdlh oknh vFkok ihfM+r i{k dks /kks[kk/kM+h] tkylkth vFkok fdlh vU; voS/k dk;Zokgh ds dkj.k igqaph laifÙk gkfu vFkok fdlh vU; ewY;oku oLrq dh gkfuA tkylkth ds vijk/k ds fy, /kks[kk/kM+h ds rRo dk gksuk vko;d gSA ijUrq vijk/k dh dk;Zokgh ds iw.kZ cukus ds fy, okLrfod gkfu dk gksuk vko;d ugha gSA 32) ,sM fyV~Vl % ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS] ftldk vFkZ gS Þdkuwuh eqdíes ds mn~ns; lsAß mnkgj.k ds fy, ,sM fyV~Vl laj{kd og O;fDr gS ftls vnkyr }kjk fdlh vO;Ld vFkok dkuwuh :i ls v{ke O;fDr ds fgrksa dh j{kk ds fy, fu;qDr fd;k tkrk gSA 33) ,sM vkWu % dSysaMj dh izkajfHkd rS;kjh ds ckn fdlh le; fdlh vfrfjDr fo"k; dks kkfey djukAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 11
  • 15. 34) ,sMSUMe % tksM+h xbZ vFkok tksM+h tkus okyh dksbZ ckrA 35) ,sfMDku % fdlh O;fDr dk HkkoukRed rkSj ij fdlh uks dh nok ds iz;ksx ij fuHkZj djuk ftlds izHkko ds dkj.k og blds fujarj iz;ksx dh vko;drk vuqHko gS vkSj ftlds izfr mlesa lgu kfDr fodflr gks xbZ gks vkSj ftldh vkSj vf/kd vkSj rst ek=kk dh mls t:jr eglwl gksA 36) ,sMhVj % ubZ lquokbZ dh ;kfpdk dks jí djus dh krZ ds :i esa fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fu.kZ; }kjk /ku laca/kh vokMZ dh jkfk dks c<+kus dk Vªk;y dksVZ dk vf/kdkjA bl o`f) ds fy, izfroknh dh lgefr vko;d gS tcfd oknh dh lgefr vko;d ugha gSA 37) ,sfMlu dkUVªSDVl % og le>kSrk ftlesa fdlh ,d i{k ds ikl bldh krks± ds izfr dksbZ okLrfod fodYi ugha gksrkA 38) ,sMtkSuZeSaV % vnkyrh lquokbZ dks fdlh vU; frfFk vFkok LFkku rd vkxs Mkyuk 39) ,sMtwMhdsV % tc dksbZ tt fdlh eqdíes dh lquokbZ djrk gS vkSj mldk fu.kZ; djrk gSA 40) ,sMtwMhdsku % fdlh eqdíes vFkok lquokbZ esa tt dk fu.kZ; 41) ,sMfeu ij ls % ykrhuh vFkZ ^Lo;a ds }kjk* vUrfuZfgrA blds vuqlkj eksVj Oghdy foHkkx }kjk fdlh ,sls pkyd dks MªkbZfoax ykbZlSal Lor% jí dj fn;k tkrk gS ftlds jDr esa vYdksgy dh ek=kk 08 izfrkr ls vf/kd gks vFkok tks iq:"k @ L=kh pkyd vius jDr esa vYdksgu dh tkap djokus ls badkj djrk gksA 42) ,sMfefuLVj % ¼1½ izca/k djuk] ¼2½ Vhds }kjk Lokl }kjk] ;kSuh ekxZ ls vFkok fdlh vU; fof/k ls ml O;fDr ds fy, rRdky vko;d ukhyh nok dk lsou 43) ,sMfefuLVªsfVo izkslhtj % ftl fo/kh }kjk ljdkj dh dksbZ dk;Zdkjh ,stsalh vnkyr esa x,English/Hindi Legal Glossary 12
  • 16. fcuk lgk;rkFkZ vknskksa dk fuekZ.k vkSj mudks ykxw djrh gSA 44) ,sMfefuLVªsfVo fjO;w % ljdkj ds fmikVZeSaV vkQ gSYFk ,.M g;weu lfoZlst+ ds }kjk pqus x, yksxksa ds iSuy }kjk fdlh cPps ds yEch vo/kh ds fy, /keZ ds ekrk&firk dh ns[kHkky esa mlds dY;k.k ij iqufoZpkjA ;g iqufoZpkj 6 eghus ckn iqufoZpkj dh vis{kk o"kZ esa ,d ckj fd;k tkrk gSA ;g iSuy Mh-,p-,p-,l- dh fjiksVZ ij iqufoZpkj djrk gSA ;g iqufoZpkj cPps ds ekrk&firk] muds odhy rFkk cPps ds odhy ds lkeus gksrk gSA 45) ,sMfefuLVªsVj % 1- fcuk olh;r fd, ^e`rd dh tk;nkndk izfrfuf/kRo djus okyk O;fDr] 2- vnkyr dksbZ vf/kdkjh 46) ,sMfefuLVªSfDl % 1- fcuk olhu;r fd, e`rd dh tk;nkn dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okyh L=kh 47) ,sMfelhcy % fdlh fu.kZ; ij igqapus ds fy, mi;qZDr ,oa fopkj djus ;ksX; 48) ,sMfelhcy ,sihMSal % os izek.ktks dkuwuh vkSj mi;qZDr <ax ls vnkyr esa iz;ksx fd, tk ldrs gSaA 49) ,sMehku % fdlh rF;ksa dh lR;rk ds ckjs esa dFkuA ijUrq Lo;a dks nks"kh u dgukA 50) ,sMeksfuk % psrkouh nsuk] ijkekZ nsuk vFkok MkaVuk 51) ,sMeksuhku % vnkyr ds }kjk fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dks fu.kkZ;dksa ds :i esa muds dÙkZO;ksa rFkk ml mís; ds ckjs esa ijkekZ vFkok psrkouh ftlds fy, izek.kksa ij fopkj fd;k tkuk gSA 52) ,sMeksuhku Vw twjjl % tt }kjk fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dks ;g lykg fd mUgsa D;k djuk pkfg, vkSj dSlk O;ogkj djuk pkfg,] os vius fu.kZ; ij igqapus ds fy, fdu izek.kksa dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSa vkSj os mu izek.kksa dk iz;ksx fdl izdkj dj ldrs gSaA 53) ,sMkSiku % og fof/k ftlds }kjk [kwuh fjrk u gksus ij Hkh fdlh cPps vkSjEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 13
  • 17. fdlh ekrk ;k firk ds chp laca/k dks dkuwuh :i fn;k tkrk gSA 54) ,sMkSfIVo ,sMehku % fdlh i{k }kjk dh xbZ og dk;Zokgh tks fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds dFkuksa ls lgefr izdV djrh gSA 55) ,sMojljh flLVe % la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk vkSj dqN vU; nskksa esa eqdíes dh lquokbZ dh izFkk ftlds vUrxZr nksuksa i{kkssa esa ls dksbZ i{k dks nwljs i{k ds izfr vnkyr esa izfrdwy fLFkfr;ka isk o fl) djus dk volj feyrk gSA 56) ,sMolZ foVuSl % og O;fDr ftls fojks/kh i{k ds fy, Xokg ds rkSj ij cqyk;k x;k gksA 57) ,sQh,S.V % og O;fDr tks fdlh kiFk&i=k ij gLrk{kj djrk gSA 58) ,sQhMsfoV % fdlh O;fDr }kjk fdlh tt vFkok uksVjh ifCyd tSls dkuwuh :i ls vf/kd`r O;fDr ds le{k kiFk ysdj fn;k x;k fyf[kr c;ku 59) ,sQjesku % vihyh; vnkyr dk og dFku ftlesa ;g dgk x;k gks fd fupyh vnkyd dk fu.kZ; Bhd gSA 60) ,sQjesfVo fMQSal % tc dksbZ izfroknh vFkok O;fDr }kjk nhokuh eqdíeksa esa fn;k x;k og mÙkj tks mls funksZk lkfcr dj ldrk gS vkSj vnkyr dks ,slk djus ds fy, ,d u;k vk/kkj iznku djrk gSA cpko i{k dks vius dFku dks lR; izekf.kr djuk iM+rk gSA cpko i{k dks vius mÙkj esa vius cpko dks Li"V djuk iM+rk gSA 61) vQeZM % vihyh; vnkyrksa esa bldk vFkZ gS fd Vªk;y dksVZ dk fu.kZ; Bhd gSA 62) vk¶Vj ,sDok;MZ bUVSaV % vijk/k fd, tkus rd cpkodÙkkZ ds eu esa vijk/k djus dk bjknk u gksuk 63) ,tsaV % og O;fDr ftls fdlh vU; ds fy, dk;Z djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksA 64) ,tsalh % fdlh O;fDr ds }kjk vf/kd`r :i ls fdlh nwljs ds fy, dk;Z djukA ;krk;kr esa izkalkRed i=k tkjh djus okyk foHkkx 65) ,sxzkosku % os ifjfLFkfr;ka ftUgsa ltk dh ek=kk esa o`f) djus ds dkj.k ekuk tkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 14
  • 18. ldrk gSA 66) ,sxzkosfVM vkjlu % tkucw> dj gkfu igqapkus vFkok <kaps dks u"V djus ds fufpr bjkns ls yxkbZ xbZ vkx tgka izfroknh dks vkxtuh ds fy, ltk nh tk pqdh gks vkSj tgka uqdlku 50 yk[k Mkyj vFkok de ls de 5 fuokl LFkkuksa dks u"V fd;k x;k gksA 67) ,sxzksosVsM cSVjh % fdlh ds fo:) voS/k cy iz;ksx tSls [krjukd gfFk;kj dk iz;ksx 68) ,sxzksosVsM esgSe % fdlh ds fgrksa ds izfr iw.kZ mnklhurk ds lkFk pksV igqapkus ds foks"k bjkns ls mls LFkkbZ :i ls v;ksX; cukuk ;k kkjhfjd :i ls fod`r djukA 69) ,sxzksosVsM VªSL;kl % xaHkhj kkjhfjd pksV igqapkus ds ckjs esa igys ls nh xbZ /kedh dks dk;kZfUor djus ds foks"k bjkns ls fdlh dh laifÙk esa voS/k izosk 70) ,sxzfofVax QSDVlZ % fdlh vkijkf/kd d`R; ls lacaf/kr os lHkh dkj.k tks ml vijk/k dh xaHkhjrk dks vkSj c<+krs gSaA 71) ,sxzhxsV VeZ % tsy tkus dh ltk dh dqy vo/khA 72) ,sxzhM LVsVeSaV vkQ % lHkh egRoiw.kZ rF;ksa ds ckjs esa fn;k x;k og C;ku ftldh lR;rk QSDVl vkSj vkSfpR; ij lHkh i{k lger gksa rFkk tks eqdíes ds fu.kZ; ds fy, vnkyr esa fn;k tkrk gSA 73) ,sxzheSaV % tc fdlh dkuwuh >xM+s ls lacaf/kr lHkh yksx fdlh ckr ij lger gksaA 74) ,M ,s.M vcSV % fdlh vijk/k dks djus esa lgk;rk nsukA 75) ,Mj ,s.M vcSV~Vj % vkijkff/kd bjkns okyk og O;fDr tks vijk/kdjus esa fdlh nwljs dh lgk;rk djrk gSA 76) vySTt % izekf.kr gksus ls iwoZ gh fdlh ckr ij lgefr ds ckjs esa dFku vFkok nks"kkjksi.kA 77) vySTM % rFkk dfFkr :i ls lR;] og O;fDr ftl ij dksbZ vkjksi yxk;kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 15
  • 19. x;k gks ijUrq ftl ij vHkh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh u dh xbZ gksA 78) ,syhxsku % og dFku vFkok nkok tks vHkh lR; vFkok >wBk izekf.kr u gqvk gks 79) vySTM Qknj % og iq:"k tks fdlh cPps dk laHkkfor firk gks ldrk gSA 80) ,fY;kl % fdlh O;fDr dk nwljk izfl) uke vFkok ftldk vFkZ gS ^ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA* 81) ,sfych % cpko&i{k dk ;g nkok fd vijk/k ?kfVr gksus ds le; vkjksih O;fDr fdlh vkSj LFkku ij FkkA 82) ,yheuh % og /ku tks vnkyr ds vknskkuqlkj fdlh ifr ;k iRuh }kjk viuh iRuh ;k ifr ;k iwoZ iRuh ;k ifr dks nsuk gksrk gSA ns[kks] ÞLikÅty liksVZßA 83) ,syksD;wku % izfroknh }kjk ltk de djokus ds iz;kl ls fn;k x;k c;kuA 84) vkyVªsku] QkstZjh ckbZ % fdlh vU; O;fDr dks Bxus ds fy, fdlh nLrkost esa bl foks"k gjkns ls dqN tksM+uk] feVkuk ;k gVkuk rkfd mldk Lo:i igys tSlk fn[kkbZ u nsA 85) vkYVjusfVo fMlI;wV % ljdkjh vnkyrksa dh dk;Zokgh ds fcuk >xM+ksa ds fuiVkjs dh fof/k;ka jStksD;wku % 86) veS.M % vnkyr esa nk;j fd, x, nkos esa dqN lfEefyr djuk vFkok mlesa dqN ifjorZu djukA 87) veS.MeSaV % lakks/ku] la;kstu vFkok foyksiu }kjk fd;k x;k ifjorZuA 88) ,sehdl D;wfj;s % fdlh eqdíes esa vnkyr dks ijekkZ nsus okyk dksbZ ,slk O;fDr tks eqdíes ds fdlh i{k ls lacaf/kr u gksA ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk dk gS ftldk vFkZ gS] Þvnkyr dk fe=kßA 89) ,séksVsku % vnkyrksa ds QSlyksa] dkuwuksa vkSj fu;eksa ij fVIi.kh vFkok fdlhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 16
  • 20. eqdíes dk lkjA 90) ,suqvy fjO;w % okf"kZd U;kf;d iqufoZpkjA 91) ,suyeSaV % og dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ftlds dFkukuqlkj vkidk fookg fnekxh [kjkch] dkSVqfEcd O;fHkpkj] fookg ds le; vYik;q] /kks[kk/kM+h] cy iz;ksx] vFkok kkjhfjd vleFkZrk ds dkj.k dkuwuh :i ls dHkh Hkh oS/k ugha FkkA 92) ,suksuhel % tc fdlh ds uke dks xqIr j[kk tkrk gSA 93) vkUloj % izfroknh dk og fyf[kr c;ku tks og nhokuh fkdk;r ds mÙkj esa nsrk gS rFkk ftlesa mlds }kjk iz;ksx fd, tkus okys cpko ds fy, rdZ fn, tkrs gSaA 94) ,saVhflisVjh czhp % tc fdlh le>kSrs }kjk ck/; dksbZ O;fDr nwljs i{k dks ;g Li"V ladsr ns nsrk gS fd og le>kSrs ds vuqlkj dk;Z ugha djsxk @ dj ldrk gSA 95) vihy % tc dksbZ ,slk O;fDr tks vkafkd :i ls gh eqdíek gkj tkrk gS] Åijh vnkyr ls fupyh vnkyr ij iquZfopkj dj blds vkSfpR; ds ckjs esa mldh jk; ekaxrk gSA vihy djokus okys O;fDr dks viSySaV rFkk ftlds fo:) vihy dh xbZ gks mls viSysV dgk tkrk gSA 96) vih;jSal % vnkyr esa mifLFkfr @ vFkok og dkuwuh nLrkost ftlesa ;g mYys[k gksrk gS fd vki vnkyr dh izfØ;k esa Hkkx ysaxsA 97) vih;jSal izksxzSl fjiksVZ % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk fMikVZeSaV vkQ gSYFk ,s.M g;weu lfoZlst ls vnkyr }kjk vkosnu fd, x;s fo"k; ds ckjs esa fjiksVZ ekaxh tkrh gSA 98) viSySaV % og O;fDr tks fdlh vnkyr ds fu.kZ; ds fo:) vihy djrk gSAv 99) viSysV % vihyksa ls lacaf/krA dksbZ Hkh vihyh; vnkyr fdlh fupyh vnkyr esa eqdíes dk fu.kZ; djrs le; dkuwu dk iz;ksx fdl izdkj fd;kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 17
  • 21. x;k FkkA 101) viSysV twfjlfMDku % vihyh; vnkyrksa dks fupyh vnkyr ds fu.kZ; ij iqufoZpkj dj mls cnyus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksrk gSA 102) vihyh % Åijh vnkyr esa vihy dk mÙkj nsus okyk O;fDrA 103) vkchZVªsku % tc dksbZ ,slk O;fDr tks eqdíes ls lacaf/kr u gks] lcwrksa ij n`f"V Mkyrk gS] nyhyksa dks lqurk gS vkSj eqdís dk fu.kZ; djrk gSA 104) vkjX;weSaV % eqdíes ls lacaf/kr rF;ksa ds ckjs esa vFkok dkuwuh eqíksa ds ckjs eas fdlh odhy }kjk tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My dks fn, x, rdZA 105) vkfeZx Dykt % ;g vkjksi fd izfroknh vFkok mldk lkFk gfFk;kj can FkkA 106) vjsu % og izfØ;k ftlds }kjk fdlh vkjksih iq:"k @ L=kh dks vnkyr ds le{k yk;k tkrk gS rkfd og vius fo:) yxk, x, vkijkf/kd nks"kksa dks lqudj viuk nks"k Lohdkj] vLohdkj djs vFkok dksbZ izfrfØ;k u nsA 107) vjsueSaV % tc fdlh vijk/k djus ds vkjksih O;fDr dks vnkyr esa ys tkdj mlds fo:) yxk, x, vkjksi lquk, tkrs gSa vkSj mls nks"k Lohdkj vFkok vLohdkj djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 108) ,fj;st+ % cPpksa dks nh tkus okyh lgk;rk jkfk tks cdk;k gks vFkok ftldk Hkqxrku u fd;k x;k gksA 109) vjsLV % fdlh ,sls O;fDrdh dkuwuh fxj¶rkjh ftl ij fdlh vijk/k dks djus dk vkjksi gksA 110) vjSjLV vkQ tteSaV % iwoZfyf[kr fu.kZ; ds ifj.kke dks LFkfxr djukA 111) vklZu % fdlh ds }kjk viuh vFkok fdlh nwljs ds ?kj] vFkok O;kolkf;d vfkok vkS|ksfxd laifÙk dks nqHkkZouk ls tykukA 112) vlkSYV % tc dksbZ O;fDr fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks pksV igqapkrk gS ;k pksV igqapkus dk iz;kl djrk gSA blesa fgalk gks ldrh gS] kkjhfjd fgalkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 18
  • 22. ughaA 113) vlkSYV fon MSMyh % tc dksbZ O;fDr fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks fcuk mfpr dkj.k ds canwd oSiu vFkok pkdw ds iz;ksx ls kkjhfjd pksV igqapkus dk iz;kl djrk gS vFkok ,slk djus dh /kedh nsrk gSA 114) vlSLeSaV % fdlh eqdíes esa yxk, x, vfrfjDr vkjksiA 115) vlkbZuh % og O;fDr vFkok O;olk; ftls izkFkfed ysunkj ds LFkku ij j[k fn;k tk,] tSls fd dksbZ olwyh djus okyh ,tsalhA vki vius fu.kZ; dks fdlh vU; O;fDr ;k O;olk; ij ykxw dj ldrs gSaA 116) vlkbZueSaV % fdlh dk;Z dks djus ds fy, fdlh O;fDr dk pqukoA vDlj] tc dksbZ vnkyr ttksa vFkok odhyksa dks eqdíes lkSaius ds fy, fdlh dSysaMj dk iz;ksx djrh gS vFkok tc cPpksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djus ds fy, odhyksa dk pquko ;k fu;qfDr dh tkrh gS vkSj NqV~Vh ij x, chekj ttksa ds LFkku ij kjn ds fy, nwljs ttksa dks Hkstus dh izfØ;kA 117) vlkbZueSaV vkQ liksVZ % tc dksbZ ,slk O;fDr ftls ljdkjh lgk;rk izkIr gks ljdkj dks jkbZVl cPpksa ds fy, lgk;rkFkZ Hkfo"; esa nh tkus okyh jkfk nsus ds fy, lgefr nsA og O;fDr ljdkj ls /ku o vU; ykHk izkIr djrk gSA blfy, ljdkj cPpksa ds fy, lgk;rkFkZ jkfk dk dqN Hkkx ml ljdkjh lgk;rk ds [kpZ ds fy, iz;ksx dj ldrh gSA 118) vlkbZueSaV vkMZj % ;kfpdk ds ckn fn;k x;k vnkyr dkog vknsk ftlesa tteSaV MSVj dks dgk tkrk gS fd og dqN vf/kdkj tteSaV ØSfMVj ds lkFk vo; ckaVsA ;g vknsk mu Hkqxrkuksa ds fy, ykHknk;d gS ftUgsa tteSaV MSVj vDlj izkIr djrk gS] tSls fdjk,nkjksa ls fdjk;k] la?kh; ljdkj izksfeljh uksfVl vFkok tteSaVl ds Hkqxrku dh fdrksa dh jkfkA 119) vt+Eiku vkQ fjLd % O;fDrxr gkfu ds fy, eqdíes ds izfr cpko dk vk/kkjA bl cpko dk lkj ;g gS fd oknh us ftl Hkh [krjukd ifjfLFkfr ds dkj.kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 19
  • 23. pksV igqaph mlds [krjs dks lR; eku fy;kA 120) ,sV bkq % fdlh eqdíes esa og le; tc fkdk;r djus okys i{k us viuk nkos dks nk;j dj fn;k gks vkSj nwljs i{k us vius mÙkj esa bls Lohdkj djus ls badkj dj fn;k gks vkSj og eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds fy, rS;kj gksA 121) ,sV bkq eSeksjaMe % fdlh nhokuh eqdíes esa nk;j fd;k x;k og dkuwuh nLrkost+ ftlesa dgk x;k gksrk gS fd eqdíek lquokbZ ds fy, rS;kj gSA 122) vVSpeSaV % ¼1½ vnkyrh nLrkostksa ds lkFk vfrfjDr lwpukFkZ uRFkh dkxtkr ¼2½ fu.kZ; dks ykxw djomus dh ,d fof/k] vnkyr ds vknsk ls fdlh laifÙk ds dqN Hkkx dks xzg.k djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr djukA 123) vVSpeSaV Qkj % izfroknh dks NksM+ fdlh vU; O;fDr dks fxj¶rkj djus dh vnkyrh fMQkYVj izfØ;kA ns[kks] vVSpeSaV cSap okj.V 124) vVSaIV % fdlh dk;Z vFkok vijk/k djus dk iz;klA 125) vVSLV % xokgh nsuk] lR; vFkok vlyh ?kksf"kr djuk] izekf.kr djukA 126) vVSLVsku % fdlh i{k ds vkosnu ij fdlh ckr dks fyf[kr :i esa izekf.kr djus dh dk;ZokghA 127) vVkSuhZ % og O;fDr tks vnkyr esa eqofDdyksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djs vkSj mUgsa dkuwuh lykg nsus dh ;ksX;rk j[krk gksA 128) vVkuhZ vkQ fjdkMZ % og odhy ftlds uke dk mYys[k fdlh eqdíes esa fdlh eqofDdy ds izfrfuf/k ds :i esa fd;k x;k gksA 129) vVkuhZ&,sVyk % vnkyrksa eas eqdíeksa dh rS;kjh] izca/k ,oa ftjg ds fy, ftl odhy vFkok ljdkjh vf/kdkjh dh lsok yh tkrh gSA 130) vVkuhZ&bu&QSDV % og dksbZ Hkh lekU; O;fDr ¼t:jh ugha fd og odhy gks½ ftls fdlh ds }kjk viuk izfrfuf/kRo djus dk vf/kdkj fn;k x;k gks] pkgs fdlh foks"k mís; ds fy, vFkok lk/kkj.k ysu&nsu ds fy,A ;g vf/kdkj fyf[kr :i esa fn;k tkrk gS ftls ikoj vkQ vVkuhZEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 20
  • 24. dgk tkrk gSA 131) vksfMV % tc fjdkMZ vkSj [kkrksa dh ij[k ;g tkuus ds fy, dh tkrh gS fd os Bhd rFkk iw.kZ gSaA 132) vkSFkSaVhdsV % fdlh dkuwu] fjdkMZ vFkok fdlh vU; fyf[kr nLrkost dks vf/kdkj vFkok dkuwuh oS|rk iznku djukA 133) vkSVks VSaifjax % fdlh okgu rFkk blds dtiqt+ks± dh fdlh foks"k mís; ls O;oLFkk djukA 134) vkSVksesVsM % ilZuy fjlikSalhfcfyVh ,s.M odZ vikSpqZfuVh jhdfUlfy;sku ,sDV dh ,sMfefuLVªsfVo ,su og Hkkx tks jkT;ksa dks nwljs jkT;ksa esa jgus okys mu yksxksa dh laifÙk QkslZeSaV vkWQ baVjLVsV dks yh;u }kjk xzg.k djus dk vf/kdkj iznku djrk gS tks /ku dslst+ laca/kh nsunkj gSA 135) vkSVksesVsM oks;l % og Qksu&iz.kkyh tks VsyhQksu ds ek/;e ls yksxksa dks lwpuk iznku fjLikSal flLVe djrh gSA 136) ,sojst+ ,sMYV ilZu % og dkYifud O;fDr ftls laiw.kZ leqnk; ds mnkgj.k :i esa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;g dkYifud O;fDr /kkfeZd rFkk /keZ dks u ekuus okys lHkh yksxksa ds fgrksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gS] lHkh jk"Vªh;rkvksa] lHkh O;Ldksa rFkk lHkh vkfFkZd] kS{kf.kd rFkk lkekftd izfr"Bkvksa okys O;fDr;ksa] lk/kkj.k O;fDr;ksa] LoLFk O;fDr;ksa rFkk ledkyhu vkSlr O;ogkj] Hkkoukvksa rFkk ;kSu laca/kh :fp;ksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 21
  • 25. -------B------------ 1. BACKLOG – All the cases that haven’t been settled or decided in the time the law says they should be. 2. BAD FAITH – Generally implies actual or constructive fraud, or a design to mislead or deceive another. 3. BAIL - A security deposit (usually money) given to release a defendant or witness from custody and to make sure that they go to court when theyre supposed to. 4. BAIL BOND - A legal paper that you buy from a bondsman and give to the court instead of bail. The defendant signs it and is let go. But if they dont come to court when theyre supposed to, they must pay the amount of money on the bail bond. 5. BAIL BONDSMAN - Person who is responsible for paying the bond for the defendants release from jail. 6. BAIL EXONERATION – When you get your bail back. Or when a bail bondsman or insurance ("surety") company isn’t responsible for your bail anymore. 7. BAIL FORFEITURE - A court order to let the court keep the bail deposit because the defendant didnt go to court when they were supposed to. 8. BAILIFF - Person who is in charge of security in the court. Bailiffs are picked by sheriffs. 9. BAILMENTS – A delivery of goods from one person to another in trust for purpose of carrying out agreed upon services. 10. BAIL NOTICE – A legal paper from the court that says the court will make a WARRANT for arrest unless the defendant goes to court or pays bail. 11. BAIL RECEIPT – A written statement that the court gives a defendant that says bail was paid. 12. BAIL REVIEW - A hearing established to re-evaluate the bail amount that was originally set for the accused. 13. BALLARD MOTION - A motion for psychiatric examination of prosecutor’s witnesses (victims). 14. BANK LEVY – Way to enforce a decision against someone who owes money. The money is taken from their checking or savings account at a bank, savings and loan, or credit union. 15. BANKRUPT - The state or condition of a person who is unable to pay his or her debts when they are due. 16. BANKRUPTCY - The legal way for a business or person to get help when they cant pay the money they owe. In bankruptcy court, they can get rid of debts by paying part of what they owe. There are special bankruptcy judges at these hearings.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 22
  • 26. 17. BAR - All of the lawyers qualified to practice law. For example, a state bar includes all of the lawyers qualified to practice law in that state. 18. BAR EXAMINATION - A state examination that is taken in order to be admitted and licensed to practice law. 19. BASE TERM - A term of imprisonment selected by the court according to the Determinate Sentencing Law. 20. BATTERED CHILD SYNDROME (B.C.S.) - Physical condition of a child where external or internal injuries result from acts committed by a parent or custodian. 21. BATTERY - Illegal beating or physical violence or control of a person without their permission. (Compare with ASSAULT.) 22. BATTERY, SPOUSAL - An offensive touching or use of force on a spouse without the spouses consent. See BATTERY. 23. BEAGLE MOTION - A request to exclude any reference of the defendant’s prior conviction to the jury. 24. BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLAN – Plan made by a local educational agency (LEA) as part of an individualized education program (IEP), to change the behavior of students who harm themselves, assault others, or are destructive. 25. BENCH - (1) the desk where a judge sits in court; (2) Judges in general, or a specific judge. 26. BENCH CONFERENCE - A meeting either on or off the record at the judges bench between the judge, counsel, and sometimes the defendant, out of the hearing of the jury. 27. BENCH TRIAL - Trial without a jury. The judge decides the case. 28. BENCH WARRANT - An order given by the judge (or "bench") to arrest a person who didnt do what the court ordered. For example, didnt go to court when they were supposed to. (See WARRANT, WRIT). 29. BENEFICIARY - Someone who gets something from a trust. 30. BENEFIT OF THE BARGAIN RULE – Rule which provides that a person may recover the difference between the actual value of the property and the value that was represented. 31. BEQUEATH - To leave someone something in a will. 32. BEQUESTS - What you leave someone in a will. 33. BEST EVIDENCE - Primary proof; the best proof available. For example, an original letter is “best evidence,” and a photocopy is “secondary evidence.” 34. BEYOND A REASONABLE DOUBT - The burden of proof in a criminal case requiring that the jury be convinced that every element of a crime has been proven by the prosecution. 35. BIAS - A pre-conceived opinion or a predisposition to decide a cause or an issue a certain way. 36. BIFURCATE - To try issues separately, such as guilt and criminal responsibility in a criminal proceeding or liability and damages in a civil action.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 23
  • 27. 37. BIFURCATION MOTION - A request to change the order in which issues are heard at trial. 38. BILL OF PARTICULARS - A statement of the details of the charge made against the defendant. 39. BIND – To make yourself or someone else legally responsible for something. 40. BIND OVER - A judges decision before a trial that says there is enough evidence for a trial. 41. BLOOD-ALCOHOL CONTENT (BAC) - The measurement in grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. 42. BLOOD TEST – Testing someone’s blood sample to: (1) see how much of a certain chemical is in the blood, (2) see who is the parent of a child. 43. BODY ATTACHMENT - A written order issued by a court directing a peace officer to take custody of someone and bring them before the court: 1) A witness who fails to comply with a subpoena, 2) a party who fails to comply with a court order in a civil action, or 3) a material witness in a criminal case. 44. BONA FIDE – Sincere, real without fraud or deceit. Comes from the Latin "in good faith." 45. BOND - A certificate or evidence of a debt. 46. BOOK (BOOKING) - What the police do when they arrest someone. Includes taking fingerprints, photographs, and writing down personal information about the person. 47. BOOKING NUMBER - The number assigned to the criminal record that corresponds to the persons arrest. 48. BOOKMAKING - Collecting the bets of others or making odds on future gambling events. 49. BRADY MOTION - A motion made by defense when they believe the District Attorney has not turned over exculpatory and material evidence. 50. BRANDISHING A WEAPON - Showing a weapon to another person, typically the police or the victim. 51. BREACH - The breaking or violating of a law, right, obligation, or duty either by doing an act or failing to do an act. 52. BREACH OF PEACE – Every person who unlawfully fights in a public place or willfully and maliciously disturbs another person by loud and unreasonable noise, or in a public place, says offensive words to one or more persons which are likely to start an immediate violent reaction. 53. BREAKING AND ENTERING - Going into someones house at night with intent to commit a felony. 54. BREATHALYZER TEST - Testing someones breath to see how much alcohol is in their blood. 55. BRIBE - A gift, not necessarily of monetary value, given to influence the conduct of the receiver. 56. BRIEF - A written statement that each side gives the court to say why the court should decide that they are right. 57. BURDEN OF PROOF - When one person in the case has to prove more than the other person.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 24
  • 28. 58. BURGLARY - When someone unlawfully breaks into or enters a building or home, and they intend to or do commit a theft or other serious crime. 59. BYSTANDERS - A chance onlooker; one who has no concern with the business being conducted.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 25
  • 29. 1) oSd yksx % os lHkh eqdíes ftudk fu.kZ; dkuwu }kjk uh;r le; esa fd;k tk pqdfk gSA 2) cSM QsFk % lk/kkj.kr% bl dk vFkZ gS okLrfod vFkok jpukRed /kks[kk/kM+h vFkok fdlh dks xqejkg ;k /kks[kk nsus dh ;kstukA 3) csy % fdlh izfroknh vFkok dks fgjklr ls NqM+kus ds fy, vkSj vnkyr esa mldh iskh dks ;dhuh cukus ds fy, nh tkus okyh tekur dh jkfk 4) cSd ckSaM % og dkuwuh nLrkost tks vki fdlh LVSEi&isij cspus okys ls [kjhn dj tekur dh jkfk ds cnys vnkyr esa nsrs gSaA izfroknh bl ij gLrk{kj dj bls lkSai nsrk gSA ;fn os iskh ij vnkyr esa mifLFkr ugha gksrs rks mudks csy&ckSaM ij fy[kh jkfk dk Hkqxrku djuk iM+rk gSA 5) csy ckSaMleSu % og O;fDr tks tsy ls izfroknh dks NqM+kus ds fy, tekur dh jkfk dk Hkqxrku djus ds fy, mÙkjnk;h gksA 6) csy ,sXt+ksujsku % tc tekur dh jkfk okfil fey tkrh gSA vFkok tc tekur nsus okyk ;k chek daiuh dh tekur dh t:jr lekIr gks tkrh gSA 7) csy QkSjQhpj % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk tekur dh jkfk dks vnkyr }kjk tCr dj fy, tkus dks dgk tkrk gS D;ksafd izfroknh iskh ds le; vnkyr esa mifLFkr ugha gksrkA 8) cfyQ % og O;fDr tks vnkyr esa tekur dh jkfk j[kus dk vf/kdkjh gksrk gSA budk pquko ftys ds eq[; vf/kdkjh ds }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA 9) csyeSaVl % lger lsokvksa ds fØ;kUo;u ds fy, fdlh ,d O;fDr ls lkeku dk fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds ikl vekur esa j[kus ds fy, HkstukA 10) csy uksfVl % vnkyr }kjk tkjh og dkuwuh nLrkost ftlesa dgk tkrk gS fd ;fn izfroknh vnkyr esa mifLFkr u gqvk ;k mlus tekur dh jkfk tek u djkbZ rks vnkyr mldh fxj¶rkjh ds fy, okjaV tkjh dj nsxhA 11) csy fjlhIV % og fyf[kr C;ku ftlesa dgk tkrk gS fd izfroknh us tekur Hkj nh gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 26
  • 30. 12) csy fjO;w % vkjaHk esa fdlh nks"kh ds fy, fufpr dh xbZ tekur dh jkfk ds iquZewY;kadu ds fy, vnkyr }kjk lquokbZA 13) cSykMZ eksku % vfHk;kstd ds xokgksa ¼ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa½ ds euksjksx laca/kh ijh{k.k ds fy, nk;j dh xbZ ;kfpdkA 14) cSad ySoh % fdlh dtZnkj ds fo:) fu.kZ; ykxw djus dh ,d fof/kA mlds }kjk nh tkus okyh jkfkA cSad esa mlds pSfdax ;k cpr [kkrs ls] cpr rFkk dtZ dh jkfk vFkok ØSfMV ;wfu;u ls ys dj dh tkrh gSA 15) cSadjIV % fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dh og voLFkk tc og fu;r le; ij viuk dtZ okfil djus esa vleFkZ gksrs gSaA 16) cSadjIVlh % fdlh O;kikj vFkok O;fDr ds fy, tc os viuk dtZ okfil u dj ik;sa lgk;rk izkIr djus dk dkuwuh <axA nhokyk fudkyus laca/kh vnkyr esa] os vius dtZ dk vkafkd Hkqxrku djds vius dtks± ls NqVdkjk ik ldrs gSaA ,sls eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ ds fy, foks"k cSadjIVlh tt gksrs gSaA 17) ckj % os lHkh odhy tks dkuwu esa izSfDVl djus dh kS{kf.kd ;ksX;rk j[krs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy, fdlh jkT; dh ckj esa ml jkT; esa dkuwu esa izSfDVl djus dh kS{kf.kd ;ksX;rk j[kus okys lHkh odhy kkfey gksrs gSaA 18) ckj ,sXt+kehusku % jkT; }kjk vk;ksftr og ijh{kk tks dkuwu esa izSfDVl djus ds fy, ykbZlSal tkjh djus ds fy, yh tkrh gSA 19) csl VeZ % fMVjehusaV lSVSaflx ykW ds vuqlkj vnkyr }kjk pquh xbZ tsy dh ltk dh vo/khA 20) cSVMZ pkbZYM flUMªkse % fdlh cPps dh og kkjhfjd voLFkk tc mlds ekrk&firk vFkok laj{kd ds d`R;ksa ds dkj.k vkarfjd ;k ckgjh ?kko gks x, gksaA 21) cSVjh % mudh vuqefr ds fcuk yksxksa ds lkFk voS/k ekj&dqVkbZ vFkok kkjhfjd fgalkAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 27
  • 31. 22) cSVjh] LikÅty % ifr vFkok ifr ds }kjk viuh iRuh vFkok ifr ds lkFk lgefr ds fcuk vkijkf/kd lalxZ vFkok cy iz;ksxA 23) chxy eksku % fu.kkZ;d e.My ds le{k izfroknh dks iwoZdky esa feyh ltk ds mYys[k dks kkfey u djus ds fy, ;kfpdkA 24) fogsfo;j bUVjoSaku % O;fDrxr fk{kk dk;ZØe ds vax ds :i esa mu fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds O;ogkj iySu dks cnyus ds fy, fdlh LFkkfud kS{kf.kd ,tsalh }kjk cukbZ xbZ ;kstuk] tks viuk uqdlku djrs gSa] nwljksa ds lkFk fgalk djrs gSa ;k tks foukkdkjh gSaA 25) cSap % ¼1½ vnkyr dk og LFkku tgka tt cSBrk gS] ¼2½ vke vFkok dksbZ foks"k ttA 26) cSap dkUÝSal % tt ds cSBus ds LFkku ij tt] odhy rFkk dHkh&dHkh izfroknh ds chp ehfVax tks fjdkMZ esa vk Hkh ldrh gS ;k ugha Hkh] vkSj tks fu.kkZ;d e.My dh vuqifLFkfr esa gksrh gSA 27) cSap Vªk;y % fcuk fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lquokbZ @ tt dh eqdíeksa dk fu.kZ; djrk gSA 28) cSp okjaV % tt }kjk ^cSap* dks fn;k x;k og vknsk ftlesa fdlh ,sls O;fDr dks fxj¶rkj djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gS ftlus vnkyr ds vknskkuqlkj dk;Z u fd;k gksA mnkgj.k ds fy,] iskh ds le; vnkyr esa mifLFkr u gqvk gksA 29) cSuhQhfk;jh % og O;fDr tks fdlh VªLV ls dqN izkIr djrk gksA 30) cSuhfQV vkQ nk % og fu;e ftlesa izko/kku gS fd dksbZ O;fDr viuh laifÙk ds ckjxsu :y okLrfod ewY; vkSj ?kksf"kr ewY; ds chp vUrj dh olwyh dj ldrk gSA 31) fcfDohFk % olh;rukes esa fdlh ds uke dqN NksM+ tkukA 32) fcDoSLVl % olh;r esa fdlh ds uke tks dqN vki NksM+rs gSaAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 28
  • 32. 33) cSLV ,sohMSal % izkFkfed izek.k] miyC/k loksZÙke izek.kA mnkgj.k ds fy, ewy&i=k lokZsÙke izek.k gS tcfd mldh QksVks&dkih f}rh;&Js.kh dk izek.k gSA 34) fc;kSaM , jhtuscy % fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíesa esa ;g krZ fd fu.kkZ;d e.My bl ckr ls MkÅV larq"V gks fd vijk/k dk izR;sd rRo vfHk;kstu i{k }kjk fl) fd;k x;k gSA 35) fc;kl % fdlh ?kVuk vFkok eqís dk fdlh iwoZ&fu/kkZfjr <ax ls fu.kZ; djus ds fy, cukbZ xbZ iwoZ&/kkj.kkA 36) ckbZQjdsV % eqíksa dk vyx&vyx fu.kZ; djuk] tSls fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíesa esa nks"k rFkk vkijkf/kd ftEesnkjh vFkok fdlh nhokuh eqdíes esa nsunkjh rFkk gtkZus dh jkfkA 37) ckbZQjdsku eksku % lquokbZ ds nkSjku eqíksa ds Øe esa ifjorZu ds fy, ;kfpdkA 38) fcy vkQ iVhZdqjt+ % izfroknh ds fo:) yxk, x, vkjksi ds fooj.k dh lwphA 39) ckbZUM % Lo;a vFkok fdlh nwljs dks dkuwuh :i ls mÙkjnk;h cukukA 40) ckbZUM vksoj % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys tt dk fu.kZ; fd dk;Zokgh ds fy, i;kZIr izek.k gSA 41) CyM&vYdksgy % 100 feyhyhVj jDr esa vYdksgy dh xzkeksa esa ek=kk vFkok 210 Loklksa esa vYdksgy dh xzkeksa esa ek=kkA 42) CyM&VSLV % ;g tkuus ds fy, fd ¼1½ fdlh ds jDr esa fdlh foks"k dSehdy dh fdruh ek=kk fo|eku gS] ¼2½ fdlh cPps dk firk vFkok ekrk dkSu gS] fdlh O;fDr ds jDr ds uewus dh tkap djukA 43) ckWMh vVSpeSaV % vnkyr }kjk tkjh og fyf[kr vknsk ftlesa kkafr dk;e j[kus okys vf/kdkjh dks funsZk fn;k tkrk gS fd og fdlh O;fDr dks fxj¶rkj dj vnkyr ds le{k isk djsA ¼1½ ml xokg dks tks vnkyr esa mifLFkr u gqvk gks] ¼2½ ml i{k dks ftlus fdlh nhokuh eqdíesa esa fn, x, vknsk dk ikyu u fd;k gks] vFkok ¼3½ fdlh vkijkf/kdEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 29
  • 33. eqdíesa esa vko;d xokgA 44) cksuk&QkbZMh % oQknkj] Ny&diV vFkok /kks[ksckth jfgr okLrfodA 45) ckSaM % fdlh dtZ dk izek.k&i=k vFkok izek.kA 46) cqd ¼cqfdax½ % fdlh dh fxj¶rkjh ds le; iqfyl }kjk dh tkus okyh dk;ZokghA blesa vaxwBs dk fukku ysuk] QksVks ysuk] vkSj O;fDr ds ckjs esa O;fDrxr lwpuk dk mYys[k djuk kkfey gksrk gSA 47) cqfdax uEcj % fdlh O;fDr dh fxj¶rkjh ls lacaf/kr vkijkf/kd fjdkMZ dks fn;k x;k uEcjA 48) cqd ekfd±x % nwljksa dh krZ dh jkfk;ksa dks ,d=k djuk vFkok Hkfo"; esa gksus okyh tq, dh izfr;ksfxrkvksa ij nko yxkukA 49) czSMh eksku % cpko i{k }kjk nk;j dh xbZ ;kfpdk tc mUgsa Hkjkslk gks fd ljdkjh odhy nks"kh dks nks"k eqDr djus ds fy, rS;kj ugha gqvk gS vkSj mUgsa vko;d lcwrksa ij fookl gksA 50) czkafMfkax , oSiu % fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks gfFk;kj fn[kkuk] foks"kdj iqfyl vFkok ihfM+r dksA 51) czhp % fdlh dkuwu vf/kdkj vFkok dÙkZO; dk mYya?ku] fdlh dk;Zokgh }kjk vFkok fdlh dk;Z dks u djus ijA 52) czhp vkQ ihl % og izR;sd O;fDr tks voS/k <ax ls lkoZtfud LFkku ij >xM+k djrk gS vFkok tku cw> dj nqHkkZouk fdlh lkoZtfud LFkku ij fdlh ,d vFkok vusd O;fDr;ksa dks viekutud kCn dgrk gS] ftlds dkj.k rRdky fgald izfrfØ;k vkjaHk gks ldrh gSA 53) czsfdax ,s.M ,safVªx % jkr ds le; fdlh ds ?kj esa tkdj nq"deZ djukA 54) czSFk ykbZt+j VSLV % fdlh ds jDr esa vYdksgy dh ek=kk tkuus ds fy, mlds Loklksa dh tkapA 55) czkbZo % og rksgQk] t:jh ugha fd og dherh gks] tks ysus okys ds O;ogkjEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 30
  • 34. dks izHkkfor djus ds fy, fn;k tkrk gSA 56) czhQ % nksuksa i{kksa dh vksj ls vnkyr dks fn;k x;k fyf[kr C;ku ftlds vk/kkj os vnkyr }kjk lgh Bgjk;s tkus dh vkkk djrs gSaA 57) cMZu vkQ izwQ % tc eqdíeksa esa kkfey fdlh O;fDr dks nwljs ls vf/kd izekf.kr djuk iM+rk gSA 58) cxZyjh % tc dksbZ voS/k :i ls fdlh ds Hkou vFkok ?kj dk rkyk rksM+ dj ?kql tkrk gS vk"Sj pksjh djus dk iz;kl vFkok pksjh dj ysrk gS vFkok dksbZ vU; xaHkhj vijk/k djrk gSA 59) ckbZLVS.MlZ % vdLekr izR;{knkhZ] og O;fDr ftldk ?kVuk ls dksbZ laca/k u gksAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 31
  • 35. ----------C--------- 1. CALENDAR - A list, in alphabetical order, of all the cases in each courtroom every day. "To calendar" something means to give a day, time, and courtroom to a case. 2. CALIFORNIA RULES OF COURT – The rules for practices and procedures in California’s state courts. 3. CALJIC – California Jury Instructions, Criminal. 4. CALLING THE DOCKET - The public calling of the docket or list of causes at the beginning of court, for setting a time for trial or entering orders. 5. CAPACITY - The person with the ability to perform under his or her will. 6. CAPITAL CASE - A criminal case where the defendant can get the death penalty. 7. CAPITAL CRIME - A crime punishable by death. 8. CAPITAL OFFENSE – A crime that you can get the death penalty for committing. 9. CAPITAL PUNISHMENT - Punishment by death. (See DEATH PENALTY.) 10. CAPTION - What is written at the top of all papers (called "pleadings") given to the court. It says things like case name, court, and case number. 11. CARJACKING – Taking a motor vehicle that belongs to someone else against his will, by means of force or fear. 12. CASE - A lawsuit. Or a complaint filed in criminal, traffic, or civil court. 13. CASE FILE – The folder that has official court papers for a case. 14. CASEFLOW MANAGEMENT – How a case is managed from the first paper filed to the final decision. 15. CASE ID – Identification number given to case by the court. 16. CASE LAW - Law made by earlier decisions in similar cases. 17. CASELOAD – The number of cases a judge has in a specific time. 18. CASE NUMBER - The number that identifies a case. This number is on all papers filed in the case. Also called "case ID." Also called DOCKET NUMBER. 19. CAUSATION - The act which causes something else to happen. 20. CAUSE - A lawsuit, litigation, or action. 21. CAUSE OF ACTION - The charges that make up the case or lawsuit. (See COUNTS). 22. CAUSTIC CHEMICALS – Corrosive acid or flammable substance.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 32
  • 36. 23. CAUTIONARY INSTRUCTIONS – When the judge tells the jury to consider certain evidence only for a specific purpose. 24. CAVEAT - A warning; a note of caution. 25. CAVEAT EMPTOR - A theory that says you buy things at your own risk. Comes from the Latin for "let the buyer beware." 26. CEASE AND DESIST ORDER - An order of an administrative agency or court prohibiting a person or business from doing something. 27. CERTIFICATE OF PROBABLE CAUSE - An order signed by the court granting a defendant the right to appeal from a plea of guilty. 28. CERTIFICATION - A judges order to move a criminal case to another court in a different county. 29. CERTIFIED - Saying that something is true or an exact reproduction. 30. CERTIFIED COPY - An official copy of a paper from a case file that is marked as being true, complete, and a real copy of the original legal case. 31. CERTIORI - Appeal to U.S. Supreme Court. 32. CHAIN OF CUSTODY - A method to track the whereabouts of evidence from the moment it is received in custody until it is offered in court. 33. CHALLENGE - Someones right to object to or fight something in a legal case. 34. CHALLENGE FOR CAUSE - Reasons that a lawyer gives for removing a juror or judge from a case. (Compare with PEREMPTORY CHALLENGE.) 35. CHALLENGE TO THE ARRAY - Questioning the qualifications of an entire jury panel, usually on the ground of partiality or some fault in the process of summoning the panel. 36. CHAMBERS - A judges private office. 37. CHANGE OF VENUE - When a civil or criminal case is moved from one court jurisdiction to another. (See VENUE). 38. CHARACTER EVIDENCE - Evidence pertaining to whether a criminal defendant is a good or bad person. 39. CHARGE - In criminal law, each thing the defendant is accused of. (See COUNT). 40. CHARGE TO THE JURY - The judges instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial. 41. CHARGING DOCUMENT - A written accusation saying a defendant has committed an offense. Includes a citation, an indictment, information, and statement of charges. 42. CHATTEL – A piece of personal property. 43. CHIEF JUDGE - Presiding or Administrative Judge in a court.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 33
  • 37. 44. CHILD ABUSE - Hurting a child physically, sexually or emotionally. 45. CHILD ABDUCTION – The offense of taking away a child by deceit and persuasion, or by violence. 46. CHILD MOLESTATION - Any form of indecent or sexual activity on, involving, or surrounding a child under the age of 18. 47. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY - Any obscene material that depicts a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or personally simulating sexual conduct. 48. CHILD PROCUREMENT - Intentionally giving, transporting, providing, or making available or offering to give, transport, provide, or make available a child under the age of 16 for the purpose of any lewd or lascivious act. Also causing, inducing, or persuading a child under the age of 16 to engage in any lewd or lascivious act with another person. 49. CHILD SUPPORT - Money paid by a parent to help support a child or children. 50. CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CSE) AGENCY - Agency that exists in every state to find parents that don’t have custody. (called "noncustodial parents," or "NCPs"). Or to find a person assumed to be the father of the child (“Putative father” or "PF"). Also, makes, enforces, and changes child support. Collects and gives out child support money. 51. CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE - All evidence that is indirect. Testimony not based on actual personal knowledge or observation of the facts in dispute. 52. CITATION - A COURT ORDER or SUMMONS that tells a defendant what the charges are. Also tells the defendant to go to court and/or post bail. 53. CITED – When a defendant is not in custody, but has signed a ticket promising to go to court on a certain day. 54. CIVIL ACTION - Noncriminal case in which one private individual or business sues another to protect, enforce private or civil rights. 55. CIVIL CASE - A lawsuit to get property back, to force someone to complete a contract, or to protect someones civil rights. 56. CIVIL JURISDICTION – A court’s right or power to hear noncriminal civil cases. 57. CIVIL PROCEDURE - The rules and process by which a civil case is tried and appealed, including the preparations for trial, the rules of evidence and trial conduct, and the procedure for pursuing appeals. 58. CIVIL PROCESS – Court papers that tell the people in a civil case that it has started. Or papers that try to force the court to reach a judgment. 59. CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLATIONS – Violations of the personal, natural rights guaranteed and protected by the Constitution. 60. CLAIM - The statement of a right to money or property. 61. CLAIM OF EXEMPTION – A court paper filed by the JUDGMENT DEBTOR that lists each piece of property that the judgment debtor claims is an exempt asset under certain provisions of the law and, therefore, can’t be taken to pay the JUDGMENT.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 34
  • 38. 62. CLAIM SPLITTING – When you split up a civil claim and file two lawsuits to stay below the limit of how much money you can ask for. Not allowed in most cases. 63. CLASS ACTION - A lawsuit brought by one or more persons on behalf of a larger group. 64. CLEAR AND CONVINCING EVIDENCE - Standard of proof commonly used in civil lawsuits and in regulatory agency cases. It governs the amount of proof that must be offered in order for the plaintiff to win the case. 65. CLEMENCY OR EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY - Act of grace or mercy by the president or governor to ease the consequences of a criminal act, accusation, or conviction. It may take the form of commutation or pardon. 66. CLERICAL ERROR - An unintentional mistake, in writing, which may be made by clerk, counsel, or court. (See NUNC PRO TUNC.) 67. CLERK - Officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, judgments, etc., issues process, and keeps records of court proceedings. 68. CLERK’S TRANSCRIPT - Those pleadings, minute orders, affidavits, written opinions of the Court, trial exhibits, etc., designated by the attorneys which have been filed during the course of the litigation process are put together with the appeal documents and collectively form the Clerk’s Transcript. 69. CLOSING ARGUMENT - Counsels final statement to the judge/and or jury after all parties have concluded their presentation of evidence. 70. CODE - The law created by statutes. For example, the California Code of Civil Procedure, California Civil Code, California Vehicle Code, California Penal Code, and California Health and Safety Code. 71. CODE OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY - The rules of conduct that govern the legal profession. The Code contains general ethical guidelines and specific rules written by the American Bar Association. 72. CO-DEFENDANT - In a criminal case, an individual charged with involvement in the same crime as another. 73. CODICIL (kodi-sil) - A legal paper that adds to or changes a will. 74. COERCION – Compulsion; constraint; compelling by force or arms or threat. 75. COHABITANT – One who lives with another. 76. COLLATERAL - 1. Property that is pledged as security against a debt. 2. A person belonging to the same ancestry (a relation), but not in a direct line of descent. 77. COLLATERAL ATTACK - An attack on a judgment other than a direct appeal to a higher court. 78. COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL OR DEVICE – Capable of blowing up; apt to catch fire; inflammable. 79. COMMISSIONER - A person chosen by the court and given the power to hear and make decisions in certain kinds of legal matters.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 35
  • 39. 80. COMMIT - To do something, like "to commit" a crime, or to put someone in a sheriffs custody. Or to use a court order to send a person to jail. 81. COMMITMENT - 1. The action of sending a person to a prison or mental institution. 2. The order directing an officer to take a person to a prison or mental institution. 82. COMMITMENT ORDER - A court order that says a person must be kept in custody, usually in a jail or mental institution. 83. COMMON BARRATRY (also called BARRETRY) – Making a habit of starting fights or lawsuits. Starting lawsuits without a good reason. 84. COMMON CARRIER – Required by law to carry passengers or freight without refusal if the fare is paid; in contrast to a private or contract carrier. 85. COMMON LAW - Laws that come from court decisions and not from statutes ("codes") or constitutions. 86. COMMUNITY OBLIGATIONS – Debts that a husband and wife owe together. In most cases, that includes anything that you still owe on any debts either of you had during the time you were living together as husband and wife. For example, if you bought furniture on credit while you were married and living together, the unpaid balance is a part of your community obligations. 87. COMMUNITY PROPERTY - Everything that a husband and wife own together. In most cases that includes: (1) Money or benefits like pensions and stock options that you now have which either of your earned during the time you were living together as husband and wife; and (2) Anything either of you bought with money earned during that period. 88. COMMUNITY SERVICE - Work performed as punishment for a crime. It may also be performed instead of a fine, or as a condition of probation. 89. COMMUTATION - The reduction of a sentence, such as from death to life imprisonment. 90. COMPARATIVE FAULT – Percentage of fault which is assigned to any one party. 91. COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE - A legal doctrine by which acts of the opposing parties are compared to determine the liability of each party to the other for negligent acts. 92. COMPENSATORY DAMAGES – Money that one person must pay another to cover the cost of a wrong or injury. (See DAMAGES). 93. COMPETENCE ORDER – An order from a superior court that says that a defendant is mentally able to go to trial. Tells the trial court to go ahead with the criminal case. 94. COMPETENCY - The ability for a person to understand and communicate, especially with regard to standing trial and assisting counsel in his or her defense. 95. COMPLAINANT - Person who wants to start a court case against another person. In a civil case, the complainant is the PLAINTIFF. In a criminal case, the complainant is the state. 96. COMPLAINT - The legal document that usually begins a civil lawsuit and is also used to start a criminal case. Says what the plaintiff thinks the defendant did and asks the court for help. Also called the "initial pleading" or "petition." 97. COMPLY - To act in accordance with, to accept, to obey.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 36
  • 40. 98. COMPOSITE DRAWING - A picture of an alleged criminal created by a professional police artist using verbal descriptions given by the victim or a witness. 99. CONCEALMENT – Withholding of something which one knows and which one, in duty, is bound to reveal. 100. CONCILIATION - A form of alternative dispute resolution in which the parties bring their dispute to a neutral third party, who helps lower tensions, improve communications, and explore possible solutions. Similar to mediation, but it may be less formal. 101. CONCURRENT JURISDICTION - The territory of two or more courts, that are each authorized to deal with the same subject matter. 102. CONCURRENT PLANNING – Refers to the legal requirement in dependency cases that reunification services be provided at the same time an alternative plan is developed (e.g., adoption , guardianship) if needed. 103. CONCURRENT SENTENCES - Sentences you can serve at the same time. For example, if you have concurrent sentences of 10 years and 5 years, you must serve a total of 10 years. (Compare with CONCURRENT SENTENCES). 104. CONCURRING CAUSES – Acting contemporaneously and together causing injury, which would not have resulted in absence of either. 105. CONDEMNATION - The legal process by which the government takes private land for public use, paying the owners a fair price. (See EMINENT DOMAIN.) 106. CONDITIONS – Certain things that someone has to do, or not do, to be released. 107. CONDITIONAL RELEASE - Freedom from custody which regulates the activities and associations of the defendant. If a defendant fails to meet the conditions, the release is cancelled. 108. CONDUCT ENHANCEMENTS - A kind of punishment-enhancing allegation (such as the arming clause of Penal Code section 12022) that relates to the nature of the offense at the time the crime was committed. 109. CONFESSION - When someone admits out loud or in writing that they committed a certain kind of crime. (Compare with ADMISSION). 110. CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT - The act of a debtor in a written statement that permits judgment to be entered against him by his creditor, without legal proceedings. 111. CONFIDENTIAL - A file or record that is not available for public viewing. Authorized viewing allowed only in statute and/or court policy. Files and records are identified and receive special handling. 112. CONFIDENTIAL RECORD – Information in a court case that is not available to the public. 113. CONFIDENTIALITY – Treated as private and not for publication. 114. CONFISCATE - To seize or take private property for public use (the police took the weapon). 115. CONFLICT OF INTEREST - When you have two different interests at the same time. For example, a lawyer who represents two sides at the same time cant be fair.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 37
  • 41. 116. CONFORM COPIES - To make copies identical to an original; e.g., copies with duplicate signatures, duplicate dates. 117. CONFRONTATION RIGHT – Defendant’s right to be face-to-face with the witnesses against him or her. It generally includes the right to ask questions and object, and to have witnesses testify in person. 118. CONSANGUINITY – COLLATERAL - The relationship that exists between persons who have the same ancestors, but who do not descend, or ascend, one from the other; as between uncle and nephew. 119. CONSANGUINITY – LINEAL - The relationship that exists persons of whom one is descended in a direct line from the other, as between son, father, grandfather, and so upwards in the direct ascending line; or between son, grandson, great-grandson, and so downwards in the direct descending line. 120. CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES - Successive sentences, one beginning at the end of another, imposed against a person convicted of two or more violations. 121. CONSERVATEE - Someone who cant take care of themselves and has a caretaker (called the "CONSERVATOR") who the court picked. 122. CONSERVATOR - Someone picked by the court to either take care of someone who cant take care of themselves (called a "CONSERVATEE") or take care of that persons property , or both. 123. CONSERVATORSHIP - A court proceeding where a judge picks someone (a conservator) to take care of an adults personal needs and/or his or her finances. For minors, see GUARDIANSHIP. 124. CONSENT – A written agreement to obey a decision or deal. 125. CONSIDERATION - The cause, price, or impelling influence which makes a party enter into a contract. 126. CONSOLIDATION OF ACTIONS – When at least two cases that involve the same people are grouped together. 127. CONSORTIUM, LOSS OF – Unable to have a sexual relationship between a husband and a wife. 128. CONSPIRACY – Where two or more persons intentionally agree to commit crime and do an act towards committing the crime. 129. CONSTRUCTIVE POSSESSION - Where a person does not actually possess a thing, but knowingly has control over it. 130. CONSTITUTION – The central law of our country that sets up the creation, character, and organization of its power and how that power is exercised. The rule, principles, descriptions of the government’s power, and the main rights that the people of a country or state have. 131. CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT - A right guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution, interpreted by the federal courts; also, a right guaranteed by some other constitution (such as a state constitution). 132. CONTEMNOR - One who has committed contempt of court.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 38
  • 42. 133. CONTEMPORARY COMMUNITY STANDARD – What is, objectively acceptable to the community as a whole. Ascertainment of the standard must be based upon an objective determination of what is unacceptable to the community as a whole. Your own personal, social, or moral views on the material involved in the case may not be considered. 134. CONTEMPT (OF COURT) - Disobeying a court order. Punishment can be a fine or jail. 135. CONTINUANCE - Putting off a court case to a later date. (See ADJOURNMENT). 136. CONTINUING EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION – Theory that only one support order should be valid between the same people at a time. And when a court hears a child support case, it can add to and change that order. The court of continuing exclusive jurisdiction has control over a support case until another court takes it away. This is defined in the Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA). 137. CONTRACT - (1) an agreement between two or more people to do or not to do a particular thing; (2) an agreement between two or more people that makes, changes, or ends a legal relationship. 138. CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE - A legal doctrine that says if the plaintiff in a civil action for negligence also was negligent, in any way, he or she cannot recover damages from the defendant for the defendants negligence. 139. CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES – Any drug identified by law whose availability is restricted. Unless otherwise specified, a drug, substance, or immediate precursor which is listed in any schedule in Health & Safety Code sections 11054, 11055, 11056, 11057 or 11058. 140. CONVERSION - The wrongful assumption of ownership over the goods or personal property belonging to another. 141. CONVEY – (1) to give the title to property to someone else. (2) to make known or communicate. 142. CONVICT - (1) A person who has been found guilty of a crime and is serving a sentence for that crime; a prison inmate. (2) To find a person guilty of an offense by either a trial or a plea of guilty. 143. CONVICTION - When a judge or jury finds a criminal defendant guilty. 144. CORONER - Public official charged to inquire into the causes and circumstances of any death which occurs through violence or suddenly (suspicious causes). 145. CORPORATION - A group of persons who get a charter granting them as a body certain legal powers, rights, privileges, and liabilities as an individual. 146. CORPUS DELECTI - Body of the crime. The objective proof that a crime has been committed. It sometimes refers to the body of the victim of a homicide or to the charred remains of a burned house, but the term has a broader meaning. For the state to introduce a confession or to convict the accused, it must prove the occurrence of a specific injury or loss and a criminal act was the source of that particular injury or loss. 147. CORROBORATE - To support with evidence or authority; make more certain. 148. CORROBORATING EVIDENCE - Supplementary evidence that tends to strengthen or confirm the initial evidence.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 39
  • 43. 149. CORROBORATION - Confirmation or support of a witness statement or other fact. 150. CORRUPTLY - Dishonestly. 151. COSTS - (1) Fees and charges that a party pays to file and present a court case or to enforce a judgment; (2) money won in a civil suit to pay for expenses. 152. COUNSEL - One or more lawyers who represent a client. Also, legal advice. (See ATTORNEY). 153. COUNSEL TABLE - The physical location where the defense and prosecuting parties are seated during the trial. 154. COUNT - Each separate charge (or statement) in a criminal case. (See CHARGE). 155. COUNTERCLAIM - An independent charge by one side in a case (either the plaintiff or defendant) that goes against the claim made by the other side. 156. COUNTERFEIT - To forge, to copy or imitate, without authority or right, and with the purpose to deceive by passing off the copy as genuine. 157. COUNTY JAIL - A building or structure used to put alleged criminals and/or convicted criminals of local area crimes. 158. COURT - A judge or group of judges whose job is to hear cases and carry out justice. (See BENCH.) 159. COURT APPOINTED SPECIAL ADVOCATES (CASA) - These are volunteers who represent abused and neglected children. 160. COURT ATTENDANT - Provide courtroom support in selected courtrooms by performing limited security-related and clerical duties and serving as the court liaison for juries, witnesses, attorneys and the public. 161. COURT ADMINISTRATOR/CLERK OF COURT - An officer appointed by the Court or elected to oversee the administrative, non-judicial activities of the court. 162. COURT APPOINTED COUNSEL - A defense attorney assigned by the court to represent a defendant who cannot afford to hire an attorney. 163. COURT COSTS - The expenses of prosecuting or defending a lawsuit, other than the attorneys fees. An amount of money may be awarded to the successful party (and may be recoverable from the losing party) as reimbursement for court costs. 164. COURT OF RECORD - A court in which the proceedings are recorded, transcribed, and maintained as permanent records. 165. COURT ORDER - A decision made by a judicial officer that gives someone certain rights or tells someone to do something. 166. COURT REPORTER - Someone who writes down, word for word, what is said in court. What is recorded is called a TRANSCRIPT. 167. COURT TRIAL - A trial without a jury. A judge decides the case.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 40
  • 44. 168. COURT, APPEALS - In some states, the highest appellate court, where it is the Courts decision whether to hear the case. 169. COURT, DISTRICT - (1) Federal - A trial court with general Federal jurisdiction. (2) State - Meaning varies from state to state. 170. COURT, JUVENILE - A court having jurisdiction over cases involving children under a specified age, usually 18. Cases generally involve delinquent, dependent, and neglected children. 171. COURT, NIGHT - A specialized court that deals with cases during the late evening and early morning hours. 172. COURT, SUPERIOR - Trial court; meaning varies from state to state. 173. COURT, TRAFFIC - A specialized court that hears crimes dealing with traffic offenses. 174. COURTESY NOTICE - A notice made by a computer that is usually sent for traffic violations to tell a defendant about a court date, bail, etc. 175. COURTROOM - The section of a courthouse in which the judge presides over the proceedings. 176. COURTROOM CLERK - Courtroom personnel who attends court sessions and prepares record of court proceedings in conformance with statutes, policies, and the direction of a Judge; swears in witnesses and juries; maintains exhibits offered in evidence. 177. CREDIBILITY - The quality in a witness which makes his or her testimony believable. 178. CREDIT – Arrangement or understanding by the maker of a check with the person/institution upon which the order is drawn, for the payment of that check upon its presentation. 179. CRIME - Something you do, or dont do, that breaks a law. If you are found guilty, you can be punished by: death; jail or prison; fine; being removed from office; being unable to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit. 180. CRIMINAL - Someone convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor. 181. CRIMINAL CASE - A court case that starts because of a crime. 182. CRIMINAL CONDUCT – The nature of or involving a crime. 183. CRIMINAL INSANITY - Lack of mental ability to do or keep from doing a particular act; not able to distinguish right from wrong. 184. CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE – Act(s) which are aggravated, reckless or flagrant and which depart from the conduct of an ordinarily prudent, careful person under the same circumstances as to be contrary to a proper regard for human life or to constitute an indifference to the consequences of those acts. 185. CRIMINAL RECORD - (1) Arrest record. A written account listing all the instances in which a person has been arrested. (2) A form completed by a police officer when a person is arrested. 186. CRIMINAL STREET GANG - An ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, having as one of its primary activities the commission of one or more criminal acts, having a common name or common identifying sign or symbol, and whose members individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 41
  • 45. 187. CRIMINAL SUMMONS - An order commanding an accused to appear in court. 188. CROSS-CLAIM - A claim filed by defendant(s) or plaintiff(s) against each other. 189. CROSS-EXAMINATION - When the other sides lawyer asks a witness questions in a hearing or trial. 190. CUMULATIVE SENTENCES - Sentences for two or more crimes to run a consecutively, rather than concurrently. (See CONCURRENT SENTENCES AND CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES.) 191. CUSTODIAL PARENT – The parent that has primary care, custody, and control of the child(ren). 192. CUSTODY - (1) When someone is under the physical control of the court to make sure they go to court when theyre supposed to; (2) when the judge sends a person to jail after they are found guilty of a crime; (3) the care and control of children. 193. CUSTODY ORDER - A court order that says who a child will live with and who should make decisions about health care, education, and other important things. 194. CUSTOM – A usage or practice of the people, which, by common adoption and acquiescence, has become compulsory.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 42
  • 46. 1) dSysaMj % izfrfnu vnkyr ds izR;sd dejs esa lqus tkus tkus okys lHkh eqdíeksa dh o.kZekyk ds Øekuqlkj lwphA fdlh oLrq dks dSysaMj nsus dk vFkZ gS fdlh eqdíes dh lquokbZ ds fy, fnu] le; vkSj vnkyr dk fu/kkZj.k djukA 2) dSyhQksfuZ;k :y+ vkQ % dSyhQkSfuZ;k izkar dh vnkyrksa esa ijaijkvksa rFkk izfrfØ;kvksa ds ckjs dksVZ esa izpfyr fu;eA 3) dSfYtd % dSyhQksfuZ;k twjh bULVªDku] fØfeuyA 4) dkfyax nh MkfdV % lquokbZ ds fy, le; fufpr djus ds fy, vknskksa dh izfof"V ds fy, vnkyr kq: gksus ds le; eqdíeksa dh lwph dh lkoZtfud mn~?kks"k.kk djukA 5) dSiSflVh % viuh bPNkuqlkj dk;Z dh lkeF;Z j[kus okyk iq:"k @ L=khA 6) dSihVy dsl % og vkijkf/kd eqdíek ftlesa izfroknh dks Qkalh dh lt+k nh tk ldrh gSA 7) dSihVy ØkbZe % og vijk/k ftlds fy, e`R;q naM fn;k tk ldrk gSA 8) dSihVy vkSQSUl % og vijk/k ftls djus ij vkidks e`R;qnaM fey ldrk gSA 9) dSihVy ifukesaV % e`R;qnaMA 10) dSIku % vnkyr dks fn, tkus okys izR;sd nLrkost esa lcls Åij fy[kk kh"kZd ¼ftls ÞIyhfMaXlß dgk tkrk gSA½ blesa eqdíes ds uke] vnkyr dk rFkk eqdíes dh la[;k dk mYys[k gksrk gSA 11) dkj tSfdax % fdlh dks Mjk dj vFkok cy iz;ksx }kjk mldh lgefr ds fcuk eksVj&xkM+h dks ys tkukA 12) dsl % dksbZ dkuwuh eqdíek vFkok fdlh vkijkf/kd] ;krk;kr laca/kh vFkok nhokuh vnkyr esa nk;j djokbZ xbZ fkdk;rA 13) dsl QkbZy % og QksYMj ftlesa fdlh eqdíes ls lacaf/kr nLrkost yxs gksaA 14) dsl¶yks eSusteSaV % loZizFke nk;j fd, x, nLrkost ls vafre fu.kZ; rd eqdíes ds izca/ku <axAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 43
  • 47. 15) dsl % eqdíes dh igpku ds fy, vnkyr }kjk bls fn;k x;k ØekadA 16) dsl ykW % leku eqdíeksa esa igys fn, fu.kZ;ksa ls fufeZr dkuwuA 17) dsl yksM % fdlh tt }kjk fufpr vof/k ds nkSjku lqus tkus okys eqdíeksa dh la[;k 18) dsl uEcj % og Øekad ftlls fdlh eqdíes dh igpku gksrh gSA ;g Øekad bl eqdíes ds laca/k esa nk;j fd, x, lHkh nLrkostksa ij fy[kk tkrk gSA bls dsl vkbZ-Mh- o MkdsV uacj Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 19) dkSts+ku % og d`R; ftlds dkj.k dqN vU; gh ?kfVr gks tkrk gSA 20) dkSt+ % dksbZ eqdíek] dkuwuh yM+kbZ vFkok dk;ZokghA 21) dkSt+ vkQ ,sDku % os vkjksi ftuds vk/kkj ij eqdíek curk gSA 22) dkWfLVD dSehdYt+ % {kkjd vEy vFkok Toyukhy inkFkZA 23) dkSkujh bULVªDkul % tc dksbZ tt fu.kkZ;d eaMy dks fdlh foks"k mís; ds fy, gh fdlh izek.k ij fopkj djus ds fy, dgsA 24) dSohV % psrkouh] lko/kku jgus dk ladsrA 25) dSohV ,sEiVj % og fl)kar tks crkrk gS fd vki vius tksf[ke ij gh leku [kjhnsaA 26) lht+ ,saM MsftLV % fdlh izkklfud ,tsalh vFkok vnkyr dk vknsk ftlesa fdlh vkMZj O;fDr vFkok O;kikj dks dksbZ dk;Z djus ls jksdk tkrk gSA 27) LVhZfQdsV vkWQ izkscscy % vnkyr }kjk gLrk{kfjr og vknsk ftlds }kjk fdlh izfroknh dks ekSt+ nks"k Lohdkj djus ij vihy djus dk vf/kdkj fn;k tkrk gSA 28) LVhZfQdsku % fdlh tt dk og vknsk ftlesa fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes dks fdlhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 44
  • 48. nwljs ftys esa Hkstus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 29) LVhZQkbZM % og dFku ftlesa fdlh pht+ dks LVhd izfrd`fr dgk x;k gksA 30) LVhZQkbZM dkWih % fdlh eqdíes dh QkbZy esa ls fdlh ljdkjh nLrkost dh og udy ftl ij fy[kk jgrk gS og ewy eqdíes dh lR;] iw.kZ rFkk okLrfod izfrfyih gSA 31) lfVZ;ksjh % la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds loksZPp U;k;ky; esa vihyA 32) psu vkWQ dLVMh % fgjklr esa fy, tkus ds ckn ls vnkyr esa isk fd, tkus rd lcwrksa ds izkfIr&LFkku ds ckjs esa irk yxkus dh fof/kA 33) pSysat % fdlh O;fDr dk fdlh eqdíes esa fdlh ckr ij ,srjkt vFkok fojks/k djus dk vf/kdkjA 34) pSysat QkWj dkst+ % fdlh eqdíes dh lquokbZ esa fdlh tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fdlh lnL; dks gVkus ds fy, fdlh odhy }kjk fn, x, dkj.kA 35) pSysat Vw nk ,sjs % vkerkSj ls i{kikr ds vk/kkj ij vFkok muds p;u esa nks"k ds vk/kkj ij fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lHkh lnL;ksa dh ;ksX;rk ij vkifÙk mBkukA 36) pSaclZ % fdlh tt dk futh dk;kZy;A 37) psat vkQ oSU;q % tc fdlh nhokuh vFkok vkijkf/kd eqdíes dks ,d vnkyr ds vf/kdkj {ks=k ls nwljh vnkyr esa Hkstk tkrk gSA 38) dSjsDVj ,sohMSal % fdlh vkijkf/kd izfroknh ds pfj=k ds vPNk ;k cqjk gksus ds ckjs esa izek.kA 39) pktZ % vijk/k laca/kh dkuwu esa] og izR;sd vijk/k ftldk vkjksi izfroknh ij yxk;k x;k gksA 40) pktZ Vw nh twjh % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh esa rF;ksa ij ykxw gksus okys dkuwu ds ckjs esa tt }kjk fu.kkZ;d e.My dks fn, x, funsZkA 41) pkft±x ,SD;weSaV % og fyf[kr vkjksi&i=k ftlesa fy[kk gksrk gS fd izfroknh us veqdEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 45
  • 49. vijk/k fd;k gSA blesa vkjksiksa dk mYys[k] nks"kkjksi.k] lwpuk rFkk vkjksiksa dh lwpuh kkfey gksrh gSA 42) iSV~Vy % futh laifÙk dk ,d HkkxA 43) phQ tt % fdlh vnkyr esa ihlk lhu vFkok izkklfud ttA 44) pkbZYM ,sC;wt+ % fdlh cPps dks kkjhfjd] ;kSu laca/kh vFkok ekufld ihM+k igqapkukA 45) pkbZYM ,sCMDku % fdlh cPps dks Ny&diV ls] cgyk&Qqlyk dj vFkok fgald cy iz;ksx }kjk mBk ys tkus dk vijk/kA 46) pkbZYM eksySLVsku % 18 o"kZ ls de vk;q ds cPps dks idM+ dj ?ksj dj mlds lkFk fdlh izdkj dh vHknz dk;ZokghA 47) pkbZYM iksuksZxzkQh % dksbZ Hkh ,slk vyhy inkFkZ ftlesa fdlh 18 o"kZ ls de vk;q ds cPps dks O;fDrxr :i ls ;kSu laca/kh fØ;k djrs gq, vFkok Lokax djrs gq, fn[kk;k x;k gksA 48) pkbZYM izksD;ksjeSaV % fdlh vyhy vFkok dkeksÙkstd fØ;k ds fy, 16 o"kZ ls de vk;q ds cPps dks lkSaiuk] ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd ys tkuk] izca/k djuk vFkok nsus dh iskdsk djuk] vFkok miyC/k djkukA blesa 16 o"kZ dh vk;q ls de ds cPps dks fdlh vyhy vFkok dkeksÙkstd fØ;k esa lafyIr djus ds fy, et+cwj djuk] ykyp nsuk ;k eukuk Hkh kkfey gS 49) pkbZYM liksVZ % fdlh cPps ;k cPpksa ds xqtkjs ds fy, ekrk&firk vFkok firk }kjk nh tkus okyh jkfkA 50) pkbZYM liksVZ % og ,tsalh tks izR;sd izkar esa ,sls ekrk&firk dk irk yxkrh gS ftuds ,sUQkslZesaV ,tsalh cPps muls fcNqM+ x, gksaA vFkok ,sls O;fDr dk irk yxkrh gS ftls fdlh cPps dk firk ekuk tkrk gSA ;g cPps dh lgk;rk jkfk dks fu/kkZfjr djrh gS] bls ykxw djokrh gS vkSj blesa ifjorZu djrh gSA ;g lgk;rk jkfk ysdj cPps dks nsrh gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 46
  • 50. 51) ljdeLVkafk;y % lHkh vizR;{k izek.kA okLrfod O;fDrxr tkudkjh vFkok >xM+s ds ,sohMsal rF;ksa ij n`f"Vikr ds vk/kkj ij nh xbZ xokghA 52) lkbZVsku % vnkyr dk og vknsk vFkok lEeu ftlds }kjk fdlh izfroknh dks ifjorZuksa ls voxr djk;k tkrk gSA blds }kjk fdlh izfroknh dks vnkyr ls tekur izkIr djus ds fy, Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 53) lkbZVsM % tc dksbZ izfroknh fgjklr esa u gks ijUrq mlus fdlh fufpr fnu vnkyr esa mifLFkr gksus ds opu ds lkFk fdlh nLrkost ij gLrk{kj dj fn, gksaA 54) flfoy ,sDku % xSj&vkijkf/kd eqdíek ftlesa dksbZ izkbZosV O;fDr ;k O;kikj fdlh nwljs ds fo:) dkuwuh dk;Zokgh djrk gS rkfd og vius izkbZosV vFkok ukxfjd vf/kdkjksa dh j{kk rFkk mUgsa ykxw djok ldsA 55) flfoy dsl % laifÙk dks okfil izkIr djus ds fy,] fdlh dks le>kSrs dh krs± iwjh djus ij etcwj djus ds fy, vFkok fdlh ds ukxfjd vf/kdkjksa dh j{kk djus ds fy, fd;k x;k eqdíekA 56) flfoy twfjlfMDku % fdlh vnkyr }kjk xSj&vkijkf/kd nhokuh eqdíes dh lquokbZ dk vf/kdkjA 57) flfoy izkslhtj % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh dh rS;kjh] dk;Zokgh ds lapkyu laca/kh fu;eksa rFkk vihy vkfn dh iSjoh ds fy, fu/kkZfjr izfØ;k lfgros lHkh fu;e rFkk izfØ;k ftuds vuqlkj fdlh nhokuh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh rFkk vihy dh tkrh gSA 58) flfoy izkSlsl % vnkyr ds os nLrkost ftuls yksxksa dks fdlh nhokuh eqdíes ds vkjaHk gksus dh tkudkjh feyrh gS vFkok os nLrkost tks fdlh vnkyr dks dksbZ fu.kZ; ysus ds fy, ck/; djrs gSaA 59) flfoy jkbZV~l % lafo/kku }kjk xkjaVhkqnk ,oa lqj{kk izkIr O;fDrxr] izkd`frd ok;ksyskul vf/kdkjksa dk mYya?kuA 60) Dyse % /ku vFkok laifÙk ds izfr nkos dk C;kuA 61) Dyse vkWQ ,sXtSaiku % eqdíek gkjus okys O;fDr }kjk vnkyr esa nk;j fd;k x;k ogEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 47
  • 51. nLrkost ftlesa of.kZr izR;sd laifÙk dks mlds vuqlkj dqN dkuwuksa ds vUrxZr NwV izkIr gS vkSj blfy, mls fu.kZ; dh jkfk dk Hkqxrku djus ds fy, xzg.k ugha fd;k tk ldrkA 62) Dyse LifyfVax % tc vki vius nkos dks nks Hkkxksa esa ckaV dj nks fHké&fHké eqdíes nk;j djrs gks rkfd nkos ds fy, /ku dh vf/kd ls vf/kd lhek ds vanj gh jg ldsaA vf/kdkak eqdíeksa esa bldh vkKk ugha nh tkrh gSA 63) Dykl ,sDku % ,d cM+s lewg dh vksj ls fdlh ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa }kjk nk;j fd;k x;k eqdíekA 64) Dyh;j ,s.M dfUoaflax % nhokuh eqdíeksa rFkk jSxwysVjh ,tsalh eqdíeksa esa vkerkSj ls iz;ksx ,sohMSal fd, tkus okys izek.k dk LrjA ;g izek.k dh ml ek=kk dks fufpr djrk gS tks oknh dks eqdíek ftrkus ds fy, isk djuk vko;d gksA 65) DyheSalh vFkok % fdlh vkijkf/kd d`R;] vkjksi] vFkok ltk ds ifj.kkeksa dks de ,sDtSfDVo DyheSalh djus ds fy, jk"Vªifr vFkok jkT;iky }kjk lgkuqHkwfr vFkok n;k dh dk;ZokghA blds }kjk ltk esa deh dh tk ldrh gS vFkok ltk ekQ dh tk ldrh gSA 66) DySjhdy ,sjj % fy[kus esa fdlh DydZ] odhy vFkok vnkyr }kjk dh xbZ xSj bjknru xyrhA 67) DydZ % vnkyr dk og vf/kdkjh tks vkosnuksa] ;kfpdkvksa] fu.kZ;ksa vkfn dks ntZ djrk gS] lEeu tkjh djrk gS vkSj vnkyr dh dk;Zokgh dk fjdkMZ j[krk gSA 68) DydZl VªkalfØIV % os nyhysa] y?kq&vknsk] kiFk&i=k] vnkyr dh fyf[kr jk;] dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku izek.k ds :i esa izLrqr nLrkost tks odhyksa ds }kjk fu;r fd, x, rFkk ftUgsa eqdíes dh izfØ;k ds nkSjku nk;j fd;k x;k] mu lcdks bDV~Bk dj vihy ds nLrkostksa ds lkFk j[kk tkrk gS vkSj os lc feydj DydZl VªkalfØIV dgykrs gSaA 69) Dyksftax vkjX;weSaV % lHkh i{kksa }kjk izek.k isk dj fn, tkus ds ckn odhy }kjk ttEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 48
  • 52. rFkk @ vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa ds le{k vafre C;kuA 70) dksM % dkuwuksa }kjk fufeZr fu;eA mnkgj.k ds fy,] dSyhQksfuZ;k flfoy izkslhtj] dSyhQksfuZ;k flfoy dksM] dSfyQksfuZ;k Oghdy dksM] ihuy dksM rFkk dSyhQksfuZ;k gSYFk ,s.M ls¶Vh dksMA 71) dksM vkQ izksQSkuy % O;ogkj laca/kh os fu;e tks oS/kkfud O;olk; dks fu;af=kr djrs gSaA fjLikSalhfcYVh bl dksM esa lk/kkj.k uSfrd ekxZ nkZd funsZk rFkk vesfjdu ckj ,slksfk;sku }kjk fyf[kr foks"k fu;e kkfey gSaA 72) dks&fMQSaMSaV % fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíeksa esa mlh vijk/k esa lfEefyr gksus dk vkjksih O;fDr tSls nwljk vkjksihA 73) dksMhfly % og dkuwuh nLrkost tks fdlh olh;r esa dqN tksM+rk gS vFkok ifjorZu djrk gSA 74) dksvkZu % etcwjh] ykpkjh] cy&izosk vFkok gfFk;kj fn[kkdj ;k Mjk&/kedk dj etcwj djukA 75) dks&gSchVSaV % fdlh ds lkFk fey dj jgus okyk O;fDrA 76) dksysVjy % fdlh dtZ ds cnys tekur ds rkSj ij j[kh xbZ laifÙkA ¼2½ mlh oak ls lacaf/kr dksbZ O;fDr ¼dksbZ fjrsnkj½ ijUrq ftldk iSr`d rkSj ij lh/kk laca/k u gksA 77) dksysVjy vVSd % fdlh fu.kZ; ds fo:) Åijh vnkyr esa izR;{k vihy ds vfrfjDr dksbZ vkSj pqukSrhA 78) dEcLVhcy eSVhjh;y % ok"i cudj mM+ tkus okyk] vkx idM+us okyk] ToyukhyA ;k fMokbZl 79) dfekuj % vnkyr }kjk p;u fd;k x;k og O;fDr ftls dqN izdkj ds eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ dj mu ij fu.kZ; nsus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksrk gSA 80) dfeV % dksbZ dk;Z djuk] tSls dksbZ vijk/k djuk ;k fdlh dks ftys ds izeq[k vf/kdkjh dh fgjklr esa Hkstuk] vFkok fdlh O;fDr dks tsy Hkstus ds fy, vnkyr ds vknsk dk iz;ksx djukA 81) dfeVeSaV % 1- fdlh O;fDr dks tsy vFkok ikxy[kkus esa Hkstus dh dk;ZokghA 2-English/Hindi Legal Glossary 49
  • 53. fdlh vf/kdkjh dks tkjh og vknsk ftlesa mls fdlh O;fDr dks tsy vFkok ikxy[kkus ys tkus dk funsZk fn;k tkrk gSA 82) dfeVeSaV vkMZj % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlesa fdlh O;fDr dks vko;d rkSj ij vDlj tsy vFkok ikxy[kkus esa] fgjklr esa j[kus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 83) dkSeu cSjsVªh % yM+kbZ&>xM+k vFkok eqdíesckth dh vknr cuk ysukA fcuk mfpr dkj.k ds eqdíesckth kq: djukA 84) dkSeu dSfj;j % HkkM+s ds Hkqxrku ds ckn fcuk badkj fd, lokfj;ksa rFkk lkeku dks ys tkus ds fy, dkuwu }kjk ck/;A ;g izkbZosV vFkok dkUVªSDV dSfj;j ds myV gSA 85) dkSeu ykW % vnkyr ds fu.kZ;ksa ls mRié gksus okys dkuwuA 86) dE;wfuVh vkWCyhxskul % ifr&iRuh }kjk la;qDr :i ls fy;k x;k _.kA vf/kdkak ekeyksa esa] blesa og lHkh dqN kkfey gksrk gS tks vki nksuksa esa ls fdlh ,d ds }kjk ml le; fy, x, _.k dk vHkh Hkh cdk;k gS] tc vki ifr&ifRu ds :i esa ,d lkFk jgrs FksA mnkgj.k ds fy,] ;fn vkius ml le; m/kkj esa QuhZpj [kjhnk tc vkidk fookg gqvk Fkk vkSj vki viuh iRuh ds lkFk jg jgs Fks] rks og jkfk] ftldk Hkqxrku vHkh ckdh gS] vkidh dE;wfuVh vkSCyhxsku dk vax gSA 87) dE;wfuVh izkSiVhZ % og lc dqN ftl ij ifr&iRuh dk la;qDr LokfeRo gSA vf/kdkak ekeyksa esa blesa ¼1½ /ku vFkok iSaku rFkk ml le;] tc vki ifr&iRuh ds :i esa bDV~Bs jg jgs Fks] vftZr LVkWd vkIkut tSls ykHk tks vc Hkh vkids ikl gS] rFkk ¼2½ ml vo?kh ds nkSjku vki nksuksa esa ls fdlh ds }kjk [kjhnh xbZ dksbZ Hkh oLrq] kkfey gSA 88) dE;wfuVh lfoZl % fdlh vijk/k dh ltk ds :i esa fd;k x;k dk;ZA ;g dk;Z tqekZus dh jkfk ds cnys vFkok izkscsku dh krZ ds :i esa Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA 89) dE;wVsku % fdlh ltk esa dh xbZ deh] tSls Qkalh dh ltk dks ?kVkdj vkthouEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 50
  • 54. dkjkokl dh ltk ns nh tk;sA 90) dEiSjsfVo QkYV % fdlh ,d i{k ds izfr fu/kkZfjr xyrh dk vkSlrA 91) dEiSjsfVo uSXyhtSal % og oS/kkfud fl)kar ftlds vuqlkj fojks/kh i{kksa ds d`R;ksa dh rqyuk ;g fufpr djus ds fy, dh tkrh gS fd izR;sd i{k nwljs ds izfr ykijokgh cjrus ds fy, fdruk ftEesnkj gSA 92) dEiSalsVjh MSest+t+ % og /ku jkfk tks fdlh ,d O;fDr }kjk fdlh xyrh vFkok gkfu dh dher pqdkus ds fy, nwljs dks nsuh vko;d gksrh gSA 93) dEihVSal vkMZj % fdlh ofj"B vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlesa ;g dgk tkrk gS fd izfroknh ekufld :i ls eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh esa Hkkx ysus esa leFkZ gSA blesa Vªk;y dksVZ dks vkijkf/kd eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh tkjh j[kus dks dgk tkrk gSA 94) dEihVSalh % fdlh O;fDr dh le>us vkSj laokn djus dh lkeF;Z] foks"k dj fdlh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh dk lkeuk djus vkSj vius cpko ds fy, vius odhy dks lg;ksx nsus dh lkeF;ZA 95) dEiyseSaV % og O;fDr tks fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds fo:) eqdíek kq: djuk pkgrk gSA nhokuh eqdíes esa fkdk;rÙkkZ oknh gksrk gSA vkijkf/kd eqdíes esa fkdk;rdÙkkZ jkT; ljdkj gksrh gSA 96) dEiysaV % og dkuwuh nLrkost tks vDlj nhokuh eqdíes dks kq: djrk gS vkSj ftldk iz;ksx vkijkf/kd eqdíek kq: djus ds fy, Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA blesa crk;k tkrk gS fd oknh] izfroknh ds d`R;ksa ds ckjs esa D;k lksprk gS vkSj vnkyr ls lgk;rk ekaxrk gSA bls ^buhfk;y IyhfMax* ;k ^iSVhku* Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 97) dEIykbZ % ds vuqlkj dk;Z djuk] Lohdkj djuk] ikyu djukA 98) dEiksft+V MªkbZx % ihfM+r O;fDr vFkok fdlh izR;{knkhZ }kjk fn, x, ekSf[kd o.kZu ds iz;ksx ls fdlh O;kolkf;d iqfyl dykdkj }kjk cuk;k x;k rFkk dfFkr vijk/kh dk fp=kAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 51
  • 55. 99) dUlhyeSaV % fdlh ds }kjk og ckr fNikuk ftls og tkurk gks vkSj ftls crkuk mldk dÙkZO; gksA 100) dfUlfy;sku % >xM+k fuiVkus ds fodYi dk ,d :i ftlesa nksuksa i{k vius >xM+s dks rhljs rVLFk i{k ds lkeus ykrs gSa tks ruko dks de djus] laokn dks lq/kkjus rFkk laHkkfor gy dks <wa<usa esa lgk;rk djrk gSA ;g e/;LFkrk ds leku gksrk gS ijUrq blesa vkSipkfjdrk de gksrh gSA 101) dUdjsV twfj,MDku % nks ;k nks ls vf/kd vnkyrksa dk og dk;Z{ks=k ftlesa izR;sd dks ,d gh fo"k;&oLrq ij dk;Z djus dk vf/kdkj gksrk gSA 102) dUdjsV IySfuax % bldk laca/k vkfJrksa ds ekeyksa esa ml oS/kkfud vko;drk ls gS ftlds vuqlkj fdlh fodYi ds :i esa ;kstuk dk fodkl djrs le; ghiquj&,dhdj.k dh lsokvksa dk izca/k fd;k tkuk pkfg,A ¼mnkgj.k ds fy,] ;fn vko;d gks rks xksn ysuk vkSj laj{k.k esa ysukA½ 103) dUdjaV lSaVSalst+ % os ltk;sa tks vki ,d lkFk Hkqxr ldrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] ;fn vkidks 10 o"kZ vkSj 5 o"kZ dh ltk;sa ,d lkFk Hkqxruh gksa rks vkids fy, 10 o"kZ dh ltk Hkqxruk vko;d gSA 104) dUdfjax dkSts+t+ % ledkfyd dk;Zokgh djrs gq, ,d lkFk gkfu igqapkuk tks nksuksa esa ls fdlh ,d ds u gksus ij ugha gks ldrh FkhA 105) dUmSeusku % og oS|kfud izfØ;k ftlds }kjk ljdkj lkoZtfud iz;ksx ds fy, futh Hkwfe dk vf/kxzg.k djrh gS vkSj cnys esa mlds ekfydksa dks mfpr dher nsrh gSA 106) dUMhkul % ,sls dqN dk;Z tks fdlh dks viuh fjgkbZ ds fy, djus ;k ugha djus gksrs gSaA 107) dUMhkuy fjyht+ % fgjklr ls fjgkbZ tks izfroknh dh xfrfof/k;ksa rFkk laifÙk dks fu;af=kr djrh gSA ;fn izfroknh krks± dks ugha fuHkkrk gS rks mldh fjgkbZ jí dj nh tkrh gSA 108) dUMDV ,sUVSaleSaV~l % lt+k esa o`f) djokus okyk og vkjksi ftldk laca/k vijk/k djus dsEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 52
  • 56. le; vijk/k dh izd`fr ls gSA 109) duQSku % fdlh ds }kjk ekSf[kd :i ls vFkok fyf[kr :i esa fd, x, vijk/k dks Lohdkj djukA 110) dUQSku vkWQ tteSaV % dtZnkj dss fyf[kr C;ku esa fdlh ,slh ckr dk mYys[k gksuk ftlls mlds ØSfMVj dks fcuk dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ds mlds gh f[kykQ fu.kZ; ykxw djokus dh vkKk fey tk;sA 111) dkSUQhMSakh;y % og QkbZy vFkok fjdkMZ tks lkoZtfud :i ls ns[kk ugha tk ldrk gSA bls ns[kus dk vf/kdkj dsoy dkuwu rFkk @ vFkok vnkyr dh uhfr ls izkIr gksrk gSA ,slh QkbZyksa vkSj nLrkostksa dks igpku dj foks"k ns[kjs[k esa j[kk tkrk gSA 112) dkSUQhMSafk;y fjdkMZ % fdlh eqdíes esa dksbZ ,slh lwpuk tks vke turk dks miyC/k ugha gSA 113) dkSUQhMSafk;SfyVh % ftls futh ekudj izdkfkr u djus ;ksX; ekuk tk,A 114) dfUQLdsV % futh laifÙk dks lkoZtfud iz;ksx ds fy, dCts esa ysukA 115) dfUQyDV vkWQ bUVªSLV % tc ,d gh le; vkids nks vyx&vyx fgr gksaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] og odhy tks ,d gh le; nksuksa i{kksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gS] mldk O;ogkj mfpr ugha gks ldrk gSA 116) dUQkSuZ dkSiht+ % ewy dkih ls feyrh&tqyrh udy rS;kj djuk] mnkgj.k ds fy, gLrk{kj rFkk fefr;ksa ds izfr:i lfgr udyA 117) dUÝUVsku jkbZV % ml iq:"k @ L=kh izfroknh dk vius f[kykQ xokgksa ds vkeus&lkeus gksu dk vf/kdkjA lk/kkj.kr% bleas xokgksa ls izu iwNus vkSj ,srjkt djus dk vf/kdkj] vkSj O;fDrxr :i ls xokgksa }kjk xokgh nsuk kkfey gksrk gSA 118) dUlSX;fuVh dksysVjy % mu nks O;fDr;ksa ds chp fjrsnkjh tks ,d gh oak ls laca/k j[krs gSa] ijUrq ijLij iwoZt vFkok vxzt ugha gSaA tSls pkpk rFkk Hkrhts dk laca/kAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 53
  • 57. 119) dUlSaX;wfuVh yhfu;y % mu nks O;fDr;ksa ds chp fjrsnkjh ftuesa ls ,d nwljs dk lh/kk vxzt gS tSls iq=k ,oa firk] nknk vkSj blh izdkj Åij dh vksj iwoZtksa ds lh/ks Øe esa] vFkok ikS=k] vkSj izikS=k ds chp vkSj bl izdkj uhps dh vksj vxztksa ds lh/ks Øe esa fjrsnkjhA 120) dUtSfDVo lSaVSalst+ % nks ;k nks ls vf/kd vogsyukvksa ds fy, fdlh O;fDr dks nh xbZ nks mÙkjksÙkj ltk,a] tks ,d ds lekIr gksus ds ckn nwljh kq: gksrh gSA 121) dUt+josVh % og tks viuh ns[kHkky Lo;a ugha dj ldrk vkSj ftldh ns[kHkky vnkyr }kjk fu;qDr O;fDr dks djuh iM+rh gSA 122) dUt+josVj % vnkyr }kjk fu;qDr fd;k x;k og O;fDr tks fdlh ,sls O;fDr dh ns[kHkky djrk gS tks viuh ns[kHkky Lo;a ugha dj ldrk] vFkok tks mldh laifÙk vFkok nksuksa dh ns[kHkky djrk gSA 123) dUtjosVjfki % vnkyr dh og dk;Zokgh ftlds }kjk dksbZ tt fdlh ,sls O;fDr dh fu;qfDr djrk gS tks fdlh O;Ld dh O;fDrxr vko;drkvksa dh ns[kHkky djrk gS rFkk @ vFkok mlds /ku dh ns[kHkky djrk gSA 124) dUlSaV % fdlh fu.kZ; vFkok le>kSrs ds ikyu ds fy, nh xbZ fyf[kr lgefrA 125) dUlhMªsku % og dkj.k] dher vFkok izsfjr djus okyh uSfrd kfDr tks fdlh O;fDr dks le>kSrk djus ij et+cwj djrh gSA 126) dUlkSyhMsku vkQ % tc de ls de mu nks eqdíeksa dks ,d lkFk ,d lewg esa j[kk tk, ,sDkul ftu esa nksuksa i{kksa ds yksx ,d leku gksaA 127) dUlkSfVZ;e] ykSl vkQ % ifr vkSj iRuh ds chp ;kSu&laca/k cukus dh vleFkZrk 128) dkSaLihjslh % tc nks ;k nks ls vf/kd O;fDr fdlh vijk/k dks djus ds fy, lger gksrs gSa vkSj og vijk/k djus dh fnkk esa dk;Z djrs gSaA 129) dUlVªsfDVo ikst+Sku % tc dksbZ oLrq okLrfod :i ls fdlh ds ikl ugha gksrh ijUrq og tkucw> dj bl ij fu;a=k.k j[krk gSA 130) dkaLVhV~;wku % gekjs nsk dk og dsUnzh; dkuwu tks bldh lÙkk dh jpuk] Lo:i rFkk laxBu dks LFkkfir djrk gS vkSj ml lRrk dk iz;ksx dSls fd;kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 54
  • 58. tkrk gS] ;g Hkh fufpr djrk gSA blesa fu;eksa] fl)karksa] ljdkjh lÙkk dk o.kZu rFkk fdlh jk"Vª vFkok jkT; ds yksxksa ds eq[; vf/kdkj kkfey gksrs gSaA 131) dkaLVhV~;wku jkbZV % la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds lafo/kku esa xkjaVh izkIr vf/kdkj] ftudh O;k[;k la?kh; vnkyrksa }kjk dh tkrh gS] fdlh vU; lafo/kku esa xkjaVh izkIr vf/kdkj Hkh blh Js.kh esa vkrs gSaA 132) dUVSéj % og ftlus vnkyr ds fdlh vknsk dh vogsyuk dh gksA 133) dUVSaizsjh dE;wfuVh % tks laiw.kZ leqnk; dks ;FkkFkZ :i esa Lohdk;Z gksA blds ekin.M dh LVSaMMZ tkap vko;d :i ls ml fo"k;&oLrq ds fu"i{k fu/kkZj.k ij vk/kkfjr gksuh pkfg, tks laiw.kZ leqnk; dks vLohdk;Z gksA bl ekeys esa lfEefyr fo"k;&oLrq ds ckjs esa vkids O;fDrxr] lkekftd vFkok uSfrd fopkjksa ij /;ku ugha fn;k tk ldrk gSA 134) dUVSEiV vkQ dksVZ % vnkyr ds fdlh vknsk dh voekuuk] ftldh ltk tqekZuk ;k tsy gks ldrh gSA 135) dUVhU;w,sal % fdlh eqdíes dh lquokbZ dks vxyh iskh dh ferh rd VkyukA 136) daVhU;wbe ,sDlDywflo % og fl)kar ftlds vuqlkj ,d leku O;fDr;ksa esa ,d gh le; twfjfLMDku vkfFkZd lgk;rk dk dsoy ,d gh vknsk oS| gksrk gSA vkSj tc dksbZ vnkyr fdlh cPps ds fy, lgk;rk jkfk ds eqdíes dh lquokbZ djrh gS rks ;g ml vknsk esa dqN dj ldrh gS ;k mls cny ldrh gSA fujarj ,dkf/kdkj okyh vnkyr lgk;rk&jkfk okys eqdíes ij rc rd bl ij fu;a=k.k j[krh gS tc rd dksbZ nwljh vnkyr bls vius ikl u ys tk,A bldh ifjHkk"kk ;wuhQkseZ baVj&LVsV QSfeyh liksVZ ,sDV esa nh xbZ gSA 137) dUVªDV % ¼1½ nks ;k nks ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa ds chp fdlh foks"k dk;Z dks djus ;k u djus dh lgefr] ¼2½ nks ;k nks ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa ds chp og lgefr ftlds }kjk fdlh oS/kkfud laca/k dks cuk;k] cnyk ;kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 55
  • 59. lekIr fd;k tkrk gSA 138) dUVªhC;wVjh uSXyhtSal % og oS/kkfud fl)kar tks ;g crkrk gS fd ;fn ykijokgh ds nhokuh eqdíeksa esa oknh Hkh fdlh izdkj ykijokg Fkk rks og iq:"k @ L=kh izfroknh dh ykijokgh ds fy, izfroknh ls gtkZuk olwy ugha dj ldrk gSA 139) daVªksYM lClVkalst+ % dkuwu }kjk igpkuh xbZ dksbZ ,slh nok ftldh miyC/krk lhfer gksA ;fn dksbZ vU;Fkk mYys[k u gks rks og nok] inkFkZ vFkok rkRdkfyd iwoZxkeh tks gSYFk ,s.M ls¶Vh dksM ds lSDkut 11054] 11055] 11056] 11057 vFkok 11058 dh fdlh lwph esa kkfey gksA 140) dUokZu % fdlh nwljs ds lkeku vFkok futh laifÙk ij xyr <ax ls LokfeRo izkIr djukA 141) dUos % ¼1½ laifÙk ij LokfeÙko dk vf/kdkj fdlh vkSj dks nsuk] ¼2½ izpkfjr djuk vFkok laokn djukA 142) dfUoDV % ¼1½ og O;fDr tks fdlh vijk/k dk nks"kh ik;k x;k vkSj tks ml vijk/kdh ltk dkV jgk gS] dksbZ dSnhA ¼2½ eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh }kjk vFkok LohdkjksfDr }kjk fdlh ds vijk/k dks nks"kh BgjkukA 143) dfUoDku % tc dksbZ tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My fdlh vijk/kh izfroknh dks nks"kh Bgjk,A 144) dksjksuj % fgalk }kjk vFkok vpkud gqbZ e`R;q ds ¼lansgkRed½ dkj.kksa rFkk ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk irk yxkus ds fy, fu;qDr ljdkjh vf/kdkjhA 145) dkiksZjsku % O;fDr;ksa dk og lewg ftUgsa fdlh jkt&i=k ds ek/;e ls ,d laLFkk ds :i esa dqN dkuwuh kfDr;ka] vf/kdkj] foks"kkf/kdkj rFkk O;fDrxr :i esa dqN ftEesnkfj;ka izkIr gksrh gSaA 146) dksiZl fMySDVh % vijk/k dk Lo:iA vijk/k fd, tkus dk izR;{k izek.kA dHkh&dHkh bldk vFkZ gR;k ds fkdkj O;fDr dk ko vFkok ty dj jk[k gqvk ?kj Hkh gksrk gS] ijUrq bl kCn dk foLr`r vFkZ gksrk gS ;fn jkT; vijk/k dh LohdksjksfDr dkiz;ksx djuk pkgs vFkok vkjksih dks ltk fnykuk pkgs rks blds fy, ;g fl) djuk vko;d gS fd dksbZEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 56
  • 60. fufpr pksV vFkok gkfu igqaph gS vkSj ml foks"k pksV vFkokgkfu dk lzksr og vkijkf/kd gR;k gh FkkA 147) dksjkscksjsV % izek.k nsdj iqf"V djuk] vf/kd fufpr cukukA 148) dksjkscksjsfVax ,sohMSal % os vuqiwjd izek.k tks izkFkfed izek.k dh iqf"V djrs gSaA 149) dksjkscksjsku % fdlh izR;{knkhZ xokg ds c;ku ds leFkZu vFkok fdlh rF; }kjk izek.k dh iqf"VA 150) djIVyh % csbZekuh lsA 151) dkSLVl~ % ¼1½ dksbZ eqdíek nk;j djus ds fy, vFkok fdlh fu.kZ; dks ykxw djokus ds fy, fdlh i{k }kjk pqdkbZ tkus okyhQhl vFkok [kpsZA ¼2½ fdlh nhokuh eqdíes esa thrus okys dks [kpks± ds Hkqxrku ds fy, fnyokbZ xbZ jkfkA 152) dkavly % eqofDdy dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okys @ okys odhyA bldk vFkZ dkuwuh lykg Hkh gSA 153) dkÅaly Vscy % og LFkku tgka eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku nksuksa i{kksa ds odhy vkSj vfHk;kstu i{k ds odhy cSBrs gSaA 154) dkÅaV % fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes esa izR;sd fHké&fHké vkjksi ¼vFkok C;ku½ 155) dkÅaVj&Dyse % fdlh eqdíes esa oknh vFkok izfroknh }kjk yxk;k x;k og vkjksi tks nwljs i{k ds nkos ds fo:) tkrk gSA 156) dkÅaVj QhV % vuf/kd`r :i ls udy rS;kj djuk vkSj udy dks vly ds :i esa pykdj /kks[kk/kM+h ds mís; ls tkylkth djukA 157) dkÅaVh tsy % LFkkfud vijk/k&{ks=k ds rFkkdfFkr vijkf/k;ksa vkSj ltk izkIr vijkf/k;ksa dks fgjklr esa j[kus ds fy, cuh bekjrA 158) dksVZ % tt vFkok ttksa dk og lewg ftudk dke eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ dj yksxksa dks U;k; iznku djuk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 57
  • 61. 159) dksVZ vikSbaVsM LiSky % ;s os Lo;alsoh gksrs gSa tks viekfur vkSj v.kgsfyr cPpksa dk ,sMoksdsV izfrfuf/kRo djrs gSaA 160) dksVZ vVSUMSaV % ;s pqfuUnk vnkyrksa esa lhfer lqj{kk&laca/kh rFkk DySjhdy lsokvksa rFkk fu.kkZ;d e.Myksa] xokgksa] odhyksa rFkk vke yksxksa ds chp lEidZ }kjk vnkyr ds dkedkt esa lgk;rk iznku djrs gSaA 161) dksVZ ,sMfefuLVªsVj % vnkyr }kjk fu;qDr fd;k x;k vFkok p;u fd;k x;k og vf/kdkjh ¼dksVZ DydZ½ tks vnkyr ds izkklfud rFkk xSj&U;kf;d xfrfof/k;ksa ij /;ku nsrk gksA 162) dksVZ ,sikSbafVM % vnkyr ds }kjk fdlh ,sls izfroknh dk izfrfuf/kRo djus ds fy, dkÅaly fu/kkZfjr fd;k x;k odhy tks odhy dh lsok,a ysus dk [kpZ ogu ugha dj ldrk gksA 163) dksVZ dkSLVl % odhy dh Qhl dks NksM+dj fdlh ij eqdíek pykus vFkok vius cpko ij vkus okyk [kpZA thrus okys O;fDr dks vius [kpks± dh iwfrZ ds fy, dqN jkfk eatwj dh tk ldrh gS tks gkjus okys i{k ls olwy dh tk ldrh gSA 164) dksVZ vkQ fjdkMZ % og vnkyr tgka eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh dks fjdkMZ fd;k tkrk gS] mldk vuqokn fd;k tkrk gS rFkk LFkk;h fjdkMZ j[kk tkrk gSA 165) dksVZ vkMZj % fdlh U;kf;d vf/kdkjh }kjk fy;k x;k og fu.kZ; ftlds vUrxZr fdlh O;fDr dks dqN vf/kdkj fn, tkrs gSa vFkok fdlh dks dqN djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 166) dksVZ fjiksVZj % og O;fDr tks vnkyr esa dgh x;h gj ckr dks Dyecn djrk gSA fjdkMZ dh xbZ lkexzh dks VªkalfØIV dgk tkrk gSA 167) dksVZ Vªk;y % fu.kkZ;d e.My dh vuqifLFkfr esa eqdíes dh lquokbZA eqdíes dk fu.kZ; ,d tt }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA 168) dksVZ] vihyl % dqN izkarksa esa mPpre vihyh; vnkyr gh bl ckr dk fu.kZ; djrh gS fd eqdíes dh lquokbZ dh tk;s ;k ughaA 169) dksVZ] fMfLVªDV % ¼1½ la?kh; & og Vªk;y dksVZ ftls la?kh; vf/kdkj {ks=k izkIr gSA ¼2½ izkar & fHké&fHké izkarksa esa bldk vFkZ fHké&fHké gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 58
  • 62. 170) dksVZ tqoSukbZy % og vnkyr ftls ,d foks"k vk;q] vDlj 18 o"kZ ds cPpksa ls lacaf/kr eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksrk gSA bu eqdíeksa esa lekt&fojks/kh] vkfJr rFkk vogsfyr cPpksa ds eqdíes kkfey gksrs gSaA 171) dksVZ] ukbZV % og foks"kr vnkyr tks nsj kke rd rFkk lqcg&losjs eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ djrh gSA 172) dksVZ] lqihfj;j % Vªk;y dksVZ] fHké&fHké jkT;ksa esa bldk vFkZ fHké&fHké gSA 173) dksVZ] VªSfQd % og foks"kr vnkyr tks VªSfQd laca/kh vijk/kksa ds eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ djrh gSA 174) dVZlh % dEI;wVj }kjk tkjh og uksfVl tks vkerkSj ij izfroknh dks VªSfQd fu;eksa ds mYya?ku ds ckn vnkyr esa iskh dh ferh rFkk tekur vkfn ds ckjs esa lwfpr djus ds fy, Hkstk tkrk gSA 175) dksVZ:e % vnkyr Hkpu dk og Hkkx tgka tt cSBdj eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ djrk gSA 176) dksVZ :i DydZ % vnkyr ds dejs esa fu;qDr deZpkjh tks vnkyrh dk;Zokgh esa mifLFkr jg dj dkuwuh] uhfr;ksa vkSj tt ds funsZkkuqlkj vnkyrh dk;Zokgh dk fjdkMZ rS;kj djrk gS] xokgksa rFkk fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dks kiFk xzg.k djokrk gS rFkk xokgh ds rkSj ij isk fd, nLrkostksa dks laHkky dj j[krk gSA 177) ØSfMfcfyVh % fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh izR;{knkhZ dk og xq.k tks mldh xokgh dks fooluh;rk iznku djrk gSA 178) ØSfMV % pSd tkjh djus okys vkSj fdlh ,sls O;fDr vFkok laLFkk ftlds [kkrs ij og pSd tkjh fd;k x;k gks ds chp ,slk izca/k vFkok le>kSrk fd pSd izLrqr djus ij mldh jkfk dk Hkqxrku dj fn;k tk,xkA 179) ØkbZe % vki ds }kjk fy;k x;k vFkok u fd;k x;k og dk;Z ftlds dkj.k futh dkuwu dk mYya?ku gksrk gSA ;fn vki nks"kh ik, tkrs gSa rksEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 59
  • 63. vkidks e`R;qnaM fn;k tk ldrk gS] tsy tkus dh ltk nh tk ldrh gS] tqekZuk fd;k tk ldrk gS] ukSdjh ls fudkyk tk ldrk gS] fdlh lEekutud in vFkok ykHk ds in ds fy, v;ksX; ?kksf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA 180) fØfeuy % dksbZ Hkh ,slk O;fDr ftls fdlh vijk/k vFkok dqdeZ ds fy, ltk feyh gksA 181) fØehuy dsl % og vnkyrh eqdíek tks fdlh vijk/k ds dkj.k vkjaHk gksrk gSA 182) fØfeuy dUMDV % vkijkf/kd LoHkko vFkok ftlesa vijk/k lfEefyr gksA 183) fØfeuy bulsfuVh % fdlh foks"k dk;Z dks djus vFkok mls djus ls cpus ds fy, ekufld lkeF;Z dh dehA lgh vkSj xyr esa varj djus dh vleFkZrkA 184) fØfeuy uSXyhtSal % os d`R; tks mxzrkiw.kZ] nqLlkglh vkSj yTtktud gks vkSj tks leku ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ,d lk/kkj.k le>nkj] lko/kku O;fDr ds O;ogkj ls esy u [kkrs gksa vkSj tks ekuo thou ds izfr mfpr lEeku ds foijhr gks vFkok mu d`R;ksa ds ifj.kke ds izfr ykijokgh izdV djrs gksaA 185) fØfeuy fjdkMZ % ¼1½ fxj¶rkjh dk fjdkMZ & ftruh ckj fdlh O;fDr dh fxj¶rkjh gqbZ gks] mu lcdk fyf[kr ys[kk&tks[kk ¼2½ fdlh O;fDr dh fxj¶rkjh ds le; fdlh iqfyl vf/kdkjh }kjk Hkjk tkus okyk QkeZA 186) fØfeuy LVªhV xSax % ,slk dksbZ laxBu] laLFkk vFkok rhu ;k rhu ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa dk lewg ftldh izkFkfed xfrfof/k;ksa esa ,d ;k vf/kd vkijkf/kd dk;Z djuk kkfey gS] ftudk ,d lkewfgd uke vFkok igpku fpUg gksrk gS vkSj ftlds lnL; O;fDrxr vFkok lkewfgd :i ls vkijkf/kd fxjksg dh dk;Zokfg;ksa esa Hkkx ysrs gksa ;k fy;k gksA 187) fØfeuy lEeul % og vknsk ftlds }kjk fdlh vkjksih dks vnkyr esa mifLFkr gksus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 60
  • 64. 188) ØkSl&Dyse % oknh ¼okfn;ksa½ rFkk izfroknh ¼izfrokfn;ksa½ }kjk&,d nwljhs ds fo:) nk;j fd, x, nkosA 189) ØkSl&,sXtkfeusku % tc fojks/kh i{k dk odhy lquokbZ vFkok eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku fdlh xokg ls izu iwNrk gSA 190) D;wewysfVo lSaVSlst+ % os nks ;k nks ls vf/kd tsy tkus dh ltk,a tks lkFk&lkFk Hkqxrus dh vis{kk ,d ds ckn nwljh Hkqxruh iM+rh gSaA 191) dLVksfM;jy isjsaV % og ekrk ;k firk tks cPpksa dh izkFkfed ns[kHkky] fgQktr rFkk fu;a=k.k j[krk gSA 192) dLVMh % ¼1½ tc dksbZ kkjhfjd :i ls vnkyr ds fu;a=k.k esa gks rkfd ;g lqfufpr fd;k tk lds fd og O;fDr] tc vko;d gks] vnkyr esa mifLFkfr gks lds] ¼2½ tc dksbZ tt fdlh O;fDr dks vijk/k dk nks"kh ik, tkus ds ckn tsy Hkst nsrk gS] ¼3½ cPpksa dh ns[kjs[k vkSj mu ij fu;a=k.kA 193) dLVMh vkMZj % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlesa crk;k tkrk gS fd cPpk fdlds lkFk jgsxk vkSj mlds LokLF; dh ns[k&js[k] fk{kk rFkk vU; egRoiw.kZ fo"k;ksa ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; fdldks ysuk pkfg,A 194) dLVe % yksxksa dk og jhfr&fjokt+ vFkok ijaijk tks muds }kjk lkewfgd Lohd`fr ls viuk;s tkus ds dkj.k vfuok;Z cu x, gSaAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 61
  • 65. ------D--------- 1. DAMAGES - Money that the losing side must pay to the winning side to make up for losses or injuries. There are two kinds of damages: (1) "compensatory," meaning money to pay for the actual cost of an injury or loss; and (2) "punitive" or "exemplary," meaning an amount of money thats more than the actual damages. This is a punishment for willful or malicious acts. 2. DEADLY WEAPON – Any weapon, instrument or object that is capable of being used to inflict death or great bodily injury. 3. DEATH PENALTY - Death imposed by the state as punishment for a serious crime. (See CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.) 4. DEATH ROW - The area of a state or federal prison where criminals who are sentenced to death are confined until their sentence is commuted or carried out. 5. DECEDENT – In criminal law, it means a murder victim; in probate law, it means a dead person. 6. DECISION - A courts judgment or decree that settles a dispute. (See also DECREE, JUDGMENT.) 7. DECLARATION - A statement that a person writes and files with the court. It tells the judge why the person should win the case. Sometimes, a person signs this under penalty of perjury. 8. DECLARATION OF PATERNITY – Form signed by unmarried parents, generally at the hospital, where the parents declare who is the father of the child. 9. DECLARATORY JUDGMENT - A judgment of the court that explains what the existing law is or expresses the opinion of the court without the need for enforcement. 10. DECREE - A court decision. It can be (1) "interlocutory," which means it is not a final decision, or (2) "final," which means all issues of the case are settled. 11. DE FACTO PARENT – A person found by the court to have assumed, on a day-to-day basis, the role of parent, fulfilling both the childs physical and psychological needs for care and affection, and who has assumed that role for a substantial period. 12. DE FACTO - To exercise power in a juvenile dependency case. Latin meaning "from the fact." 13. DEFAMATION - When one person hurts another persons character, fame, or reputation by making false and malicious statements that are not protected by law. 14. DEFAULT - When a defendant in a civil case doesnt file an answer or go to court when theyre supposed to, but was properly notified. 15. DEFAULT JUDGMENT - A court decision in favor of the plaintiff when the defendant doesnt answer or go to court when theyre supposed to. 16. DEFENDANT - In a civil case, the person or company being sued. In a criminal or traffic case, the person accused of the crime. 17. DEFENSE - In a civil case, the facts or arguments presented by the defendant to show why theEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 62
  • 66. plaintiff doesnt have a right to the relief asked for. In a criminal case, the reasons why a defendant should not be convicted of the charge(s). 18. DEFENSE ATTORNEY - In a criminal case, the lawyer that represents the accused person (called the "defendant"). 19. DEFRAUD – To make a misrepresentation of an existing material fact, knowing it to be false or making it recklessly without regard to whether it is true or false. To practice fraud; to cheat or trick. To deprive a person of property or any interest, estate, or right by fraud, deceit or artifice. 20. DEGREE - Scope of an action or charge. 21. DELIBERATE - To consider all the evidence and arguments related to a case that were presented in court. 22. DELIBERATION - When a jury, for either a civil or criminal case, goes into the jury room to discuss the evidence and testimony and reach a verdict. 23. DELINQUENCY COURT - The division of the Juvenile Court hearing cases where juveniles have been charged with committing a crime. 24. DELINQUENCY, JUVENILE - Antisocial behavior by a minor; especially behavior that would be criminally punishable if the minor were an adult, but instead is usually punished by special laws pertaining only to minors. 25. DEMURRER - When a defendant says the facts presented by a plaintiff may be true, but they arent enough to prove the defendants legal responsibility. 26. DENNIS H. – A hearing to determine if there is sufficient evidence to sustain a juvenile court petition. 27. DE NOVO - Starting a case all over again as if it had not been heard before. In Latin, novo means "new." (See TRIAL DE NOVO.) 28. DEPENDENCY COURT - The division of the Juvenile Court hearing cases of child abuse and neglect. 29. DEPENDENT CHILD - In family law, this usually means a child that is financially supported by another person. In juvenile law, this means a minor that is in the custody of the court because he or she was abused, neglected, or molested or is physically dangerous to the public because of a mental or physical disorder. 30. DEPORTATION - The act of removing a person to another country. Order issued by an immigration judge, expelling an illegal resident from the United States. A deportation has certain consequences regarding the number of years within which a deportee may not legally immigrate. There are also criminal consequences for reentry within a prescribed time period. 31. DEPOSITION - Written or oral testimony given under oath in front of an authorized third person like a court reporter. Depositions take place outside of the court. They allow the parties to get a record of a persons testimony, or to get testimony from a witness that lives far away. They can help the lawyers prepare their court papers called "pleadings." (See also DISCOVERY.) 32. DEPRIVATION OF CUSTODY - The court transfer of legal custody of a person from parents or legal guardian to another person, agency, or institution. It may be temporary or permanent.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 63
  • 67. 33. DEPUTY - One appointed to substitute for another with power to act for him in his name or on his behalf. For example, a Deputy County Clerk is appointed on behalf of the County Clerk. 34. DEPUTY D.A. - An assistant lawyer to the district attorney. 35. DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION STATUTES - State laws that provide for the distribution of estate property of a person who dies without a will. Same as INTESTACY LAWS. 36. DESTRUCTIVE DEVICE / EXPLOSIVE - any substance, the purpose of which is detonation or rapid combustion, and which is capable of rapid release of gas and heat. 37. DETENTION - When a person is temporarily locked up until the court makes a final decision. 38. DETENTION HEARING - The initial hearing in Dependency Court soon after the child has been removed from the parent. 39. DETERMINATE (SENTENCE) - Confinement for a fixed period as specified by statute. 40. DEVELOPMENTALLY DISABLED - Those persons, not psychotic, who are so developmentally disabled from infancy or before reaching maturity that they are incapable of managing themselves and their affairs independently, with ordinary prudence, or of being taught to do so, and who require supervision, control, and care for their own welfare, or for the welfare of others, or for the welfare of the community. (Formerly termed "mentally retarded.") 41. DEVISE - A gift of real property by a will. 42. DEVISEE - A person who receives real property by will. 43. DIRECT EVIDENCE - Proof of facts by witnesses who saw acts done or heard words spoken. 44. DIRECT EXAMINATION - When a witness testifies and answers questions asked by the party that asked them to testify. (Compare CROSS-EXAMINATION.) 45. DIRECTED VERDICT - An instruction by the judge to the jury to return a specific verdict. Now called Judgment as a Matter of Law. 46. DISBARMENT - Form of discipline of a lawyer resulting in the loss (often permanently) of that lawyers right to practice law. It differs from censure (an official reprimand or condemnation) and from suspension (a temporary loss of the right to practice law). 47. DISCLAIM - To refuse a gift made in a will. 48. DISCLAIMER - The repudiation or renunciation of a claim or power vested in a person or which he had formerly alleged to be his. The disavowal, denial, or renunciation of an interest, right, or property imputed to a person or alleged to be his. 49. DISCOVERY - The gathering of information (facts, documents, or testimony) before a case goes to trial. Discovery is done in many ways, such as through depositions, interrogations, or requests for admissions. It can also be done through independent investigation or by talking with the other sides lawyer. 50. DISCOVERY MOTION - A motion to have evidence disclosed to the moving party. 51. DISCRIMINATION – An act which confers particular privileges on a class arbitrarily selected.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 64
  • 68. 52. DISMISS - To terminate legal action involving outstanding charges against a defendant in a criminal case. 53. DISMISSAL WITH PREJUDICE - When a court dismisses a case and will not allow any other suit to be filed on the same claim in the future. 54. DISMISSAL WITHOUT PREJUDICE - When a court dismisses a case, but will allow other suits to be filed on the same claim. 55. DISORDERLY CONDUCT - Any behavior, contrary to law, which disturbs the public peace or decorum, scandalizes the community, or shocks the public sense of morality. 56. DISPARITY – Marked difference in quantity or quality between two things. 57. DISPOSITION - The final decision by the court in a dispute. 58. DISPOSITIONAL HEARING – The hearing held after a petition is sustained (allegation found true), to determine whether the child will become a dependent of the court, where the child will reside, and what reunification services, if any, will be provided to the parent. 59. DISSENT - To disagree. An appellate court opinion setting forth the minority view and outlining the disagreement of one or more judges with the decision of the majority. 60. DISSOLUTION - A marriage that is ended by a judges decision, also known as a "divorce." (Compare NULLITY.) 61. DISSOLUTION OF MARRIAGE - The act of terminating a marriage; divorce; but the term does not include annulment. 62. DISTINCTIVELY MARKED – A vehicle, operated by a peace officer, is “distinctively marked” when in addition to a lighted red lamp and activated siren, the vehicle is of such appearance that a reasonable person would be able to recognize it as a peace officer’s vehicle, and a person fleeing is on reasonable notice that pursuit is by a peace officer. 63. DISTRICT ATTORNEY - A lawyer appointed or elected to represent the state in criminal cases in his or her respective judicial districts. (See PROSECUTOR.) 64. DISTURBING THE PEACE - Conduct which tends to annoy all citizens, including unnecessary and distracting noisemaking. 65. DIVERSION - Instead of going to jail, a defendant goes to a rehabilitation ("rehab") program and is supervised by a probation officer. When the defendant finishes the program, the charges are dismissed and the defendant is not sentenced. (Compare ELECTRONIC MONITORING, HOME MONITORING.) 66. DIVORCE - A common name for a marriage that is legally ended. See DISSOLUTION. 67. DOCKET - A record with the complete history of each case a court hears. It contains short chronological summaries of the court proceedings. 68. DOCKET NUMBER - Identification number that the court clerks office gives a case. This number is on all papers filed in the case. Also called CASE NUMBER. 69. DOE - Used in law courts, legal papers, etc., to refer to any person whose name is unknown.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 65
  • 69. 70. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE - An assault committed by one member of a household against another. 71. DOMICILE - The place where a person has his or her permanent legal home. A person may have several residences, but only one domicile. 72. DOUBLE JEOPARDY - The constitutional prohibition under the Fifth Amendment against a person being put on trial more than once for the same offense. 73. DRIVE-BY MURDER - Murder perpetrated by means of discharging a firearm from a motor vehicle intentionally at another person outside of the vehicle. When the perpetrator specifically intended to inflict death, the murder is of the first degree. 74. DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED (DWI) - The unlawful operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. In some jurisdictions it is synonymous with DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE (DUI), but in others, driving while intoxicated is a more serious offense than driving under the influence. 75. DRUNK DRIVING - The operation of a vehicle in an impaired state after consuming alcohol that when tested is above the states legal alcohol limit. 76. DUE PROCESS OF LAW - The regular way that the law is administered through the courts. The U.S. Constitution says that everyone has to have a day in court, has the right to be represented by a lawyer, and the right to benefit from court procedures that are speedy, fair, and impartial. 77. DURESS – Consists in any illegal imprisonment or threats of bodily harm in order to coerce the will of another and inducing him to do an act contrary to his free will.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 66
  • 70. 1) MSeStst+ % og /kujkfk tks gkjus okys i{k ds }kjk thrus okys i{k dks igqaph gkfu vFkok pksV dh iwfrZ djus ds fy, nsuh vko;d gksrh gSA gtZkus dh nks fdLesa gSa & ¼1½ eqvkots ds :i esa] ftldk vFkZ gS fdlh gkfu vFkok pksV ds okLrfod ewY; ds Hkqxrku ds fy, /kujkfk] rFkk ¼2½ tqekZus ds :i esa] ftldk vFkZ gS og /kujkfk tks okLrfod gkfu ls vf/kd gksrh gSA ;g tkucw> dj rFkk nqHkkZouk iw.kZ d`R;ksa ds fy, ltk ds :i esa gksrh gSA 2) MSMyh oSiu % ,slk dksbZ gfFk;kj] ;a=k vFkok oLrq ftlds iz;ksx ls fdlh dh e`R;q dh tk lds vFkok xaHkhj kkjhfjd pksV igqapkbZ tk ldsA 3) MSFk iSuYVh % xaHkhj vijk/kksa dh ltk ds :i esa jkT; }kjk fdlh dh e`R;q dks dk;kZfUor djokukA 4) MSFk jks % jkT; vFkok la?k dkjkokl dk og {ks=k tgka e`R;qnaM dh ltk ikus okys vijkf/k;ksa dks rc rd j[kk tkrk gS tc rd fd mudh ltk dks de djus dk fopkj gks jgk gks vFkok mUgsa e`R;qnaM ns fn;k tk,A 5) fMflMSaV % vkijkf/kd dkuwu esa bldk vFkZ gS] gR;k dk fkdkj O;fDr][ izkscsV dkuwu esa bldk vFkZ gS] ,d e`r O;fDrA 6) fMlhtu % fdlh >xM+s dks fuiVkus ds fy, vnkyr }kjk fn;k x;k fu.kZ; vFkok fMØhA 7) fMDyjsku % fdlh O;fDr }kjk vnkyr esa nk;j fd;k x;k fyf[kr c;kuA ;g tt dks ;g crkrk gS fd ml O;fDr dks eqvkotk D;ksa thruk pkfg,A dHkh&dHkh fdlh O;fDr dks /kks[kk/kM+h dh lt+k ds :i esa bl ij gLrk{kj djus iM+rs gSaA 8) fMDysjsku vkQ % vfookfgr ekrk&firk }kjk vDlj vLirky esa Hkjk tkus okyk QkeZ iSVjfuVh ftlesa ekrk&firk ;g ?kksf"kr djrs gSa fd cPps dk firk dkSu gSA 9) fMDysjsVjh tteSaV % vnkyr dk og fu.kZ; ftlesa orZeku dkuwu dks Li"V fd;k tkrk gS vFkok ykxw djus dh vko;drk ds vfrfjDr vnkyr dh jk; dksEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 67
  • 71. O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA 10) fMdjh % vnkyr dk fu.kZ;A ;g ¼1½ baVjyksD;wVjh gks ldrk gS ftldk vFkZ gS fd ;g vafre fu.kZ; ugha gS vFkok ¼2½ QkbZuy gks ldrk gS] ftldk vFkZ gS fd lHkh eqíksa dk fuiVkjk gks pqdk gSA 11) Mh&QSDVks isjsaV % og O;fDr ftls vnkyr us nSfud vk/kkj ij cPps ds ekrk ;k firk dh Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gq, ik;k tks cPps dh ns[kHkky vkSj Lusg ds fy, kkjhfjd vkSj ekufld vko;drkvksa dh iwfrZ djrk gks vkSj tks ;g Hkwfedk yacs le; ls fuHkk jgk gksA 12) Mh QSDVks fMQsesku % fdlh vkfJr ckyd ds eqdíes esa vf/kdkj dk iz;ksxA 13) fMQsesku % tc dksbZ O;fDr >wBs vkSj nqHkkZoukiw.kZ oDrO;ksa] ftUgsa dkuwuh lqj{kk izkIr ugha gS] }kjk fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds pfj=k] izflf) vkSj lEeku dks Bsl igqapkrk gSA 14) fMQkYV % tc fdlh nhokuh eqdíes esa dksbZ izfroknh mfpr <ax ls lwfpr djus ds ckn Hkh vnkyr esa mÙkj ugha nsrk vFkok iskh okys fnu mifLFkr ugha gksrkA 15) fMQkYV tteSaV % oknh ds i{k esa ml le; fn;k x;k vnkyr dk fu.kZ; tc dksbZ izfroknh vnkyr dks mÙkj ugha Hksrk vFkok iskh okys fnu vnkyr esa mifLFkr ugha gksrkA 16) fMQSaMSaV % fdlh nhokuh eqdíes esa] og O;fDr vFkok daiuh ftlds fo:) eqdík pyk;k tk jgk gksA fdlh vkijkf/kd vFkok VªSfQd laca/kh eqdíes esa] og O;fDr ftl ij fdlh vijk/k dk vkjksi gksA 17) fMQSal % fdlh nhokuh eqdíes esa] izfroknh }kjk ;g fn[kkus ds fy, isk fd, rF; vFkok rdZ fd oknh ekaxh xbZ jkgr dk gdnkj D;ksa ugha gSA fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíesa esa dkj.k fd izfroknh dks yxk, x, vkjksiksa ds fy, nks"kh D;ksa ugha Bgjk;k tk,A 18) fMQSal vVkuhZ % fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes esa] vkjksih O;fDr dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okyk odhyAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 68
  • 72. 19) fMÝkSM % fdlh fo|erku egRoiw.kZ rF; dks xyr <ax ls isk djuk] ;g tkurs gq, Hkh fd ;g vlR; gS vFkok tYnckth esa bl ckr dk fopkj fd, fcuk fd ;g lR; gS ;k vlR;A Ny diV djuk] Bxuk vFkok mYyw cukukA fdlh O;fDr ls Ny diV] /kks[kk/kM+h }kjk mldh laifÙk vFkok dksbZ fgr] tk;nkn vFkok vf/kdkj gfFk;kukA 20) fMxjh % fdlh dk;Zokgh vFkok vkjksi dk dk;Z{ks=k 21) MSyhczsV % fdlh eqdíes ls lacaf/kr vnkyr esa isk fd, x, lHkh lcwrksa vkSj rdks± ij fopkj&foekZ djukA 22) MSyhczsku % tc fdlh fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL; pkgs nhokuh vFkok vkijkf/kd eqdíeksa esa lcwrksa rFkk xokgh ij fopkj&foekZ djus ds fy, twjh&:e esa tkrs gSa rFkk fdlh fu.kZ; ij igqaprs gSaA 23) MSfyadqoSalh dksVZ % fdlh cky&vnkyr dk og foHkkx tks vijk/k ds vkjksih cPpksa ds eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ djrk gSA 24) MSfyadqoSalh] tqoSukbZy % fdlh voL;d }kjk lekt&fojks/kh O;ogkj] foks"kdj ,slk O;ogkj ftlds mls vkijkf/kd dkuwu ds vuqlkj ltk nh tkrh gS] ;fn og O;Ld gksrk] ijrq bldh ctk, mls foks"k rkSj ls cPpksa ds fy, cuk, x, dkuwu ds vuqlkj gh lt+k nh tkrh gSA 25) MSejj % tc dksbZ izfroknh ;g dgs fd oknh }kjk izLrqr rF; lR; gks ldrs gSa ijUrq os izfroknh dks dkuwuh :i ls ftEesnkj Bgjkus ds fy, i;kZIr ugha gSaA 26) MSful gh;fjax % ;g lqfufpr djus ds fy, dh xbZ lquokbZ fd D;k fdlh cky vnkyr ;kfpdk cgky j[kus ds i;kZIr izek.k gSA 27) Mhuksoks % fdlh eqdíes dh u, fljs ls iqu% lquokbZ djuk] tSls fd igys bldh lquokbZ dh gh u xbZ gksA 28) fMiSaMSalh dksVZ % cky vnkyr dk og foHkkx tks viekfur vkSj vogsfyr cPpksa ls lacaf/kr eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ djrk gSA 29) fMiSaMSaV pkbZYM % ikfjokfjd dkuwu esa] bldk lk/kkj.k vFkZ gS og cPpk ftls fdlhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 69
  • 73. vU; O;fDr ls vkfFkZd lgk;rk feyrh gSA cky&dkuwu esa] bldk vFkZ gS og voL;d tks vnkyr dh fgQktr esa gS D;ksafd mls viekfur] vogsfyr vFkok ijskku fd;k x;k Fkk vFkok tks kkjhfjd :i ls yksxksa ds fy, [krjukd gS D;ksafd og kkjhfjd vFkok ekufld chekjh ls ihfM+r gSA 30) fMiksVsZku % fdlh O;fDr dks ,d nsk ls nwljs nsk esa Hkstus dh dk;ZokghA fdlh bfexzsku tt }kjk tkjh vknsk ds vk/kkj ij fdlh voS/k ukxfjd dks la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ls fu"dkflr dj fn;k tkrk gSA fu"dklu ds dqN ifj.kke gksrs gSa tSls fd o"kks± dh la[;k ftlds vanj og fu"dkflr O;fDr dkwuuh :i ls iqu% okfil ugha vk ldrk gSA fu/kkZfjr vof/k ds lekIr gksus ls igys iqu% izosk ds dqN vkijkf/kd ifj.kke Hkh gSaA 31) fMikst+hku % fdlh rhljs vf/kd`r O;fDr] tSls vnkyr dk fjiksVZj] ds lkeus kiFk ysdj ekSf[kd vFkok fyf[kr xokgh nsukA xokgh vnkyr ds ckgj nh tkrh gSA bl izdkj eqdíes ds i{k ml O;fDr dh xokgh izkIr dj ldrs gSa vFkok ml izR;{knkhZ dh xokgh izkIr dj ldrs gSa tks dkQh nwj jgrk gSA buls odhy viuh nyhysa rS;kj dj ldrs gSaA 32) MSfizosku vkWQ dLVMh % vnkyr }kjk fdlh O;fDr dh dkuwuh fgQktr dh ftEesnkjh ekrk&firk vFkok dkuwuh laj{kd ls gVkdj fdlh vU; O;fDr] ,tsalh vFkok laLFkk dks lkSaiukA ;g vLFkkbZ vFkok LFkkbZ rkSj ij gks ldrh gSA 33) fMiqVh % og O;fDr ftldh fu;qFdr fdlh vU; O;fDr ds fodYi ds :i es adh xbZ gks vkSj ftls mlds uke ij ;k mldh txg dk;Z djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksA mnkgj.k ds fy, dkÅaVh DydZ ds fodYi ds :i esa fMiqVh dkÅaVh DydZ dh fu;qfDr dh tkrh gSA 34) fMiqVh Mh-,- % ftys ds ljdkjh odhy dk lgk;d odhyA 35) fMLlSaV ,s.M % os izkarh; dkuwu ftuesa fdlh ,sls O;fDr dh tk;nkn ds caVokjs dk fMLVªC;wku LVSP;wVl izko/kku gS tks fcuk olh;r fd, ej x;k gksAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 70
  • 74. 36) fMLVªfDVo fMokbl @ % dksbZ Hkh ,slk inkFkZ ftldk mís; foLQksV djuk vFkok vfXu }kjk ,sDlIyksflo rRdky foukk djuk gks vkSj tks rRdky xSl vkSj rki NksM+ ldrk gksA 37) fMVSaku % tc fdlh O;fDr dks vnkyr ds vafre fu.kZ; rd vLFkk;h rkSj ij tsy esa can dj fn;k tkrk gSA 38) fMVSaku gh;fjax % fdlh cPps dks mlds ekrk&firk ls vyx djds rqjar ckn fMiSaMSalh dksVZ esa izkjafHkd lquokbZA 39) fMVehZusV ¼lSaVSal½ % dkuwu }kjk fu/kkZfjr fufpr vof/k ds fy, dkjkokl dh ltkA 40) fMoSyieSaVyh fMLlscYM % os O;fDr tks euksjksxh ugha gSa vkSj tks cpiu ls gh vFkok O;Ldr gksus ls igys ls gh fodflr rkSj ij brus vikfgt gksa fd os lk/kkj.k lw>cw> ls viuk rFkk vius dk;ks± dk Bhd izca/k djus esa vleFkZ gksa vFkok ,slk djus ds fy, ftUgsa fl[kkuk vlaHko gks vkSj ftudh ns[kHkky] fu;a=k.k vkSj muds dY;k.k ds fy, /;ku nsus dh vko;drk gks] vFkok vU; yksxksa ds dY;k.k vFkok leqnk; ds dY;k.k dh vko;drk gksA 41) fMokbZt+ % olh;r }kjk tk;nkn dk rksgQkA 42) fMokbZth % og O;fDr tks olh;r }kjk rksgQs esa tk;nkn izkIr djrk gSA 43) MkbZjSDV ,sohMSal % mu izR;{knfkZ;ksa }kjk rF;ksa dh iqf"V djuk ftUgksaus viuh vka[kksa ls fd, x, d`R;ksa dks ns[kk vkSj cksys x, kCnksa dks vius dkuksa ls lqukA 44) MkbZjSDV ,sXtkehusku % tc dksbZ izR;{knkhZ xokgh nsrs le; ml i{k ds izuksa dk mÙkj nsrk gS ftlus mls xokgh nsus ds fy, cqyk;k gksA 45) MkbZjSDVsM ofMZDV % tt ds }kjk fu.kkZ;d e.My dks nh xbZ og fgnk;r ftlesa mUgsa dksbZ foks"k fu.kZ; nsus dks dgk x;k gksA 46) fMLckjeSaV % fdlh odhy ds fy, vuqkklu dk og :i ftlds QyLo:i ml odhy dk odkyr djus dk vf/kdkj ¼vDlj LFkk;h rkSj ij½ lekIrEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 71
  • 75. gks tkrk gSA ;g lSa;ksj ¼vkSipkfjd izrkM+uk vFkok HkRlZuk½ rFkk lLiSaku ¼odkyr djus ds vf/kdkj ij vLFkk;h jksd½ ls fHké gSA 47) fMLdyse % fdlh olh;rukesa esa mfYyf[kr rksgQs dks Lohdkj djus ls badkj djuk 48) fMLDysej % fdlh O;fDr }kjk vius nkos ;k vf/kdkj dk ifjR;kx djuk vFkok ftls og igys viuk lgk;d dgrk FkkA fdlh O;fDr ds uke yxkbZ xbZ vFkok rFkkdfFkr fdlh dh laifÙk vFkok fdlh fgr] vf/kdkj dk ifjR;kx vFkok mls Lohdkj djus ls badkjA 49) fMLDojh % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys lwpuk ¼rF;] nLrkost vFkok xokgh½ ,d=k djukA ;g lwpuk dbZ rjg ls ,d=k dh tkrh gS] tSls xokgh ds }kjk] iwNrkN ds }kjk] vFkok LohdkjksfDr ds fy, izkFkZuk }kjkA ;g dk;Z Lora=k Nkuchu vFkok fojks?kh i{k ds odhy ds lkFk ckrphr djds Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA 50) fMLDojh eksku % og ;kfpdk ftlesa oknh i{k dks izek.k ds ckjs esa tkudkjh iznku djus dh izkFkZuk dh tkrh gSA 51) fMfLØfeusku % og d`R; ftlds }kjk euethZ ls pqus x;s oxZ dks foks"k vf/kdkj ns fn, tk,aA 52) fMlfel % fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes ls fdlh izfroknh ds fo:) yxk, x, vkjksiksa okyh dkuwuh dk;Zokgh dks lekIr djukA 53) fMlfely fon % tc dksbZ vnkyr fdlh eqdíes dks [kkfjt dj ns vkSj mUgha nkoksa ds izStwMkbZl vk/kkj ij Hkfo"; esa nwljk eqdíek nk;j djus dh vkKk u nsA 54) fMlfely fonkÅV % tc dksbZ vnkyr fcuk eqdíes dks [kkfjt dj nsrh gS ijUrq mlh nkos izStwMkbZl ds vk/kkj ij vU; eqdíes nk;j djus dh vkKk ns nsrh gSA 55) fMlvkSMZjuh d.MDV % dkuwu ds fo:) ,slk O;ogkj tks lkoZtfud kkafr ,oa O;oLFkk dks Hkax djrk gS] leqnk; dks cnuke djrk gS vFkok tks yksxksa dh uSfrd Hkkoukvksa dks Bsl igqapkrk gSA 56) fMLiSfjVh % nks oLrqvksa dh ek=kk vkSj foks"krk esa Li"V varjAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 72
  • 76. 57) fMLikst+hku % fdlh >xM+s esa vnkyr dk vafre fu.kZ;A 58) fMLikst+hkuy gh;fjax % fdlh ;kfpdk dks lgh ekuus ds ckn ¼vkjksiksa dks lR; ikdj½ ;g fufpr djus ds fy, dh tkus okyh lquokbZ fd D;k cPpk vnkyr ds vkJ; esa jgsxk] og dgka jgsxk rFkk ekrk&firk dks iquj&,dhdj.k dh D;k lsok,a iznku dh tk;saxhA 59) fMLlSaV % vlgefr izdV djukA fdlh vihyh; vnkyr dh jk; ftlesa vYier dh jk; dks lEeq[k j[kk tkrk gS vkSj cgqer ds fu.kZ; ls ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd ttksa dh vlgefr dh :ijs[kk nh tkrh gSA 60) fMLlksY;wku % og fookg tks fdlh tt ds fu.kZ; }kjk lekIr dj fn;k tkrk gSA bls ^MkbZokslZ ¼rykd½ Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 61) fMLlksY;wku vkWQ % fdlh fookg dks lekIr djus dh dk;Zokgh] rykd eSfjt 62) fMlfVafDVoyh ekdZM % og okgu ftls iqfyl vf/kdkjh pyk jgk gks vkSj ftldh vyx gh igpku gks] tc ml ij tyrh gqbZ yky cÙkh ds lkFk ctrk gqvk lkbZju ns[kdj dksbZ Hkh le>nkj O;fDr tku tkrk gS fd og fdlh kkafr dk;e djus okys vf/kdkjh dk okgu gS vkSj dkuwu ls Hkkxus okys O;fDr dks mfpr Hk; gks tkrk gS fd dksbZ iqfyl vf/kdkjh mldk ihNk dj jgk gSA 63) fMfLVªDV vVkuhZ % dksbZ iq:"k @ L=kh odhy ftls vius ftys esa vkijkf/kd eqdíeksa essa jkT; dh vksj ls izfrfuf/kRo djus ds fy, fu;qDr fd;k tkrk gS vFkok pquk tkrk gSA 64) fMLVjfcax nk ihl % ,slk O;ogkj tks lHkh ukxfjdksa dks ijskku dj ldrk gS rFkk ftlesa vuko;d rFkk ?kcjkgV iSnk djus okyk kkSj kkfey gksrk gSA 65) MkbZokZu % tc dksbZ izfroknh tsy tkus dh ctk, fdlh iquokZl dk;ZØe esa tkrk gS vkSj mldk fujh{k.k fdlh izkscsku vf/kdkjh }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA tc izfroknh ml dk;ZØe dks iwjk dj ysrk gS rks mlds fo:) vkjksiksa dks [kkfjt dj fn;k tkrk gS vkSj mls ltk ugha HkqxruhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 73
  • 77. iM+rh gSA 66) MkbZokslZ % ml fookg dk lk/kkj.k uke ftls dkuwuh izfØ;k }kjk lekIr dj fn;k tkrk gSA 67) MkSdsV % fdlh vnkyr }kjk lqus x, izR;sd eqdíes dk iw.kZ fooj.kA blesa ml vnkyr dh dk;Zokgh dk oSfnd Øe laca/kh lkj lfEefyr gksrk gSA 68) MkSdsV uEcj % dksVZ&DydZ ds n¶rj }kjk fdlh eqdíes dh igpku ds fy, ml ij yxk;k x;k uEcjA ;g uEcj ml eqdíesa esa nk;j fd, x, lHkh nLrkostksa ij yxk;k tkrk gSA 69) fM~;w % bldk iz;ksx dkuwuh vnkyrksa dkuwuh nLrkostksa vkfn esa fdlh ,sls O;fDr ds ckjs esa fd;k tkrk gS ftlds uke dk irk u gksA 70) MkseSfLVd ok;ksySal % fdlh ifjokj ds ,d lnL; ds }kjk fdlh nwljs lnL; ds lkFk dh xbZ ekjihVA 71) MksehlkbZy % og LFkku tgka fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh ndk LFkkbZ fuokl gksA fdlh O;fDr ds jgus ds vusd LFkku gks ldrs gSa ijUrq LFkk;h fuokl LFkku ,d gh gksrk gSA 72) Mcy ft;ksikMhZ % ,d gh vijk/k ds fy, ,d ls vf/kd ckj fdlh O;fDr ds fo:) eqdíek pykus ds f[kykQ ikaposa lakksa/ku esa laoS/kkfud jksdA 73) MªkbZo&ckbZ eMZj % fdlh okgu ds vanj ls canwd&fiLrkSy vkfn ls okgu ls ckgj fdlh O;fDr dh gR;kA ;fn gR;kjk tkucw> dj foks"k bjkns ls gR;k djuk pkgrk Fkk rks og gR;k igys ntsZ dh gR;k ekuh tk;sxhA 74) MªkbZfoax OgkbZy % fdlh ukhyh nok vFkok kjkc ds uks esa fdlh okgu dks xSj&dkuwuh bUVkSDlhdsVsM <ax ls pykukA 75) fMªad MªkbZfoax % kjkc ds uks ls fcxM+h gkyr esa okgu pykuk vkSj ijh{k.k djus ij vYdksgy dh ek=kk jkT; }kjk fu/kkZfjr lhek ls vf/kd ikbZ tkukA 76) fM~;w izkSlSl vkQ ykW % vnkyrksa ds ek/;e ls dkuwu dks ykxw djokus dk fu;fer <axA la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds lafo/kku esa dgk x;k gS fd ;fn fdlhdks fdlh fnu vnkyr esa tkuk iM+s rks mls fdlh odhy dk izfrfuf/kRo izkIr djus dk vf/kdkj gS rFkk vnkyr dh mu dk;Zokfg;ksa ls ykHkkfUor gksus dkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 74
  • 78. vf/kdkj gS tks rst&j¶rkj] U;k; laxr vkSj fu"i{k gSA 77) M~;wjSl % xSj&dkuwuh :i ls fdlh dks canh cukuk vFkok fdlh dks bPNk cnyus ij etcwj djus ds fy, kkjhfjd gkfu igqapkus dh /kedh nsuk rFkk mldh bPNk ds foijhr dksbZ dke djokus esa ;g kkfey gksrh gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 75
  • 79. ----E----- 1. EASEMENTS – A right of use over the property of another. 2. ELEAZER MOTION - A motion to require prosecution to disclose the whereabouts of an informant or show that reasonable effort has been made to locate him. 3. ELECTRONIC MONITORING – Use of an electronic device to keep an eye on where a sentenced person is in the community and to restrict his or her activities, instead of putting the person in jail. (See also HOME MONITORING). 4. ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY - includes, but is not limited to computer modem, magnetic media, optical disk, facsimile machine, or telephone. 5. ELEMENTS OF A CRIME - Specific factors that define a crime which the prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt in order to obtain a conviction. The elements that must be proven are 1) that a crime has actually occurred, 2) that the accused intended the crime to happen, and 3) a timely relationship between the first two factors. 6. EMANCIPATION – A legal way for children to become adults before they are 18. Once a child is emancipated, his or her parents dont have custody or control of him or her anymore. 7. EMBEZZLE - To willfully take or convert to ones own use, anothers money or property, which the wrongdoer initially acquired lawfully, because of some office, employment, or some position of trust. 8. EMBEZZLEMENT – Taking property by a person to whom the property has been entrusted. 9. EMINENT DOMAIN - The right of the state to take private property for public use after giving fair compensation to the owner. 10. EN BANC - Court sessions where all the judges of a court participate, instead of the usual number. For example, the U.S. circuit courts of appeals usually use panels of three judges, but all the judges in the court may decide certain matters together. When that happens, they are sitting "en banc" (sometimes spelled "in banc"). It comes from the French language and means "on the bench." 11. ENDORSE - To sign your name on a document to authorize its contents or transfer (as in a check that is endorsed to transfer money). 12. ENDORSED-FILED COPIES - Copies of court papers that are stamped in the top right corner to show when they are filed. (Compare with CERTIFIED COPY.) 13. ENDORSEMENT, FORGERY BY – Falsely writing or endorsing check to cheat another person. 14. ENHANCE - To make greater in value, to increase. 15. ENHANCEMENT - An allegation added to a basic charge which, if proven, increases the basic sentence. Example: “use of a gun in the commission of a crime” may be added to the felony charge. 16. ENJOINING - An order by the court telling a person to stop something.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 76
  • 80. 17. ENTER A GUILTY PLEA - The formal statement before the court that the accused admits committing the criminal act. 18. ENTRAPMENT - A defense to criminal charges alleging that agents of the government induced a person to commit a crime he or she otherwise would not have committed. 19. ENTRY OF DEFAULT - The clerks record that the defendant has defaulted by not answering, or not answering on time. The plaintiff must request this record entry. 20. EQUAL PROTECTION - The guarantee in the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that all persons be treated equally by the law. 21. EQUITABLE ACTION - An action which may be brought for the purpose of restraining the threatened infliction of wrongs or injuries, and the prevention of threatened illegal action. 22. EQUITY - A system of law that supplements the statutory and case law and is based on principles of what is "fair and right." 23. ERROR CORAM NOBIS - Petition filed in trial court seeking relief from conviction based on new facts. 24. ERROR CORAM VOBIS - Petition filed in appellate court seeking relief from conviction based on new facts. 25. ESCAPE BY FORCE OR VIOLENCE – Using force to escape from custody. 26. ESCHEAT (ES-CHET) - The process by which a deceased persons property goes to the state if there is no will or no heirs. 27. ESCROW - Money or a written instrument such as a deed that, by agreement between two parties, is held by a neutral third party (held in escrow) until all conditions of the agreement are met. 28. ESTATE - Everything a person (alive or dead) owns and owes. There are different types of estates, like probate, nonprobate, trust and taxable estates. Probate estate: The property in someones will. Or, if they do not have a will, the property the probate court handles. Nonprobate estate: The property the probate court does not handle. For example, if theres a trust or joint tenancy. Trust estate: Property in a trust. A trustee controls the trust. Taxable estate: The property subject to federal estate tax when a person dies. For example, life insurance. 29. ESTATE TAX - Generally, a tax on the privilege of transferring property to others after a persons death. In addition to federal estate taxes, many states have their own estate taxes. 30. ESTOPPEL - An act or statement that prevents a person from later making claims to the contrary. 31. ET AL - In Latin, this means "and others." Refers to parties not included in the formal name of a court case. 32. ET SEQ - An abbreviation for et sequentes, or et sequentia. Latin meaning "and the following," ordinarily used in referring to a section of statutes. 33. ET UX - In Latin, this means "and wife." 34. EVICTION - Recovery of land or rental property from another by legal process. (See UNLAWFUL DETAINER.)English/Hindi Legal Glossary 77
  • 81. 35. EVIDENCE - Any proof legally presented at trial through witnesses, records, and/or exhibits. 36. EVIDENCE, CIRCUMSTANTIAL - Conclusion drawn from proven facts. 37. EVIDENCE, DIRECT - Evidence in form of a witnesss testimony, who actually saw, heard, or touched the subject in question. 38. EVIDENCE, EVANESCENT - Evidence which can disappear relatively quickly, such as the amount of alcohol in a persons blood. 39. EXAMINATION, DIRECT - The first examination of a witness by the counsel who called the witness to testify. 40. EXAMINATION, RECROSS - A second examination of a witness by the opposing counsel after the second examination (or redirect examination) by the counsel who called the witness to testify is completed. 41. EXAMINATION, REDIRECT - A second examination of a witness by the counsel who called the witness to testify. This examination is usually focused on certain matters that were discussed by the opposing counsels examination. 42. EXCEPTIONS - Declarations by either side in a civil or criminal case reserving the right to appeal a judges ruling upon a motion. Also, in regulatory cases, objections by either side to points made by the other side or to rulings by the agency or one of its hearing officers. 43. EXCESSIVE FORCE – Use of unreasonable amount of force by police officer. 44. EXCLUSION OF WITNESSES - An order of the court requiring all witnesses to remain outside the courtroom until each is called to testify, except the plaintiff or defendant. The witnesses are ordered not to discuss their testimony with each other and may be held in contempt if they violate the order. 45. EXCLUSIONARY RULE - The rule preventing illegally obtained evidence to be used in any trial. 46. EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION - The matter can only be filed in one court. 47. EX CONTRACTU - Arising from a contract. 48. EXCULPATORY EVIDENCE - Evidence which tends to indicate that a defendant did not commit the alleged crime. 49. EXECUTE - (1) To carry out all terms of a contract or court order; (2) to sign (a document); (3) to kill. 50. EXECUTION - The name of a court order issued to a sheriff, marshal, or constable authorizing and requiring him to carry out the judgment of the court. 51. EXECUTION OF SENTENCE SUSPENDED - Imposing a sentence that will not be served. This is frequently ordered in combination with grants of probation. If the defendant is subsequently found in violation of probation, the suspension will be lifted and the sentence carried out. 52. EXECUTOR - Person or company named in a will to carry out the wills instructions and requests. The executor is usually supervised by the probate court.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 78
  • 82. 53. EX DELICTO - Arising from a wrong, breach of duty. (See TORT.) 54. EXEMPLARY DAMAGES - Monies awarded to the plaintiff that exceed the normal or expected amount. Serve as punishment for willful or malicious acts by the defendant, rather than act of negligence. 55. EXEMPLIFICATION - An extremely formal type of certification in which the Clerk signs the certification of the document or record. The Presiding Judge then signs attesting to the fact of the identity of the Clerk, and that the signature is authentic. Finally, the Clerk signs again, this time attesting to the fact that the judge is a Judge of that county’s General Jurisdiction Court, and that the signature is authentic. 56. EXHIBIT - A document or an object shown and identified in court as evidence in a case. 57. EXHIBIT, PEOPLES - Exhibit and/or evidence that is offered by the prosecution. 58. EXONERATE - To clear of blame or to relieve from responsibility. 59. EX PARTE - A court procedure with only one side. For emergencies only. 60. EX PARTE PROCEEDING - The legal procedure in which only one side is represented. 61. EXPERT TESTIMONY - Testimony given in relation to some scientific, technical, or professional matter by experts, i.e., person qualified to speak authoritatively by reason of their special training, skill, or familiarity with the subject. 62. EXPLOSIVE/DESTRUCTIVE DEVICE – Any substance, or combination of substances, the primary or common purpose of which is detonation or rapid combustion, and which is capable of a relatively instantaneous or rapid release of gas and heat, or any substance, the primary purpose of which, when combined with others, is to form a substance capable of a relatively instantaneous or rapid release of gas and heat. 63. EX POST FACTO - Latin meaning, "after the fact." The Constitution prohibits the enactment of ex post facto laws. These are laws that permit conviction and punishment for a lawful act performed before the law was changed and the act made illegal. 64. EXPUNGEMENT - Official and formal erasure of a record or partial contents of a record. 65. EXTENUATING CIRCUMSTANCES - Circumstances which render a crime less aggravated, heinous, or reprehensible than it would otherwise be. 66. EXTORTION - The act of obtaining the property of another person through wrongful use of actual or threatened force, violence, or fear. 67.EXTRADITION - Bringing a person that is in custody in one state to the authorities of another state where that person has been accused or convicted of a crime. 68. EXTRAORDINARY WRIT - A court order, often issued by an appellate court, making available remedies not regularly within the powers of lower courts. They include writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition and quo warranto. 69. EYE WITNESS - One who saw the act, fact, or transaction to which he or she testifies.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 79
  • 83. 1) bZt+eSaVl % fdlh nwljs dh laifÙk dks iz;ksx djus dk vf/kdkjA 2) byht+j eksku % og izLrko ftlds }kjk vfHk;kstu i{k dks fdlh eq[kfcj dk irk fBdkuk crykus ds fy, dgk tkrk gS vFkok ;g trkus ds fy, fd mls <wa<us ds fy, mfpr iz;kl fd, x, gSaA 3) bySDVªksfud ekSuhVfjax % dksbZ ltk izkIr O;fDr leqnk; esa dgka gS] ml ij utj j[kus ds fy, rFkk ml iq:"k @ L=kh dks tsy esa Mkyus dh vis{kk mldh xfrfof/k;ksa dks lhfer djus ds fy, iz;ksx fd, tkus okyk bySDVªksfud ;a=kA 4) bySDVªkSfud VSDuksykWth % blesa kkfey gS] ijUrq ;g dEI;wVj ds fofHké :iksa] pqEcdh; ek/;eksa] vkIVhdy fMLd] QSlhekbZy ekhu vFkok VsyhQksu rd lhfer ugha gSA 5) ,syheSaVl vkWQ , % vijk/k dks ifjHkkf"kr djus okys os dkjd ftUgsa vfHk;kstu i{k }kjk ØkbZe lansg dh mfpr lhek ls ijs rd fl) djuk vko;d gS rkfd vijk/kh dks ltk fnyokbZ tk ldsA ftu rRoksa dks fl) djuk vko;d gS os gSa] ¼1½ fd vijk/k okLro esa gqvk gS] ¼2½ fd vkjksih vijk/k djus dk bjknk j[krk Fkk] rFkk ¼3½ igys nksuksa dkjdksa ds chp lkef;d laca/kA 6) beSalhisku % cPpksa ds fy, 18 o"kZ dh vk;q ls igys O;Ld cuus dk dkuwuh <axA ,d ckj tc cPps dks cjh dj fn;k tkrk gS rks mlds ekrk&firk ml yM+ds ;k yM+dh dks viuh fgQktr ;k fu;a=k.k esa ugha ysrsA 7) ,sEcSt+y % fdlh ds ml /ku vFkok laifÙk dks tkucw> dj ys ysuk vFkok vius iz;ksx esa ykuk ftls ml vijk/kh us kq: esa fdlh in] ukSdjh vFkok fdlh fooluh; fLFkfr ds dkj.k dkuwuh <ax ls gkfly fd;k FkkA 8) ,sEcSt+yeSaV % laifÙk dks ml O;fDr }kjk gfFk;k fy;k tkuk ftlds ikl ;g vekur ds :i esa j[kh xbZ FkhA 9) ,seheSaV Mksesu % jkT; dk og vf/kdkj ftlds vUrxZr fdlh dh futh laifÙk dks lkoZtfud iz;ksx ds fy, mlds ekfyd dks mfpr eqvkotk nsdj fy;k tk ldrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 80
  • 84. 10) ,su cSad % vnkyr dh os cSBdsa ftuesa ttksa dh lkekU; la[;k dh ctk, ml vnkyr ds lHkh tt Hkkx ysrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds lfdZV dksVZl vkQ vihy lkekU; :i ls rhu ttksa ds iSuy dk iz;ksx djrs gSa ijUrq dqN eqdíeksa esa rhuksa tt feydj fu.kZ; ns ldrs gSaA tc dHkh ,slk gksrk gS rks dgk tkrk gS fd os ^,su cSad* cSBs gSaA 11) ,sUMkst+Z % fdlh nLrkost dh fo"k; oLrq dks vf/kd`r vFkok gLrkafjr djus ds fy, ml ij vius uke ds gLrk{kj djuk] ¼tSls /kujkfk ds gLrka=k.k ds fy, fdlh pSd dks ,sUMkst+Z fd;k tkrk gSA½ 12) ,sUMkstZM& QkbZYM % vnkyrh nLrkost+ksa dh os udysa ftu ij nkbZ vksj lcls Åij fVdVsa dkSiht+ yxh gksrh gSa rkfd ;g irk py lds fd mUgsa dc nk;j fd;k x;k FkkA 13) ,sUMkst+ZeSaV QkstZjh ckbZ % fdlh O;fDr dks Bxus ds fy, NyiwoZd pSd Hkjuk vFkok ml ij gLrk{kj djukA 14) ,sUgSal % ewy vkjksi esa tksM+k x;k dksbZ vkjksi tks] ;fn fl) gks tk, rks] ewy ltk dks c<+kok nsrk gSA tSls fdlh vijk/k ds d`R; esa canwd ds iz;ksx dk vkjksi tksM+k tk ldrk gSA 16) ,sUtkS;fuax % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk fdlh O;fDr dks dksbZ dke djus ls jksdk tkrk gSA 17) ,sUVj , fxYVh Iyh % vnkyr ds le{k fn;k tkus okyk vkSipkfjd C;ku ftlesa vkjksih vijk/k djus dks Lohdkj djrk gSA 18) ,sUVªSieSaV % izfroknh }kjk vius cpko esa fn;k x;k og C;ku ftlesa ;g vkjksi yxk;k x;k gks fd ljdkjh ,tsaVksa esa fdlh O;fDr dks ykyp nsdj ogEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 81
  • 85. vijk/k djok;k vU;Fkk ftls og ugha dj ikrkA 19) ,saVªh vkQ fMQkYV % DydZ dk og fjdkMZ tks crkrk gS fd izfroknh us mÙkj u nsdj vFkok le; ij mÙkj u nsdj fMQkYV fd;k gSA oknh dks bl fjdkMZ ,saVªh dh ekax vo; djuh pkfg,A 20) bZDoy izksVSDku % la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds lafo/kku esa 14osa lakks/ku ds vuqlkj dkuwu ds }kjk lHkh yksxksa ds lkFk lekurk dk O;ogkj fd;k tkuk pkfg,A 21) bZDohVscy ,sDku % og dk;Zokgh tks mu vU;k;iw.kZ dk;ks± rFkk gkfu dks jksdus ds fy, dh tk ldrh gS ftuds ckjs esa /kefd;ka nh tk pqdh gksaA 22) bZfDoVh % og dkuwu iz.kkyh tks LVSpqVjh vkSj dsl&ykW dh iwjd gS vkSj tks ^D;k mfpr vkSj Bhd gS* ds fl)karksa ij vk/kkfjr gSA 23) ,sjj dksje uksfcl % Vªk;y dksVZ esa nk;j dh xbZ og ;kfpdk ftlesa u, rF;ksa ds vk/kkj ij nh xbZ lt+k ls jkgr ekaxh xbZ gksA 24) ,sjj dksje cksfcl % vihyh; vnkyr esa nk;j dh xbZ og ;kfpdk ftlesa u, rF;ksa ds vk/kkj ij nh xbZ lt+k ls jkgr ekaxh xbZ gksA 25) ,sLdsi ckbZ QkslZ vkSj % fgjklr ls Qjkj gksus ds fy, cy&iz;ksxA ck;ksySal 26) ,sLphV % og izfØ;k ftlds }kjk fdlh e`rd dh laifÙk jkT; dks izkIr gksrh gS ;fn mlus dksbZ olh;r u NksM+h gks vkSj mldk dksbZ okfjl u gksA 27) ,sLØks % /kujkfk vFkok dksbZ fyf[kr nLrkost tSls fd dksbZ bdjkjukek tks nksuksa i{kksa ds chp lgefr ls fdlh rhljs rVLFk O;fDr ds ikl rc rd j[kk jgrk gS tc rd dh mldh lkjh krs± iwjh ugha dh tkrhA 28) ,sLVsV % og izR;sd oLrq tks fdlh ¼thfor vFkok e`r½ O;fDr ds ikl gS ;k tks mls nsuh gksrh gSA ,sLVsVl fHké&fHké izdkj dh gksrh gS tSls izkscsV] uku&izkscsV] VªLV ,oa VSDlscy ,sLVsVA izkscsV ,sLVsV] fdlh dh olh;r esa mfYyf[kr laifÙkA ;fn dksbZ olh;r u gks rks izkscsV dksVZ }kjk izca/k dh tkus okyh laifÙkA uku&izkscsV ,sLVsV % og laifÙk ftldk izca/k izkscsV dksVZ }kjk ugha fd;k tkrkA mnkgj.k ds fy,] ;fn dksbZ VªLV vFkok la;qDr iV~Vsnkjh gksA VªLV ,sLVsV % fdlh VªLV esa yxkbZ xbZEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 82
  • 86. laifÙkA VªLV dk fu;a=k.k fdlh VªLVh }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA VSDlscy ,sLVsV % og laifÙk ftl ij mlds Lokeh dh e`R;q ds le; QsMjy ,sLVsV VSDl ykxw gksrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] thou chekA 29) ,sLVsV VSDl % lk/kkj.kr;k] fdlh O;fDr dh e`R;q ds ckn fdlh vU; dks laifÙk ds gLrka=k.k ds foks"kkf/kdkj ij yxus okyk VSDlA QSMjy ,sLVsV VSDl ds vfrfjDr dbZ jkT;ksa }kjk vius&vius ,sLVsV VSDl yxk, tkrs gSaA 30) ,sLVksiy % dksbZ ,slh dk;Zokgh vFkok C;ku tks fdlh O;fDr dks ckn esa foijhr nkok djus ls jksdrk gSA 31) ,sV ,sy % ykrhuh Hkk"kk esa bldk vFkZ gS] ÞrFkk vU;ßA ftldk vFkZ gS] os i{k ftudks eqdíes ds vkSipkfjd uke esa lfEefyr ugha fd;k x;k gSA 32) ,sV flDo % ,sV lhDoSafVl* vFkok ^,sV lhDoSafV;k dk laf{kIr :i 33) ,sV~V vDl % ykrhuh Hkk"kk esa bldk vFkZ gS ÞrFkk iRuhß 34) ,sfoDku % dkuwuh izfØ;k }kjk fdlh ls viuh Hkwfe vFkok fdjk, ij gh xbZ laifÙk [kkyh djokukA 35) ,sohMSal % dksbZ Hkh izek.k ftls Vªk;y esa izR;{knf{k;ksa] fjdkMZ vFkok izek.k laca/kh nLrkostksa ds tfj, dkuwuh rkSj ij izLrqr fd;k tkrk gSA 36) ,sohMSal] % izekf.kr fd, x, rF;ksa ls fudkyk x;k fu"d"kZA ljdelVkafk;y 37) ,sohMSal] MkbZjSDV % ml izR;{knkhZ dh xokgh ds :i esa izek.k ftlus fopkjk/khu ?kVuk dks Lo;a ns[kk] lquk vFkok tks mlds laidZ esa jgk gksA 38) ,sohMSal] boSulSaV % og izek.k tks vU; izek.kksa dh rqyuk esa kh?kz gh yqIr gks tkrk gS] tSls fdlh ds jDr esa vYdksgy dh ek=kkA 39) ,sXt+kehusku] MkbZjSDV % fdlh izR;{knkhZ ls ml odhy dh igyh ftjg ftlus mls xokgh ds fy, cqyk;k gksA 40) ,sXt+kehusku] jhØkl % fdlh izR;{knkhZ ls mldks isk djus okys odhy dh nwljh ftjg ds ckn foi{kh odhy dh nwljh ftjgAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 83
  • 87. 41) ,sXt+kehusku] % fdlh izR;{knkhZ ls mls isk djus okys odhy dh nwljh ftjgA ;g jhMkbZjSDV ftjg vDlj foi{kh odhy }kjk viuh ftjg esa mBk;s x, eqíksa ij dsafnzr gksrh gSA 42) ,sDlSIkul % fdlh nhokuh vFkok vkijkf/kd eqdíesa esa fdlh izLrko ij tku dj fu.kZ; ds fo:) vihy ds vf/kdkj dks lqjf{kr j[krs gq, fdlh ,d i{k dk C;kuA jSxwysVjh lquokbZ djus okys fdlh vf/kdkjh ds fu.kZ;ksa ds izfr fdlh ,d i{k }kjk mBk, x, ,srjktA 43) ,sDlSflo QkslZ % fdlh iqfyl vf/kdkjh }kjk vuqfpr ek=k esa cy&iz;ksxA 44) ,sDlDywt+u vkWQ % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk oknh rFkk izfroknh dks NksM+dj foVuSlst+ lHkh izR;{knfkZ;ksa dks rc rd vnkyr ds dejs ls ckgj jgus ds fy, dgk tkrk gS tc rd fd mUgsa ckjh&ckjh ls xokgh ds fy, cqyk;k u tk,A izR;{knfkZ;ksa dks ;g Hkh vknsk fn;k tkrk gS fd os viuh xokgh ds ckjs esa ,d&nwljs ls fopkj u djsa vkSj ;fn os bl vknsk dk mYya?ku djrs gS arks mUgsa vnkyr dh vogsyuk ds fy, tsy Hkstk tk ldrk gSA 45) ,sDlDywt+ujh :y % voS/k :i ls izkIr fd, x, izek.k dks Vªk;y esa iz;ksx fd, tkus dks jksdus ds fy, fu;eA 46) ,sDlDywflo % fdlh fo"k; ij eqdíek dsoy ,d gh vnkyr esa gh nk;j fd;k tk twfjLMDku ldrk gSA 47) ,sDl dUVªSDVw % fdlh le>kSrs ls mRié gksus okykA 48) ,sDldYisVjh ,sohMSal % og izek.k ftlls izfroknh }kjk rFkk dfFkr vijk/k u fd, tkus dk ladsr feyrk gksA 49) ,sDlhD;wV % ¼1½ fdlh le>kSrs vFkok vnkyrh vknsk dh lHkh krks± dks ykxw djuk] ¼2½ ¼fdlh nLrkost ij½ gLrk{kj djuk] ¼3½ Qkalh nsuk vFkok gR;k djukA 50) ,sDlhD;wku % vnkyr }kjk ftys ds eq[; vf/kdkjh] ekkZy vFkok flikgh ds ukeEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 84
  • 88. tkjh ml vknsk dk uke ftlesa mUgsa vnkyr ds fu.kZ; dks ykxw djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 51) ,sDlhD;wku vkWQ % ,slh lt+k dk vknsk nsuk ftls Hkqxruk ugha iM+rkA bldk vknsk lSaVSal lLiSaMsM le;≤ ij izkscsku ds vknsk ds lkFk fn;k tkrk gSA ;fn ckn esa izfroknh dks izkscsku dh krks± dk mYya?ku djrs gq, ik;k tk, rks lt+k ij yxh jksd dks gVk fy;k tkrk gS vkSj ltk ykxw dj nh tkrh gSA 52) ,sDlhD;wVj % fdlh olh;r esa ukekafdr og O;fDr vFkok daiuh ftls ml olh;r ds funsZkksa rFkk vkosnuksa dks ykxw djus ds fy, ukekafdr fd;k x;k gksA ,sDlhD;wVj vDlj izkscsV dksVZ ds fujh{k.k esa jgrk gSA 53) ,sDl MSfYDVks % dÙkZO; ds vU;k;iw.kZ mYya?ku ls mRiéA 54) ,sDtSAIyjh MSestst+ % izfroknh dks lkekU; vFkok vkkkrhr jkfk ls vf/kd /kujkfk;ka fn, tkus dk vknskA izfroknh dks ykijokgh dh dk;Zokgh dh vis{kk tkucw> dj nqHkkZoukiw.kZ d`R;ksa ds fy, ltk ds :i esa ,slk vknsk fn;k tkrk gSA 55) ,sXtSaIyhfQdsku % vR;ar vkSipkfjd fdLe dk izek.khdj.k ftlesa izek.khdj.k ds fy, nLrkost vFkok fjdkMZ ij DydZ gLrk{kj djrk gSA mlds ckn ihBklhu tt ml DydZ dh igpku rFkk mlds gLrk{kjksa dks lR;kfir djus ds fy, gLrk{kj djrk gSA 56) ,sXt+hfcV % fdlh eqdíeksa esa lcwr ds rkSj ij izLrqr ,oa vnkyr }kjk ekU; dksbZ nLrkost vFkok oLrqA 57) ,sXt+hfcV] ihiy*l % vfHk;kstu i{k }kjk izLrqr ,sXt+hfcV rFkk vFkok lcwrA 58) ,sXt+ksujsV % vkjksi eqDr djuk vFkok mÙkj nkf;Ro ls NqVdkjk nsukA 59) ,sDliksVZ % dsoy ,d gh i{k dh mifLFkfr esa vnkyrh dk;Zfof/kA dsoy vkikr fLFkfr;ksa ds fy,A 60) ,sDl ikVsZ izkslhfMax % og oS/kkfud dk;Zfof/k ftlesa dsoy ,d gh i{k dk izfrfuf/kRo gksrkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 85
  • 89. gSA 61) ,DliVZ VSLVheuh % fdlh oSKkfud] rduhdh vFkok O;kolkf;d fo"k; ds laca/k esa fdlh ekfgj O;fDr vFkkZr tks vius foks"k izfk{k.k] fuiq.krk vFkok ml fo"k; ds izfr tkudkjh ds vk/kkj ij odrO; nsus dh ;ksX;rk j[krk gks] }kjk nh xbZ xokghA 62) ,sDLiykSflo @ % ,slk dksbZ inkFkZ vFkok inkFkks± dk feJ.k ftudk izkFkfed vFkok fMLVªfDVo fMokbZl lkekU; iz;ksx foLQksV vFkok rhoz ngu ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS] vkSj tks fdlh vU; inkFkZ dh vis{kk rRdky vFkok rhoz xfr ls xSl rFkk rki NksM+us dh lkeF;Z j[krs gSa] vFkok dksbZ ,slk inkFkZ ftls vU; inkFkks± ds lkFk feykdj ,slk inkFkZ cuk;k tk ldrk gS ftldk iz;ksx nwljs inkFkks± dh vis{kk rRdky rhoz xfr ls xSl vkSj rki NksM+us ds dkfcy gksA 63) ,sDl iksLV QSDVks % ykrhuh Hkk"kk esa bldk vFkZ gS ÞrF; ds cknßA lafo/kku esa ,sDl iksLV iksLV QSDVks dkuwu cukus ij izfrca/k gSA ;s os dkuwu gSa tks mu oS/kkfud dk;ks± ds fy, nks"kh Bgjk;s tkus rFkk ltk fnykus ds fy, vkKk nsrs gSa ftUgsa dkuwu es ifjorZu dj voS/k ?kksf"kr djus ls igys fd;k x;k FkkA 64) ,sDliateSaV % fdlh fjdkMZ vFkok mlds fdlh vak esa izkklfud rFkk vkSipkfjd rkSj ij dkaV&NkaV djukA 65) ,sdVSuq,fVax % os ifjfLFkfr;ka tks fdlh vijk/k dks vf/kd mxzrkiw.kZ] ?k`f.kr rFkk ljdElVkalst fuUnuh; cukrh gSaA 66) ,sDVkskZu % /kedh vFkok okLrfod cy iz;ksx }kjk fgalk vFkok Hk; fn[kkdj vU;k;iw.kZ <ax ls fdlh nwljs dh laifÙk dks ysukA 67) ,DLVªkMhku % fdlh O;fDr dks ,d jkT; ls fdlh nwljs ,sls jkT; esa ys tkuk tgka ml ij fdlh vijk/k dks djus dk vkjksi gS vFkok mls vijk/k ds fy, ltk nh xbZ gSA 68) ,DLVªkvkSMhZujh fjV % vDlj vihyh; vnkyrsa }kjk tkjh fd, tkus okyk og vknsk ftlds }kjk os mipkj miyC/k djk, tkrs gSa tks fupyh vnkyrksa ds vf/kdkjEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 86
  • 90. {ks=k esa ugha gksrsA buesa gSfc;l dkSjil] eSaMsel] izkSfgchku rFkk Doks okjaVks tSlh ;kfpdk,a kkfey gksrh gSaA 69) vkbZ foVuSl % og iq:"k vFkok L=kh ftlus fdlh d`R;] rF; rFkk ysu&nsu dks] ftlds ckjs esa xokgh nsrs gSa] Lo;a viuh vka[kksa ls ns[kk gksAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 87
  • 91. ------F------ 1. FACTUAL BASIS - The underlying facts supporting a defendant’s guilty or NOLO CONTENDERE plea. 2. FACTUALLY INNOCENT - No reasonable cause exists to believe the person arrested committed the offense. 3. FAILURE TO APPEAR - The act of not appearing in court after being presented with a subpoena or summons. 4. FAILURE TO COMPLY - The act of not following an order that is directed by the court. 5. FAIR HEARING - A hearing in which certain rights are respected such as the right to present evidence, to cross examine and to have findings supported by evidence. 6. FAIR MARKET VALUE – The cash value price that the property would have brought at the time it was taken. 7. FALSE ARREST - Any unlawful physical restraint of anothers personal liberty, whether or not carried out by a peace officer. 8. FALSE IMPRISONMENT - The unlawful restraint by one person of another persons physical liberty. 9. FALSE PRETENSES - Representation of some fact or circumstance which is not true and is calculated to mislead, by which a person obtains anothers money or goods. 10. FALSE TOKEN – Any tangible object or a document that is not genuine, is not what it appears or claims to be, and is intended to be used and is used to deceive the person to whom it is presented. 11. FAMILY ALLOWANCE - A small amount of money kept from the estate of the deceased to provide for the surviving family members during the administration of the estate. 12. FEDERAL EMPLOYER’S LIABILITY ACT – Federal workers’ compensation law which protects railroad employees. 13. FEES - A specific amount of money thats paid in exchange for a service, such as filing a court paper. 14. FEE SIMPLE - The most complete, unlimited form of ownership of real property, which lasts until the current holder dies without an heir. 15. FEE WAIVER - Permission not to pay the courts filing fees. People with very low income can ask the court clerk for a fee waiver form. 16. FELONY - A serious crime that can be punished by more than one year in prison or by death. (Compare INFRACTION, MISDEMEANOR). 17. FELONY MURDER - A murder committed during the commission of a felony such as robbery, burglary, or kidnapping.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 88
  • 92. 18. FIDUCIARY - A person that acts for another persons benefit, like a trustee or guardian. It also means something that is based on a trust or confidence. (See also TRUSTEE.) 19. FIELD SOBRIETY TEST - A method of determining whether a person is intoxicated using a motor skills test which is administered by testing the drivers speaking ability and/or physical coordination. 20. FIFTH AMENDMENT - Among other rights, the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees that a person cannot be forced to present self-incriminating testimony in a criminal proceeding. 21. FILE - When a person officially gives a paper to a court clerk and that paper becomes part of the record of a case. 22. FIND GUILTY - For the judge or jury to determine and declare the guilt of the defendant. 23. FINDING - When a judicial officer or jury says something is a fact. 24. FINDINGS OF FACT - An oral or written statement by a judge after a review of the evidence stating that the facts given are found to be true. 25. FINE - The money a person must pay as punishment for doing something illegal or for not doing something they were supposed to do. 26. FINGERPRINT - The distinctive pattern of lines on human fingertips that are used as a method of identification in criminal cases. 27. FIREARM - A weapon which acts by force of gunpowder, such as a rifle, shotgun or revolver. 28. FIRST APPEARANCE - The initial appearance of an arrested person before a judge to determine whether there is probable cause for his or her arrest. Generally, the person comes before a judge within hours of the arrest, and are informed of the charges against him or her and of his or her rights to a preliminary hearing, to counsel, and to bail. No plea is asked for at this time. Also called INITIAL APPEARANCE. 29. FITNESS HEARING – A court hearing to decide if a juvenile (minor) should be tried as an adult. 30. FORCIBLE AND ATROCIOUS CRIME – Any felony that by its nature and the manner of its commission threatens, or is reasonably believed by the defendant to threaten life or great bodily injury so as to instill in him a reasonable fear of death or great bodily injury. Murder, mayhem, rape, and robbery are all forcible and atrocious crimes. 31. FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER - Ordinarily refers to a summary proceeding for restoring possession of land to one who has been wrongfully deprived of possession. 32. FORECLOSURE - Procedure by which mortgaged property is sold on default of the mortgagor in satisfaction of mortgage debt. 33. FORFEIT - To lose, or lose the right to. In Traffic – to forfeit means to enter an implied guilty plea and pay total bail to close a case. 34. FORFEITURE - When a person must give up money or property because he or she didnt meet a legal obligation. (See also BAIL FORFEITURE). 35. FORGERY - The act of claiming ones own writing to be that of another.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 89
  • 93. 36. FORMAL PROBATION - Court-ordered terms and conditions placed upon a defendant instead of a sentence. Formal probation involves supervision of the defendant by a probation officer. Summary probation involves no probation officer; the defendant is responsible directly to the court. 37. FORUM NON CONVENIENS - A doctrine patterned upon the right of the court in the exercise of its equitable powers to refuse the imposition upon its jurisdiction of the trial of cases even through the venue is properly laid if it appears that for the convenience of litigants and witnesses and in the interest of justice the action should be instituted in another forum where the action might have been brought. 38. FOSTER CARE - A program that gives money to a person, family, or institution to raise someone elses child. 39. FOUNDATION - In a trial, a foundation must be laid to establish the basis for the admissibility of certain types of evidence. For example, an expert witnessess qualifications must be shown before expert testimony will be admissible. 40. FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT - Among other matters, the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits states from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without adequate DUE PROCESS. 41. FRAUD - Deceiving someone on purpose in a way that financially hurts others.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 90
  • 94. 1) QSDpqvy csfll % fdlh izfroknh dh nks"k & LohdkjksfDr ds leFkZu esa vUrjfufgr rF;A 2) QSDpqvyh bUukslsaV % fdlh fxj¶rkj fd, x, O;fDr dks vijk/k djus dk nks"kh ekuus ds fy, dksbZ mfpr dkj.k u gksukA 3) QSY;ksj Vw vih;j % lEeu feyus ds ckn Hkh vnkyr esa mifLFkr u gksukA 4) QsY;ksj Vw dEIykbZ % vnkyr }kjk fn, x, funsZkkRed vknsk dk ikyu u djukA 5) Qs;j gh;fjax % ,slh lquokbZ ftlesa dqN vf/kdkjksa dks lEeku fn;k tkrk gS] tSls izek.k izLrqr djus dk vf/kdkj] ftjg djus dk vf/kdkjr Fkk lcwrksa ij vk/kkfjr fu.kZ; izkIr djus dk vf/kdkjA 6) Qs;j ekdhZV oSY;w % fdlh laifÙk dk og udn ewY; tks mls izkIr djus ds le; mls cspus ls izkIr gks ldrk FkkA 7) QkYl vjSLV % fdlh dh O;fDrxr Lora=krk ij voS/k kkjhfjd izfrca/k] pkgs og fdlh kkafr dk;e j[kus okys vf/kdkjh }kjk gh D;ksa u yxk;k x;k gksA 8) QkYl bfEiztueSaV % fdlh ,d O;fDr }kjk nwljs O;fDr dh kkjhfjd Lora=krk ij izfrca/k yxkukA 9) QkYl fizVSalst+ % fdlh nwljs vFkok eky dks gfFk;kus ds mís; ls fdlh rF; vFok ifjfLFkfr dks vlR; :i ls rksM+&ejksM+ dj isk djukA 10) QkYl Vksdu % dksbZ ,slh Bksl oLrq vFkok dksbZ nLrkost tks vlyh ugha gS] oSlh ugha gS tSlh ;g fn[kkbZ nsrh gS vFkok tSlh gksus dk nkok fd;k tkrk gS rFkk ftldk iz;ksx ml O;fDr dks Bxus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS ftls ;g nh tkrh gSA 11) QSfeyh ,ykÅal % fdlh e`rd dh tk;nkn dh O;oLFkk ds nkSjku tk;nkn esa ls mlds ifjokj ds thfor lnL;ksa d xqtkjs ds fy, j[kh xbZ FkkM+h lh /ku jkfkA 12) QSMjy ,saIykS;j*l % la?kh; deZpkfj;ksa dks eqvkotk nsus dk dkuwu tks jsyos deZpkfj;ksa dks yk;fcfyVh ,DV lqj{kk iznku djrk gSA 13) Qhl % fdlh lsok ds cnys nh tkus okyh ,d fufpr /kujkfk] tSls vnkyrEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 91
  • 95. esa dksbZ nLrkost nk;j djus ds fy, QhlA 14) Qh flEiy % fdlh okLrfod laifÙk ds LokfeRo dk og vR;kf/kd laiw.kZ vlhfer Lo:i tks orZeku Lokeh dh e`R;q ds lkFk lekIr gks tkrk gS ;fn mldk dksbZ okfjl u gksA 15) Qh oscj % dksVZ Qhl dk Hkqxrku u djus dh vkKkA cgqr de vk; okys yksx dksVZ DydZ ls Qh&oscj QkeZ dh ekax dj ldrs gSaA 16) QSyuh % dksbZ xaHkhj vijk/k ftlds fy, ,d o"kZ ls vf/kd dh tsy dh ltk vFkok Qkalh dh ltk nh tk ldrh gSA 17) QSyuh eMZj % pksjh] MdSrh vFkok vigj.k tSls nq"deks± ds nkSjku dh xbZ gR;kA 18) fQMqfk;jh % og O;fDr tks fdlh nwljs ds ykHk ds fy, dk;Z djrk gS tSls VªLVh vFkok laj{kdA bldk vFkZ ml fo"k;&oLrq ls Hkh gS tks VªLV vFkok fookl ij vk/kkfjr gksA 19) QhYM lksCjkbZVh VSLV % eksVj fLdyt VSLV ds iz;ksx }kjk ;g lqfufpr djus dk ,d <ax fd fdlh O;fDr us ukk dj j[kk gS ;k ugha] tks pkyd dh cksyus dh lkeF;Z rFkk @ vFkok mldh kkjhfjd voLFkk ls ij[kk tkrk gSA 20) fQ¶Fk veSaMeSaV % vU; vf/kdkjksa ds lkFk&lkFk] la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds lafo/kku esa ikapoka lakks/ku bl ckr dh xkjaVh nsrk gS fd fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes esa vius f[kykQ xokgh nsus ds fy, etcwj ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA 21) QkbZy % tc dksZ O;fDr vf/kdkfjd rkSj ij dksbZ nLrkost dksVZ DydZ dks nsrk gS rks og nLrkost ml eqdíes ds fjdkMZ dk vax cu tkrk gSA 22) QkbZUM fxYVh % fdlh tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My }kjk fdlh izfroknh dk nks"k fufpr dj mls nks"kh ?kksf"kr djukA 23) Qkb±fMax % tc dksbZ U;kf;d vf/kdkjh vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My ;g dgs fd veqd ckr lR; gSA 24) QkbZfMaxl % izek.k ij iqufoZpkj ds ckn fdlh tt }kjk ekSf[kd vFkok fyf[kr odrO; ftlesa dgk tkrk gS fd isk fd, x, rF; lR; gSaAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 92
  • 96. 25) QkbZu % og /ku jkfk tks fdlh O;fDr dks dksbZ voS/k dk;Z djus vFkok og dk;Z u djus ds fy,] ftls djus ds fy, og mÙkjnk;h Fkk] dh ltk ds :i esa pqdkuh vko;d gksrh gSA 26) fQaxjfizaV % euq"; dh maxfy;ksa ds fljs ij js[kkvksa ds fHké&fHké uewus ftudk iz;ksx vkijkf/kd eqdíeksa esa igpku j[kus dh fof/k ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gSA 27) Qk;jvkeZ % og gfFk;kj tks ck:n dh kfDr ls dk;Z djrk gS] tSls jkbZQy] kkVxu vFkok fjokYojA 28) QLV vih;jSal % fxj¶rkj fd, x, fdlh iq:"k vFkok L=kh dh fdlh tt ds le{k] ;g fufpr djus ds fy, fd D;k mldh fxj¶rkjh ds fy, laHkkfor dkj.k gS] igyh ckj mifLFkfrA lkekU; rkSj ij ml O;fDr dks fxj¶rkjh ds dqN gh ?kaVksa da vanj tt ds le{k isk fd;k tkrk gS tgka mls mlds fo:) vkjkiksa rFkk mlds vf/kdkjksa ls voxr djk;k tkrk gS tSls izkFkfed lquokbZ dk vf/kdkj] odhy dh lsok ysus dk vf/kdkj rFkk tekur dk vf/kdkjA bl le; dksbZ nyhy ugha lquh tkrh gSA 29) fQVuSl gh;fjax % og vnkyrh lquokbZ ftlesa ;g fufpr fd;k tkrk gS fd D;k fdlh cPps ds fo:) ,d O;Ld ds :i esa eqdík pyk;k tk ldrk gSA 30) QkslhZcy ,s.M % dksbZ Hkh ,slk nq"deZ tks LoHkkfod rkSj ij rFkk ftls djus ds <ax ls ,sVªksfk;l ØkbZe Hk;Hkhr djrk gS vFkok ftlds ckjs esa izfroknh dks mfpr rkSj ij fookl gS fd mlls e`R;q vFkok xaHkhj kkjhfjd gkfu igqapkbZ tk ldrh gSA gR;k] vax&Hkax] cykRdkj rFkk MdSrh vkfn lHkh cykr~ rFkk Øwj vijk/k gSA 31) QkslhZcy ,saVª ,s.M % lkekU;r;k bldk laa/k ml laf{kIr dk;Zokgh ls gS tks fdlh ,sls O;fDr fMVsuj dks Hkwfe dk dCtk iqu% okfil fnykus ds fy, dh tkrh gS] ftlls og vU;k;iw.kZ <ax ls gfFk;k yh xbZ FkhA 32) QksjDykst+j % og izfØ;k ftlds }kjk fxjoh j[kh xbZ laifÙk dks mlds Lokeh }kjk dtZ pqdkus esa pwd ds dkj.k csp fn;k tkrk gSA 33) QksjQhV % xaok nsuk vFkok fdlh oLrq ds izfr vf/kdkjdks xaok nsukA VªSfQdEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 93
  • 97. dkuwu ds vUrxZr nks"k&LohdkjksfDr ds lk/ku dks xaok nsuk rFkk eqdíes dks can djus ds fy, tekur dh iwjh jkfk dk Hkqxrku djukA 34) QksjQhpj % tc fdlh O;fDr ds fy, /ku vFkok laifÙk dk ifjR;kx vko;d gksrk gS D;ksafd ml iq:"k @ L=kh us viuh oS/kkfud ftEesnkjh dks ugha fuHkk;kA 35) QkstZjh % fdlh O;fDr }kjk viuh fy[kkbZ dks fdlh vU; dh fy[kkbZ gksus dk nkok djukA 36) QkSeZy izkscsku % fdlh ltk dh ctk, vnkyr }kjk fdlh izfroknh ij yxkbZ xbZ krs±A QkSeZy izkscsku ds vUrxZr izfroknh fdlh izkscsku vf/kdkjh ds fujh{k.k esa jgrk gSA lejh izkscsku esa dksbZ izkscsku vf/kdkjh kkfey ugha gksrk gS] izfroknh lh/kk vnkyr ds izfr mÙkjnk;h gksrk gSA 37) Qksje uku dUohfu;al % og fl)kar tks vnkyr ds ml vf/kdkj ij vk/kkfjr gS ftlds vuqlkj vnkyr vius mfpr vf/kdkjksa dk iz;ksx djrs gq, vius dk;Z {ks=k esa eqdíeksa dh la[;k esa o`f) djus ls badkj dj ldrk gSA gkykafd dk;Zokgh ds LFkku ij lkjs izca/k gSa] D;ksafd eqdíeksa ls lacaf/kr yksxksa rFkk xokgksa dh lqfo/kk dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, rFkk U;k; ds fgr esa eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh fdlh vU; Qksje esa kq: dh tkuh pkfg, tgka og dk;Z gqvk gksA 38) QkSLVj ds;j % og dk;ZØe ftlds vUrxZr fdlh O;fDr] ifjokj vFkok laLFkk dks fdlh vU; ds cPps dk ikyu iks"k.k ds fy, /kujkfk nh tkrh gSA 39) QkÅaMsku % fdlh Vªk;y esa dqN fufpr izdkj ds izek.kksa dh Lohdkjrk ds fy, vk/kkj dh LFkkiuk dh tkuh pkfg,A mnkgj.k ds fy, fdlh ekfgj dh xokgh dks Lohdkj djus ls igys mldh kS{kf.kd ;ksX;rk dks iznfkZr fd;k tkuk pkfg,A 40) QksVhZUFk veSaMeSaV % vU; fo"k;ksa ds vfrfjDr] la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds lafo/kku esa 14oka lakks/ku fcuk mfpr izfØ;k ds jkT; }kjk fdlh dk thou] Lora=krk vFkok laifÙk Nhuus ij izfrca/k yxkrk gSA 41) ÝkSM % bjkns ds lkFk fdlh dks /kks[kk nsuk ftlls mls vkfFkZd gkfu gksAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 94
  • 98. English/Hindi Legal Glossary 95
  • 99. ------G----- 1. GAG ORDER - Orders restraining parties and counsel to a criminal proceeding from talking about the case to the press or public. 2. GAMBLING - The act of staking money, or other thing of value, on an uncertain event or outcome. 3. GARNISH - To withhold a debtors money, and turn it over to another in order to pay a debt. Typically, the one withholding the money is the debtors employer. 4. GARNISHMENT - A legal process that allows part of a persons wages or property to be withheld for payment of a debt. 5. GENERAL ASSIGNMENT - The voluntary transfer, by a debtor, of all property to a trustee for the benefit of all of his or her creditors. 6. GENERAL JURISDICTION - Refers to courts that have no limit on the types of criminal and civil cases they may hear. 7. GLUE SNIFFING - The act of inhaling glue in order "to get high." 8. GOOD CAUSE - A good reason. For example, a person must have good cause (better than not having a car or a baby-sitter ) for not coming to a court hearing. 9. GOOD FAITH - An honest belief, the absence of malice, and the absence of design to defraud. 10. GOOD SAMARITAN RULE - One who assists a person in imminent and serious danger, though negligence of another cannot be charged with negligence in attempting a rescue. 11. GOOD TIME - A reduction in sentenced time in custody as a reward for good behavior. It usually is one-third to one-half off the maximum sentence. 12. GRAND JURY - A group of 16 to 23 citizens that listen to the prosecutors evidence of criminal allegations and decide whether there is probable cause to believe a person committed a crime and to charge them with that crime. 13. GRAND THEFT - Taking and carrying away the personal property of another person of a value in excess of an amount set by law with the intent to deprive the owner or possessor of it permanently. 14. GRANTOR OR SETTLOR - The person who sets up a trust. 15. GREAT BODILY INJURY – Injury which involves a substantial risk of death, serious permanent disfigurement, or loss of function of any part of an organ of the body. Is a graver and more serious than ordinary battery. 16. GROSS NEGLIGENCE – A negligent act(s) which is reckless or flagrant and which is such a departure from conduct of an ordinary, prudent person under the same circumstances as to be contrary to a proper regard for human life or to constitute indifference to the consequences of those acts. The facts must be such that the consequences of the negligent act(s) could reasonably have been foreseen and it must appear that the death/danger to human life was not the result ofEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 96
  • 100. inattention or mistaken judgment, but the natural and probable result of reckless or flagrantly negligent act. 17. GROUNDS - A foundation or basis; points relied on. 18. GUARDIAN - A person appointed by will or by law to assume responsibility for incompetent adults or minor children. If a parent dies, this will usually be the other parent. If both die, it probably will be a close relative. In Juvenile Dependency cases, once a guardian is appointed, dependency may be terminated. 19. GUARDIAN AD LITEM - An adult appointed by a court who represents a minor child or legally incompetent person. (See also AD LITEM). 20. GUARDIANSHIP - A court proceeding where a judge chooses someone to care for a person under age 18 or to manage the minors estate (property), or both. In some states, conservatorship of an adult is called guardianship, but not in California. (Compare with CONSERVATORSHIP.) 21. GUILTY - A court decision that a defendant committed a crime. 22. GUILTY PLEA - When a person admits in court that he or she is guilty of a crime.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 97
  • 101. 1) eSx vkMZj % fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes ls lacaf/kr i{kksa rFkk odhyksa ij izSl vFkok vke turk ds lkFk eqdíes ds ckjs esa ckr djus ij ikcanhA 2) xSacfyax % fdlh vfufpr ?kVuk vFkok ifj.kke ij nko ds :i esa /ku vFkok dksbZ ewY;oku oLrq yxkukA 3) xkfuZk % dtZ pqdrk djus ds fy, fdlh dtZnkj dh /kujkfk dks jksd dj fdlh nwljs dks nsukA bldk foks"k mnkgj.k dtZnkj dks ukSdjh nsus okyk mldh /ku jkfk dks jksdukA 4) xkfuZkeSaV % og dkuwuh izfØ;k ftlds vUrxZr fdlh O;fDr ds osru vFkok laifÙk dk dqN Hkkx dks dtZ ds Hkqxrku ds fy, jksdus dh vuqefr gksrh gSA 5) tujy vlkbueSaV % fdlh dtZnkj }kjk LosPNk ls viuh lkjh laifÙk dks fdlh VªLVh ds uke gLrkaf=kr djuk rkfd og mlds lHkh ysunkjksa dk Hkqxrku dj ldsA 6) tujy twfjlfMDku % bldk laca/k mu vnkyrksa ls gS ftuds }kjk lqus tkus okys nhokuh vFkok vkijkf/kd eqdíeksa dh fdLeksa dh dksbZ lhek ugha gksrhA 7) Xyw fLufQax % egRoiw.kZ fn[kkbZ nsus ds fy, Lokl }kjk ljsl dk lsou djukA 8) xqM dkSy % ,d vPNk dkj.kA mnkgj.k ds fy, fdlh O;fDr ds ikl vnkyr esa vuqifLFkr jgus dk vPNk dkj.k gksuk pkfg,A 9) xqM QsFk % ,d bZekunkjh iw.kZ fookl] nqHkkZouk rFkk /kks[kk/kM+h dh ;kstuk dh vuqifLFkfrA 10) xqM lekfjVu :y % og O;fDr tks fdlh dh izR;{k rFkk xaHkhj [krjs ds le; lgk;rk djrk gS ;|fi cpko ds iz;kl esa fdlh nwljs dh vlko/kkuh ds fy, ml ij vlko/kkuh dk vkjksi ugha yxk;k tk ldrk gSA 11) xqM VkbZe % vPNs O;ogkj ds ikfjrksf"kd ds :i esa tsy esa fgjklr dh vof/k esa dehA blds }kjk vR;kf/kd ltk esa ,d&frgkbZ ls ysdj vk/kh ltk de dj nh tkrh gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 98
  • 102. 12) iw.kZ fu.kkZ;de.My % 16 ls 23 ukxfjdksa dk ,d lewg tks fdlh O;fDr ds fo:) yxk, x, vkijkf/kd nks"kksa ds ckjs esa vfHk;kstd ds izek.kksa dks ;g tkuus ds fy, lqurs gSa fd D;k ml O;fDr us dksbZ vijk/k fd;k gS vkSj ml ij nks"kkjksi.k djrs gSaA 13) cM+h pksjh % dkuwu ds }kjk fufpr ewY; ls vf/kd ewY; dh fdlh vU; dh laifÙk dks /kkjd dks lnk ds fy, blls oafpr djus dh n`f"V ls mBk dj ys tkuk 14) laLFkkid % fdlh fudk; dh LFkkiuk djus okyk O;fDr 15) xaHkhj kkjhfjd ?kko % ,slk ?kko ftlls e`R;q dk [krjk gks] xaHkhj fLFkj dq:irk] ;k kjhj ds fdlh vax }kjk dke can dj nsus dk [krjk jgrk gSA ;g lk/kkj.k pksV ls vf/kd xaHkhj gksrk gSA 16) ?kksj ykijokgh % ykijokgh dk og dk;Z tks vfopkjh vkSj keZukd gks tks leku ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ,d lk/kkj.k O;fDr ds O;ogkj ls iw.kZr% fHké vkSj ekuo thou ds fo:) vFkok ml dk;Z ds ifj.kke ds izfr ykijokghA ftldk iwokZuqeku yxk;k tk ldrk Fkk vkSj ,slk izrhr gksuk pkfg, fd e`R;qA eqR;q ds [krjs dk dkj.k vlko/kkuh vFkok xyr fu.kZ; ugha Fkk cfYd bldk dkj.k keZukd ;k ?kksj ykijokgh dk dk;Z FkkA 17) vk/kkj % uhao] os rdZ ftu ij Hkjkslk fd;k x;k gksA 18)/ laj{kd % LosPNk vFkok dkuwu }kjk cPpksa vFkok v{ke O;Ld O;fDr;ksa ds fy, 19) mRrjnkf;Ro laHkkyus okyk O;fDrA ekrk&firk esa ls fdlh ,d dh e`R;q ds ckn nwljk vDlj laj{kd gksrk gSA ;fn nksuksa dh e`R;q gks tk, rks laHkor% dksbZ fudV laca/kh laj{kd gksxkA cPpksa dh fuHkZjrk ds ekeyksa esa ,d ckj laj{kd dh fu;qfDr ds ckn fuHkZjrk dks lekIr dj fn;k tkrk gSA 20) ,-dh- fyV~Ve % fdlh U;k;ky; }kjk fdlh fkkq vFkok dkuwuh rkSj ls v{ke O;fDr dk izfrfuf/kRo djus ds fu;qDr fd;k x;k O;Ld O;fDrA vnkyrh dk;ZokghEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 99
  • 103. esa tc fdlh O;fDr dks 18 o"kZ ls de vk;q ds cPpksa dh tk;nknA laifRr vFkok nksuksa dk /;ku j[kus ds fy, fu;qDr djrk gSA dqN jkT;ksa esa O;Ldksa }kjk j{k djus dks laj{k.k dgk tkrk gSA ijUreq dSyhQksfju;k esa ughaA 21) nks"kh % vnkyr dk fu.kZ; fd cpkodÙkkZ us vijk/k fd;k FkkA 22) nks"k dh LohdkjksfDr % vnkyr esa fdlh iq:"k ;k L=kh }kjk vijk/k djus dh ckr dks Lohdkj djukAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 100
  • 104. -----H----- 1. HABEAS CORPUS - The name of a writ used to bring a person before a court or judge to decide whether that person is being unlawfully denied his or her freedom. The term comes from Latin. 2. HANDCUFFS - Chains or shackles for the hands to secure prisoners. 3. HARASSMENT - Words, gestures, and actions which tend to annoy, alarm, and verbally abuse another person. 4. HARMLESS ERROR - An error committed during a trial that was corrected or was not serious enough to affect the outcome of a trial and therefore was not sufficiently harmful (prejudicial) to be reversed on appeal. 5. HARVEY WAIVER – The facts, relating to a charge that was dismissed as part of a plea bargain, are “related to” the particular charge for which the minor is being sentenced may be considered at the time of disposition. 6. HEARING - A formal court proceeding with the judge and opposing sides present, but no jury. 7. HEARING, CONTESTED - A hearing held for the purpose of deciding issues or fact of law that both parties are disputing. 8. HEARING DE NOVO - A full, new hearing. 9. HEARING, PRELIMINARY - The hearing given to person accused of crime, by a magistrate or judge, to determine whether there is enough evidence to warrant the confinement and holding to bail the person accused. 10. HEARSAY - Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question, but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay usually cant be used as evidence in court. 11. HEIR - A person that has the right to inherit money or property from someone who dies without a will. 12. HIT AND RUN - Crime in which the driver of a vehicle leaves the scene of an accident without identifying himself or herself. 13. HITCH MOTION - A request to exclude evidence. 14. HOLDING CELL - A temporary location inside a courthouse where prisoners are held before and after their court appearance. 15. HOLOGRAPHIC WILL - A handwritten will. The court needs to see proof of the persons handwriting. No one has to witness or notarize a handwritten will. 16. HOME MONITORING - An alternative to imprisonment where an individual is confined to his or her home and monitored electronically. 17. HOME SUPERVISION – Temporary house arrest for a minor while awaiting the court’s final decision. Also used as punishment after the court’s final decision. 18. HOMICIDE - The unlawful killing of one human being by another.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 101
  • 105. 19. HOSTILE WITNESS - A witness whose testimony is not favorable to the party who calls him or her as a witness. May be asked leading questions and may be cross-examined by the party who calls him or her to the stand. 20. HUNG JURY - A jury whose members cannot agree upon a verdict. 21. HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION - An imaginary situation, using facts previously admitted into evidence, upon which an expert witness is permitted to give an opinion as to a condition resulting from the situation.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 102
  • 106. 1) gSfc;l dkSjil % ,sls vknskksa dk uke ftldk iz;ksx fdlh O;fDr dks vnkyr vFkok tt ds le{k ;g fu.kZ; djus ds fy, fd mls xSj dkuwuh <ax ls Lora=krk ls oafpr fd;k tk jgk gSA ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gSA 2) gFkdM+h % dSfn;ksa dks dkcw esa j[kus ds fy, gkFkksa esa Mkyh tkus okyh tathj 3) ijskkuh % ,sls kCn] ladsr vkSj dk;Z ftuls fdlh vU; dks [kh> gks vkSj ok.kh }kjk fdlh vU; dks xkfy;ka nsukA 4) gkfujfgr Hkwy % eqdíesa dh lquokbZ ds nkSjku dh xbZ ,slh Hkwy ftls lq/kkj fy;k x;k vFkok tks eqdíes ds ifj.kke dks izHkkfor djus ds fy, vf/kd vihy ds ckn cnyuk iM+sA 5) gkjos osoj % [kkfjt fd, x, nks"k ls lacaf/kr rF; ftu ij fdlh ckyd ds nks"k ds fy, ltk nsrs le; nyhyksa ds :i esa fopkj fd;k tk ldrk gSA 6) lquokbZ % fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fcuk tt rFkk ijLij fojks/kh i{kksa dh mifLFkfr esa vnkyr dh vkSipkfjr dk;ZokghA 7) lquokbZ ds fo:) % fdUgha ,sls eqíksa vFkok dkuwuh rF;ksa ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; nsus ds fy, dh rdZ xbZ lquokbZ ftu ij nksuksa i{kksa esa erHksn gksaA 8) gh;fjax Mh uksoks % iw.kZ :i ls u, fljs ls lquokbZ ¼ubZ lquokbZ½ 9) izkjafHkd lquokbZ % fdlh eftLVªsV ;k tt }kjk ;g tkuus ds fy, fd nks"kh O;fDr dks fgjklr esa j[kus ;k tekur ij fjgk djus ds fy, D;k i;kZIr izek.k gSa] nks"kh dh ckr dks lquukA 10) lquh&lqukbZ ckr % fdlh ,sls xokg dk C;ku ftlus ?kVuk dks Lo;a ugha ns[kk vkSj u gh lquk cfYd mldks ?kVuk dh tkudkjh fdlh vU; ls izkIr gqbZA lquh&lqukbZ ckr dks vDlj vnkyr esa Xokgh ds :i esa Lohdkj ugha fd;k tkrk gSA 11) mÙkjkf/kdkjh % dksbZ ,slk O;fDr tks fdlh dh fcuk fojklrukek fy[ks e`R;q ds ckn mlds /ku vkSj laifÙk dks fojklr esa ikus dk vf/kdkjh gksA 12) VDdj ekj dj Hkkx % ,slk vijk/k ftlesa fdlh okgu dk pkyd iq:"k@L=kh viuh igpkuEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 103
  • 107. tkuk crk, fcuk nq?kZVuk okys LFkku ls pyk tk,A 13) fgp eksku % xokgh dks lfEefyr u djus ds fy, izkFkZuk 14) gksfYMax lSy % vnkyr Hkou ds vanj ,d vLFk;h txg tgka dSfn;ksa dks vnkyr esa iskh ls igys vkSj ckn esa j[kk tkrk gSA % 15) gksyksxzkfQd foy % gLrfyf[kr fojklrukekA vnkyr dks ml O;fDr dh fy[kbZ dk izek.k ns[kuk iM+rk gSA fojklr ukes ds ckjs esa fdlh dh xokgh vFkok ntZ djokus dh vko;drk ugha gksrh gSA 16) gkse eksuhVfjax ¼?kjsyw % tsy dk oSdfYid LFkku tgka fdlh iq:"k@L=kh dks vius gh ?kj esa fujh{k.k½ fgjklr esa j[kk tkrk gS vkSj bysDVªksfud ek/;e ls ml ij utj j[kh tkrh gSA 17) gkse lqijoht+u % vnkyr ds vafre fu.kZ; vkus rd fdlh ckyd dks vLFkkbZ utjcanh@vnkyr ds vafre fu.kZ; ds ckn ltk ds :i esa Hkh bldk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 18) gksehlkbZM ¼uj&gR;k½ % fdlh euq"; dh fdlh nwljs euq"; }kjk xSj&dkuwuh :i ls gR;kA 19) gkSLVkbZy foVuSl % ,d ,sls iq:"k@L=kh dh xokgh tks mls xokgh ds fy, cqykus okys ds ¼fojks/kh xokg½ i{k esa u gksA mlls t:jh izu iwNs tk ldrs gSa rFkk mls xokgh ds fy, cqykus okyk i{k mlls ftjg dj ldrk gSA 20) gax twjh % ,slk fu.kkZ;d e.My ftlds lnL; fdlh QSlys ij lger u gksaA 21) gkbZiksFkSVhdy izu % igys nh xbZ xokgh esa Lohd`r rF;ksa }kjk fufeZr ,slh ifjfLFkfr ftlds vk/kkj ij ml ifjfLFkfr ls mRiUu nkk ds ckjs esa ekfgj xokg ds fopkj fy, tkus dh vuqefr gksrh gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 104
  • 108. ----I----- 1. IDIOCY- It is the complete absence of mind that is generally the result of a birth defect rather than a disease. 2. IGNORANCE OF FACT- The lack of knowledge of some fact or facts relating to the subject matter at hand. May sometimes be used as a defense or ground for relief. 3. ILLEGAL - Against, or not authorized by law. 4. IMMINENT PERIL – Certain, immediate, and impending danger. 5. IMMUNITY - A right to be excepted from duty or penalty. (See also PRIVILEGE.) 6. IMPANEL - To seat a jury. When voir dire is finished and both sides have exercised their challenges, the jury is impaneled. The jurors are sworn in and the trial is ready to proceed. 7. IMPEACHMENT OF WITNESS - To call into question the truthfulness of a witness. 8. IMPLIED – Where intention is not manifested by explicit words, but is gathered by implication. 9. IMPLIED CONTRACT - A contract in which the promise made by on party is not expressed, but inferred by that partys conduct or is implied in law. 10. IMPOUND - To take and keep an animal or an object in custody. 11. IMPRISONMENT – The act of putting or confining a man in prison, or the restraint of a man’s personal liberty. 12. INADMISSIBLE - Cannot be admitted as evidence in a trial or hearing. 13. IN CAMERA - A hearing held in the judges chambers or in a court with all spectators (including the jury) excluded. From the Latin that means "in chamber.” 14. INCAPACITY - The lack of power or the legal ability to act. 15. INCARCERATE - To put in jail or prison. 16. INCEST - Sexual intercourse between persons so closely related that marriage between them would be unlawful. 17. INCOMPETENCY - Lack of capacity to understand the nature and object of the proceedings, to consult with counsel, and to assist in preparing a defense. 18. INCRIMINATE - To hold yourself or another person responsible for criminal actions. 19. INDECENT EXPOSURE - Showing private body parts in a lewd or indecent manner in a public place. 20. NDEMNIFY - Liability for loss is shifted from one person held legally responsible to another. 21. INDEMNITY - An obligation to provide compensation (usually money) for a loss, hurt or damage.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 105
  • 109. 22. NDEPENDENT EXECUTOR - A special kind of executor, permitted by the laws of certain states, who performs the duties of an executor without intervention by the court. 23. INDETERMINATE SENTENCE - A sentence of imprisonment to a specified minimum and maximum period of time, specifically authorized by statute, subject to termination by a parole board or other authorized agency after the prisoner has served the minimum term. 24. INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT (ICWA) - Federal law to protect the integrity of Indian families. 25. INDICTMENT - A formal charge by a grand jury saying there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial. Used primarily for felonies. 26. INDIGENT - A person who is poor, needy, and has no one to look to for support. 27. INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PLAN (IEP): Plan for a student who is entitled to special education services. 28. INDORSEMENT - That which is written on the back of a negotiable instrument. It is also used with reference to writs, insurance policies, certificates of stocks, etc. 29. IN FORMA PAUPERIS - When the court says a person does not have to pay a filing fee because the person cant afford it. In Latin, means "in the manner of a pauper.” 30. INFORMANT - An undisclosed person who confidentially discloses material information of a crime to the police, which is usually done in exchange for a reward or special treatment. 31. INFORMATION - A written accusation charging a person with a crime. It is presented in court by a prosecuting officer under oath and does not come from a grand jury. 32. NFRACTION - A minor violation of a law, contract, or right that is not a misdemeanor or a felony and cant be punished by time in prison. Minor traffic offenses are generally considered infractions. 33. INHABITED – Act of residing actually and permanently in a given place or dwelling. Synonymous with domicile, dwell, live, sojourn. 34. INHABITED DWELLING – A structure which is currently used as a residence whether occupied or not. Courts flexibly interpret this term. It is still inhabited even if the occupants are temporarily absent. 35. INHERITANCE TAX - A state tax on property that an heir or beneficiary under a will receives from a deceased persons estate. The heir or beneficiary pays this tax. 36. INITIAL APPEARANCE - In criminal law, the hearing at which a judge determines whether there is sufficient evidence against a person charged with a crime to hold him or her for trial. The Constitution bans secret accusations, so initial appearances are public unless the defendant asks otherwise; the accused must be present, though he or she usually does not offer evidence. Also called FIRST APPEARANCE. 37. INJUNCTION - A court order that says a defendant cant perform, or must perform, a specific act. (See RESTRAINING ORDER.) 38. IN LOCO PARENTIS - Latin meaning "in the place of the parent." Refers to actions of a custodian, guardian, or other person acting in the parents place.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 106
  • 110. 39. INMATE - A person confined to a prison, penitentiary, or jail. 40. INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY - A belief in the American legal system which states that all people accused of a criminal act are considered not to have committed the crime until the evidence leaves no doubt in the mind of the court or the jury that the accused did or did not commit the crime. 41. IN PERSONAM - An act or proceeding done or directed against or with reference to a specific person. 42. IN PROPIA PERSONA (IN PRO PER) - When a person represents himself or herself without a lawyer. This comes from the Latin for "in ones own proper person." (See also PRO PER AND PRO SE.) 43. IN REM - A procedural term used to designate proceedings or actions instituted against the thing in contrast to actions instituted IN PERSONAM or against the person. 44. INSANITY PLEA - A claim by a defendant that he or she lacks the soundness of mind required by law to accept responsibility for a criminal act. 45. INSTRUCTIONS - The explanation of constitutional rights given by a judge to a defendant. 46. INTANGIBLE ASSETS - Property that you own, but do not physically have. For example, stocks, bonds, bank accounts, copyrights, patents, etc. 47. INTENT - The purpose to use a particular means to bring about a certain result. 48. INTENT TO DEFRAUD –To have in mind a purpose to cheat or trick someone. For example, purposely writing a bad check. 49. INTER ALIA - Among other things. 50. INTER VIVOS GIFT - A gift made during the givers life. 51. INTER VIVOS TRUST - A trust made while the owner is still alive. Another name for a living trust. 52 INTERLINEATIONS - The act of writing between the lines of a document. 53. INTERLOCUTORY - Provisional; not final. An interlocutory appeal concerns only a part of the issues raised in a lawsuit. (Compare to DECREE.) 54. INTERPLEADER - When two or more people say they have a claim to the same thing held by a third party. The third party may force them to go to trial with each other to settle their dispute. 55. INTERPRETER - A person who is certified as being able to translate, orally or in writing, spoken or sign language into the common language of the court. 56. NTERROGATORIES - Written questions asked by one party in a lawsuit for which the opposing party must answer them in writing. 57. INTERVENOR - A person who voluntarily interrupts in an action or other proceeding with the leave of the court.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 107
  • 111. 58. INTERVENTION - An action by which a third person who may be affected by a lawsuit is permitted to become a party to the suit. Differs from the process of becoming an AMICUS CURIAE. 59. INTESTACY LAWS - See DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION STATUTES. 60. INTESTATE - To die without making a will or leaving instructions for disposal of your property after death. (See TESTATE.) 61. NTESTATE SUCCESSION - The process by which the property of a person who has died without a will passes on to others according to state law. 62. INTOXICATION – A diminished ability to act with full mental and physical capabilities because of alcohol or drug consumption; drunkenness. 63. INTRODUCTORY INSTRUCTIONS – Pre-trial admonitions or statements by judge or other court official that explain to the jury, lawyers, and/ or audience their duties, and obligations during court proceedings. 64. INVESTIGATION - A legal inquiry to discover and collect facts concerning a certain matter. 65. INVOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER – The unlawful killing of a human being in which there is no intention to kill or do grievous bodily harm, but that is committed with criminal negligence or during the commission of a crime not included within the felony murder rule. (Also called negligent manslaughter.) 66. INVOLUNTARY INTOXICATION – The ingestion of alcohol or drugs against one’s will or without ones knowledge. This may be used as an affirmative defense to a criminal negligence charge. 67. IRRELEVANT - Evidence not sufficiently related to the matter at issue. 68. IRREVOCABLE TRUST - A trust that cannot be changed or cancelled after it is made. 69. ISSUE - 1) The disputed point in a disagreement between parties in a lawsuit. 2) To send out officially, as when a court issues an order.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 108
  • 112. 1) bZfM;kslh ¼tM+rk½ % ;g ckSf)d kfä dh iw.kZ vfLrRoghurk gS tks vDlj fdlh chekjh dh vis{kk tUetkr =kqfV ds dkj.k gksrh gSA 2) rF; dh vufHkKrk % ;g gkFk esa fy, x, fo"k;&oLrq ls lacaf/kr rF;ksa dh tkudkjh dh deh gSA dHkh&dHkh bldk mi;ksx cpko vFkok jkgr izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk gSA 3) xSj&dkuwuh % dkuwu ds fo:) vFkok dkuwu }kjk vuf/kd`r 4) Li"V [krjk % rkRdkfyd ,oa Hkfo"; esa gksus okyk fufpr [krjk 5) bE;fuVh izfrj{kk % dÙkZO; vFkok n.M ls cpus dk vf/kdkjA 6) bEiSuy % fu.kkZ;d e.My dk xgu djukA nksuksa i{kksa ds }kjk viuk&viuk nkok isk fd, tkus ds ckn fu.kkZ;d e.My dk xBu fd;k tkrk gSA fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dks kiFk fnykbZ tkrh gS vkSj eqdíek vkxs c<+us ds fy, rS;kj gksrk gSA 7) bEihpeSaV vkWQ % xokg ds lR;oknh gksus ij izu mBkukA foVuSl 8) bEiykbZM ¼vUrj % tgka mís; dh tkudkjh Li"V kCnksa ls ugha cfYd rkRi;Z ls gksrh gSA fufgr½ 9) bEiykbZM dkUVªSDV % ,slk le>kSrk ftlesa fdlh ,d i{k }kjk fn;k x;k opu kCnksa esa O;Dr ugha gksrk cfYd ml i{k ds O;ogkj ls bldk vuqeku yxk;k tkrk gS ;k dkuwu esa fufgr gksrk gSA 10) bEikaÅM ¼tCr % fdlh ikq vFkok fdlh oLrq dks ys tkdj fgjklr esa j[kukA djuk½ 11) bfEiztueSaV ¼tsy esa % fdlh O;fDr dks tsy esa can djuk vFkok mldh O;fDrxr Lora=krk ij cn djuk½ jksd yxkukA 12) bu,sMfelhcy % fdlh eqdíesa esa ftls xokgh ds rkSj ij Lohdkj ugha fd;k tk ldrk ¼vekU;½ gSA 13) bu&dSejk ¼can dejs % tt ds pSEcj vFkok vnkyr ds dejs esa lquokbZ tgka nkZd rFkk esa½ fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL; mifLFkr u gksaAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 109
  • 113. 14) vleFkZrk % dk;Z djus ds fy, vko;d kfDr ;k dkuwuh lkeF;Z dh dehA 15) budkjkcsV ¼canh % tsy ;k dSn[kkus esa MkyukA cukuk½ 16) bulSLV % nks ,sls fudV lacaf/k;ksa ds chp ySafxd laHkksx ftuds chp fookg dkuwuh :i ls voS/k gSA 17) budEihVSalh % eqdís ds :i vkSj mís; dks le>us dh odhy ds lkFk fopkj&foekZ ¼v;ksX;rk½ djus dh vkSj cpko ds fy, vk/kkj rS;kj djus dh vleFkZrk 18) bufØeh usV % vkijkf/kd dk;ks± ds fy, Lo;a vFkok fdlh vU; dks ftEesokj BgjkukA ¼nks"kkjksi.k½ 19) buMhlSaV ,sDlikst+j % lkoZtfud LFkku ij kjhj ds xqIrkaxksa dk dkeqd vFkok vHknz iznkZu 20) buMSeuhQkbZ % dkuwu }kjk gkfu ds fy, mÙkjnk;h O;fDr ds mRrjnkf;Ro dks fdlh nwljs O;fDr ij MkyukA 21) bugSefuVh % fdlh gkfu] pksV ;k uqdlku ds cnys eqvkotk ¼vke rkSj ij /ku½ pqdkus dh ftEesnkjhA 22) Lora=k izca/kd % dqN jkT;ksa ds fu;eksa }kjk vuqefr izkIr foks"k izdkj dk izca/kd tks vnkyr dh n[kyvankth ds fcuk izca/kd ds dÙkZO;ksa dk lapkyu djrk gSA 23) vfufpr ltk % dkuwu }kjk foks"k :i ls vf/kd`r de ls de vkSj vf/kd ls vf/kd vo/kh ds fy, tsy tkus dh ltk ftls canh }kjk de ls de vo/kh rd ltk dkV ysus ds ckn iSjkst cksMZ ;k fdlh vf/kd`r ,tsalh }kjk lekIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA 24) Hkkjrh; fkkq dY;k.k % Hkkjrh; ifjokjksa dh ,drk dks lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy, la?kh; dkuwuA dkuwu 25) bafMdVeSaV % iw.kZ fu.kkZ;d e.My dk oDrO; fd cpko dRrkZ us vijk/k fd;k Fkk ¼nks"kkjksi.k½ ftlds fy, i;kZIr izek.k gSa ftlds vk/kkj ij eqdíek pyk;k tk ldrk gSA izkFkfed rkSj ij ?kksj vijk/kksa ds fy, bldk iz;ksx fd;kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 110
  • 114. tkrk gSA 26) buMhtSaV ¼fu/kZu½ % ,slk O;fDr tks xjhc vkSj t:jrean gS vkSj tks fdlh dh vksj ls lgk;rk dh vkkk ugha j[krk gSA 27) O;fDrxr fk{kk % ,sls fo|kFkhZ ds fy, ;kstuk tks foks"k fk{kk lsokvksa dk vf/kdkjh gksA ;kstuk 28) i`"Bkadu % udnh esa ifjorZuh; nLrkostksa ds ihNs fy[kk gqvkA bldk iz;ksx vknskksa] chek ikfyfl;ksa] LFkd izek.k&i=kksa vkfn ds laca/k esa Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA 29) bu Qksjek ikSifjl % tc vnkyr ;g dgs fd fdlh O;fDr foks"k ds fy, eqdíek nk;j djus ds fy, Qhl tek djkus dh vko;drk ugha gS D;ksafd og ,slk djus esa vleFkZ gSA ykrhuh Hkk"kk esa bldk vFkZ gS ^,d xjhc ds :i esaA* 30) eq[kcj % ,d xqIr O;fDr tks fdlh vijk/k dh lwpuk xqIr :i ls iqfyl dksvDlj buke ikus ds cnys vFkok foks"k O;ogkj ds cnys nsrk gSA 31) lwpuk % fdlh O;fDr ds fo:) vijk/k dk fyf[kr nks"kkjksi.kA bls vnkyr esa vfHk;kstu vf/kdkjh dh vksj ls isk fd;k tkrk gS u fd iw.kZ fu.kkkZ;d e.My }kjkA 32) buQSDku % fdlh dkuwu] le>kSrs vFkok vf/kdkjh dk rqPN mYya?ku tks dksbZ nqjkpj.k ;k vijk/k ugha gS vkSj ftlds fy, dqN le; ds fy, tsy Hkstus dh ltk vko;d ugha gSA ;krk;kr ds NksVs&NksVs vijk/k blh Js.kh esa vkrs gSaA 33) bugSfcVsM % og <kapk tks orZeku esa fuokl ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA U;k;ky; bl kCn dh O;k[;;k cM+s yphys <ax ls djrs gSa ;fn blesa jgus okys vLFkk;h rkSj ij vuqifLFkr gksa rks Hkh ;g fuokl LFkku gh jgrk gSA 35) bugSjhVSal VSDl % olhgr ds vk/kkj ij fdlh okfjl dks e`rd dh tk;nkn esals tks laifÙk izkIr gksrh gS ml ij yxus okyk jkT; dk VSDlA ;g VSDl okfjl vFkok ykHk mBkus okys }kjk pqdk;k tkrk gSA 36) buhfk;y vih;jSal % vkijkf/kd dkuwu esa lquokbZ djus okyk tt ;g fufpr djrk gS fd vijk/k ds nks"kh ds fo:) eqdíek pykus ds fy, i;kZIr izek.k gS ;kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 111
  • 115. ughaA lafo/kku jgL;kRed nks"kkjksi.k ij ikacanh yxkrk gS] blfy, izkjafHkd lquokbZ lkoZtfud gksrh gS tc rd fd cpko i{k blds foijhr u pkgsA nks"kh iq:"k@L=kh dk mifLFkr jguk vko;d gS] ;|fi os dksbZ izek.k isk ugha djrs gSaA bls igyh lquokbZ Hkh dgrs gSaA 38) bu yksdks isjsafVl % bldk ykrhuh vFkZ gS] ^ekrk&firk ds LFkku ijA* bldk laca/k ekrk&firk ds LFkku ij vfHkHkkod] laj{kd ;k fdlh vU; O;fDr ds dk;Z&Dykiksa ls gSA 39) buesV % fdlh tsy esa can O;fDr 40) bUukslSaV lafVy izwou % vesfjdk dh dkuwuh izfØ;k esa ,d fookl gS fd os lHkh yksx ftu ij fxyVh vijk/k dk nks"k yxk;k x;k gks rc rd funksZ"k gksrs gSa tc rd izek.kksa ds vk/kkj ij vnkyr vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My ds eu esa mu O;fDr;ksa dks nks"kh vFkok funksZ"k gksus ds ckjs esa dksbZ lansg u jg tk,A 41) bu ijlksue % fdlh foks"k O;fDr ds laca/k esa ;k fo:) dh xbZ dk;Zokgh@ eqdíekA 42) bu izksfi;k ijlksuk % tc dksbZ iq:"k@L=kh fcuk odhy ds Lo;a isk gksrk gSA ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS] ^Lo;a vius O;fDrxr :iA* 43) bu jSe % izfØ;k laca/kh kCn ftldk iz;ksx O;fDrxr :i ls vkjaHk fd, x, fØ;k&dykikas ds LFkku ij ftl ckr ds fo:) dk;Zokgh ;k eqdíek pyk;k x;k gSA 44) bulsfuVh Iyh % fdlh iq:"k@L=kh cpko oxZ }kjk ;g nkok fd mleas vijk/k dh ftEesnkjh dks Lohdkj djus ds fy, vko;d fnekxh kfDr dh deh gSA 45) bUVªDku % tt }kjk cpkodÙkkZ dks laoS/kkfud vf/kdkjksa dh nh xbZ O;k[;kA 46) LikkZrhr laifÙk % og laifÙk ftlds vki Lokeh gS ijUrq HkkSfrd :i ls ;g vkids ikl ugha gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] LVkd ckSaM] cSad [kkrs] dkihjkbZV] isVsaV vkfnA 47) edln % fufpr ifj.kke izkIr djus ds fy, fdlh lk/ku foks"k dk iz;ksx djusEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 112
  • 116. dk mís; 48) /kks[kk/kM+h dk bjknk % fnekx esa Bxus dk mís; j[kukA mnkgj.k ds fy,] tku&cw> dj Qt+hZ pSd nsukA 49) baVj ,fy;k % vU; ckrksa esa 50) baVj fooksl fx¶V % nsus okys ds thoudky esa fn;k x;k rksgQk 51) baVj fooksl VªLV % Lokeh ds thoudky esa cukbZ xbZ VªLV 53) baVj yksD;wVjh % vLFkk;h] u fd vafreA ,d vLFkk;h vihy dk laca/k eqdíes ds ,d Hkkx ls gh gksrk gSA 54) baVj iyhMj % tc nks ;k nks ls vf/kd fdlh rhljs ds ikl iM+h oLrq ij viuk&viuk gd trk,aA rhljk i{k mUgsa vius >xM+s dk fuiVkjk djus ds fy, vnkyr esa eqdíek djus ds fy, etcwj dj ldrk gSA 55) nqHkkf"k;k % og O;fDr ftls mPpkfjr vFkok lkadsfrd Hkk"kk dk ok.kh }kjk vFkok fyf[kr :i esa vnkyr dh vke Hkk"kk esa vuqokn djus esa leFkZ gksus ds fy, izekf.kr fd;k x;k gksA 56) buVSjksxsVjht+ % eqdíes esa fdlh ,d i{k }kjk fyf[kr izu ftudk fyf[kr mÙkj nsuk fojks/kh i{k ds fy, vko;d gSA 57) bUVjohuj % tks O;fDr LosPNk vFkok vnkyr dh vuqefr ls eqdíes esa n[ky nsrk gSA 58) n[kyvankth % og dk;Z ftlds }kjk fdlh rhljs O;fDr dks] tks ml eqdíes ls izHkkfor gksrk gks] vnkyr dh vuqefr ls eqdíes dk i{k cuk fn;k tkrk gSA 60) bUVSlVsV % fcuk fojklrukek fy[ks e`R;q dks izkIr gksuk vFkok e`R;q ipkr viuh laifÙk ds fuiVkjs ds ckjs dksbZ funsZk NksM+s fcuk ej tkukA 61) bUVSlVsV lDlSku % og izfØ;k ftlds }kjk fdlh ,sls O;fDr dh laifÙk tks fcuk olh;r fy[ks ej x;k gks] jkT; ds dkuwu ds vuqlkj nwljksa ds ikl pyh tkrhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 113
  • 117. gSA 62) bUVkSDlhdsku % vYdksgksy] ukhyh nok vFkok kjkc ihus ds dkj.k iw.kZ ekufld o kkjhfjd {kerk ds lk"Fk dk;Z djus dh lkeF;Z esa dehA 62) bUVªksDlhdsku % vYdksgksy] ukhyh nok vFkok kjkc ihus ds dkj.k iw.kZ ekufld o kkjhfjd {kerk ds lkFk dk;Z djus dh lkeF;Z esa dehA 63) bUVªksbDVjh baLVªDku % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls iwoZ tt vFkok vnkyr ds vU; vf/kdkjh dh psrkouk vFkok oDrO; tks fu.kkZ;d e.My] odhyksa vkSj nkZdksa dks vnkyrh lquokbZ ds nkSjku muds dÙkZO;ksa vkSj ftEesnkfj;ksa dk Kku djkrs gSaA 64) bUoSLVhxsku % fdlh [kkl ekeys ds laca/k esa dkuwuh tkap iM+rky }kjk rF;ksa dk irk yxkuk vkSj mUgsa ,d=k djukA 65) xSj&bjknru uj gR;k % fdlh euq"; dh ,slh gR;k ftlds fy, gR;k ;k ?kkrd pksV igqapkus dk dksbZ bjknk u gks ysfdu tks vkijkf/kd ykijokgh ls dh xbZ gks ;k ,sls vijk/k ds nkSjku dh xbZ gks tks eqdíeksa ls lacaf/kr fu;kesa ds Js.kh esa ugha vkrkA ,sls ykijokgh ls dh xbZ uj gR;k Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 66) xSj&bjknru uks dh % fdlh dh bPNk ;k tkudkjh ds fcuk kjkc vFkok ukhyh nokvksa dk gkyr fiyk;k tkukA bldk iz;ksx vkijkf/kd ykijgokgh ds nks"k ls cpus ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk gSA 67) vlaxr % os izek.k tks i;kZIr :i esa fopkjk/khu ekeys ls lacaf/kr u gksA 68) vifjorZuh; VªLV % og VªLV ftls xBu ds ckn cnyk ;k lekIr u fd;k tk ldsA 69) eqík % 1- fdlh eqdíes esa i{kksa ds chp vlgefr ds fy, erHksn dk fo"k; 2- vnkyr }kjk fdlh vknsk dks vkf/kdkfjd rkSj ij tkjh djukEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 114
  • 118. ----J------ 1. JAIL - A place of confinement that is more than a police station and less than a prison. It is usually used to hold persons convicted of misdemeanors or persons awaiting trial. 2. JEOPARDY - Risk to a defendant of possible conviction and punishment. In a criminal case, the defendant is usually said to be "in jeopardy" after the preliminary hearing has taken place and the jury has been sworn in. 3. JOHNSON MOTION - A motion to discuss grand jury indictment. 4. JOIN - To unite, to combine, to enter into an alliance. 5. JOINDER - Generally, a bringing or joining together. For example, plaintiffs joining in a suit, or a joining of actions or defense. 6. JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY - A legal doctrine that makes each of the parties who are responsible for an injury liable for all the damages awarded in a lawsuit if the other parties responsible cannot pay. 7. JOINT TENANCY - When two or more people own something and have rights of survivorship. This means that if one tenant dies, his or her share goes to the other tenants. 8. JOINT VENTURE - An association of persons jointly undertaking some commercial enterprise. Unlike a partnership, a joint venture does not entail a continuing relationship among the parties. 9. JOYRIDING - Illegally taking an automobile without intent to deprive the owner permanently of the vehicle, often involving reckless driving. 10. JUDGE - An elected or appointed public official with authority to hear and decide cases in a court of law. 11. JUDGMENT (JUDGEMENT) - The judges final decision in a case. It says how much the person who lost has to pay the person who won, and when. Sometimes, you can change part of the judgment with a hearing. 12. JUDGMENT CREDITOR - The person who wins the case. 13. JUDGMENT DEBTOR - The person who loses the case. 14. JUDICIAL COUNCIL - The constitutionally mandated body responsible for improving the administration of justice in the state. The council is made up of judges, court executives, attorneys, and legislators. It was established to standardize court administration, practice, and procedure by adopting and enforcing court rules. 15. JUDICIAL NOTICE - A courts recognition of the truth of basic facts without formal evidence. 16. JUDICIAL OFFICER - Judges, referees, and commissioners who make court decisions as a judge.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 115
  • 119. 17. JUDICIAL REVIEW - The authority of a court to review the official actions of other branches of government. Also, the authority to declare unconstitutional the actions of other branches. 18. JURAT - Certificate of officer or person before whom writing was sworn to. The clause written at the foot of an affidavit, stating where, when, and before whom the affidavit was sworn. 19. JURISDICTION - (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases. (3) the territory, subject matter, or persons over which lawful authority may be exercised by a court. 20. JURISDICTIONAL HEARINGS – A hearing at which the court determines whether the child falls within the jurisdiction of the juvenile court. 21. JURISPRUDENCE - The study of law and the structure of the legal system. 22. JUROR - Member of the jury. 23. JUROR, ALTERNATE - Additional juror impaneled in case of sickness or disability of another juror. 24. JURY - A group of citizens picked according to law and authorized to decide a case. 25. JURY BOX - The specific place in the courtroom where the jury sits during the trial. 26. JURY COMMISSIONER - The local official responsible for giving the court lists of qualified potential jurors. 27. JURY FOREMAN - The juror who is in charge of the jury during deliberations and speaks for the jury in court when announcing the verdict. 28. JURY, HUNG - A jury which is unable to agree on a verdict after a suitable period of deliberation. 29. JURY INSTRUCTIONS - Directions that the judge gives the jury right before they decide a case. They tell the jury what laws apply to that particular case. 30. JURY TRIAL - A trial that is heard and decided by a jury. 31. JUSTIFICATION – A lawful or sufficient reason for one’s acts or omissions. A defense of justification is a showing of a sufficient reason for an action by defendant. For example, in an assault prosecution against a defendant, a justification would be that the violence was necessary. 32. JUSTIFIABLE - Issues and claims capable of being properly examined in court. 33. JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDE – The intentional killing of another human being without any evil design, and under such circumstances of necessity or duty as render the act proper, and relieve the party from any shadow of blame. 34. JUVENILE - A person under 18 years old. (See also MINOR.) 35. JUVENILE COURT – Part of the Superior Court that handles delinquency and dependency cases involving minors. 36. JUVENILE HALL - The facility where juvenile offenders are held in custody.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 116
  • 120. 37. JUVENILE WAIVER - A procedure by which a charge(s) against a minor is transferred from a juvenile to circuit court.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 117
  • 121. 1) tsy % fgjklr esa j[kus dk og LFkku tks iqfyl LVsku ls cM+k vkSj dkjxkj ls NksVk gksA bldk iz;ksx ltk izkIr dj pqds vijkf/k;ksa vkSj mu vijkf/k;ksa dks j[kus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS tks eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh dh izrh{kk esa gksA 2) [krjk % fdlh cpkodÙkkZ dks nks"kh Bgjk, tkus vkSj ltk lquk, tkus dk laHkkfor [krjkA fdlh Hkh vkijkf/kd ekeys esa izkFkfed lquokbZ vkSj fu.kkZ;d e.My }kjk kiFk xzg.k ds ckn cpko dÙkkZ dks vDlj ^[krjs esa& dgk tkrk gSA 3) tkulu eksku % iw.kZ fu.kkZ;d e.My ds vfHk;ksx&i=k ij fopkj&foekZ djus ds fy, izLrkoA 4) tqM+uk % la;qDr gksuk] ,d gksuk] fdlh xBtksM+ esa kkfey gksuk 5) tkbUMj % vDlj] ,d lkFk ykuk vFkok ,d lkFk feyukA mnkgj.k ds fy, vkosnudÙkkZ dk fdlh eqdíes esa kkfey gksuk vFkok fdlh dk;Zokgh ;k cpko esa kkfey gksukA 6) la;qDr ftEesnkjh % ;g ,d dkuwuh fl)kar gS ftlds vuqlkj eqdíes esa kkfey i{kksa ds izR;sd lnL; dks gkfu ds fy, gjtkus dk ftEesnkj Bgjk;k tk ldrk gS ;fn nwljk i{k bls nsus esa vleFkZ gksA 7) la;qDr iV~Vsnkjh % tc nks ;k vf/kd yksx ,d gh pht+ ds ekfyd gksa vkSj mlds izfr mÙkjthoh gksaA bldk vFkZ gS fd ;fn dksbZ ,d iV~Vsnkj dh e`R;q gks tk, rks mldk fgLlk nwljs iV~Vsnkj dks pyk tkrk gSA 8) la;qDr m|ksx % dqN O;fDr;ksa }kjk lkewfgd :i ls fdlh O;kikfjd laLFkku dk lapkyuA lka>snkjh ds foijhr blds lnL;ksa ds chp ijLij fujarj laca/kksa dh ftEesnkjh ugha gksrh gSA 9) tkap&okbZfMax % xSj&dkuwuh <ax ls fdlh ds okgu dks ys tkuk ftlesa okgu ds ekfyd dks LFkk;h :i ls blls oafpr djus dk bjknk u gksA vDlj okgu dks [krjukd rst+ xfr ls pyk;k tkrk gSA 10) tt % dkuwu }kjk LFkkfir vnkyr esa eqdís lquus vkSj mu ij fu.kZ; nsus dsEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 118
  • 122. fy, pquk x;k vFkok fu;qDr fd;k x;k ljdkjh vf/kdkjhA 11) tteSaV % fdlh eqdíes esa fdlh tt dk vafre QSlykA ;g crkrk gS fd gkjus okys O;fDr ds }kjk thurs okys dks dc vkSj D;k nsuk gSA dHkh&dHkh lquokbZ ds ckn QSlys ds fdlh Hkkx dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA 12) tteSaV ØSfMVj % eqdíek thrus okyk O;fDrA 13) tteSaV MSVj % eqdíek gkjus okyk O;fDr 14) T;wMhfk;y dkÅafly % jkT; esa U;kf;d izkklu esa lq/kkj ds fy, lafo/kku }kjk vf/kdkj izkIr laLFkkA bl ifj"kn esa tt] vnkyr ds vf/kdkjh] odhy vkSj fo/kk;d lfEefyr gksrs gSaA bldh LFkkiuk vnkyr ds fu;eksa dks ykxw djds vnkyrh izkklu] dk;Zokgh vkSj izfØ;k dk Lrj c<+kus ds fy, dh tkrh gSA 15) T;wMhfk;y uksfVl % vkSipkfjd lquokbZ ds fcuk vnkyr ds }kjk izkFkfed rF;ksa dks ekU;rk nsukA 16) U;kf;d vf/kdkjh % tt] fu.kkZ;d vkSj dfekuj tks ,d tt dh rjg vnkyrh QSlys djrs gSaA 17) U;kf;d iqufoZpkj % fdlh vnkykr }kjk ljdkj dh vU; kk[kkvksa ds ljdkjh dke&dkt ij iqufoZpkj djus dk vf/kdkjA vU; kk[kkvksa dh dk;Zokgh dks vlaoS/kkfud ?kksf"kr djus dk vf/kdkj Hkh kkfey gSA 18) T;wjV % ml vf/kdkjh dk izek.k&i=k ftlds lkeus kiFk&i=k ij gLrk{kj fd, x, gksaA kiFk&i=k ds uhps fy[kh xbZ ykbZu ftlesa crk;k tkrk gS fd kiFk&i=k ij dc] dgka vkSj fdl vf/kdkjh ds le{k gLrk{kj fd, x,A 19) vf/kdkjh {ks=k % 1- fdlh vnkyr dks eqdíes dh lquokbZ djus vkSj QSlyk nsus dk dkuwuh vf/kdkjA 2- og HkkSxksfyd {ks=k ftlesa eqdíeksa dk QSlyk djus dk vnkyr dks vf/kdkj izkIr gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 119
  • 123. 3- {ks=k] fo"k; vkSj O;fDr ftuds ckjs esa QSlyk nsus dk vnkyr dks vf/kdkj izkIr gksA 21) U;k; kkL=k % dkuwu vkSj dkuwuh izfØ;k ds <kaps dk v/;;uA 22) twjh lnL; % fu.kkZ;d e.My dk lnL; 23) twjh lnL; dk % fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fdlh lnL; dh chekjh] vleFkZrk dh nkk esa fodYi fodYi ds rkSj ij fdlh vfrfjDr lnL; dk ukekadj.kA 24) twjh % ukxfjdksa dk ,d lewg ftUgsa fdlh eqdíes dk fu.kZ; djus ds fy, dkuwu vuqlkj pquk tkrk gSA 25) twjh ckWDl % vnkyr ds dejs esa og fufpr LFkku tgka fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL; eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku cSBrs gSaA 26) twjh dfekuj % og LFkkfud vf/kkdjh tks vnkyr dks fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa ds :i esa fu;qFdr dsfy, ;ksX; ,oa leFkZ O;fDr;ksa dh lwph miyC/k djkus ds fy, mÙkjkf/kdkjh gksA 27) twjh QksjeSu % fu.kkZ;d e.My dk og lnL; tks vnkyr esa fopkj&foekZ ds nkSjku fu.kkZ;d e.My dk bapktZ gksrk gS vkSj ogha fu.kkZ;d e.My ds QSlys dh ?kks"k.kk djrk gSA 28) twjh] gax % og fu.kkZ;d ftlds lnL; mfpr vof/k rd fopkj&foekZ ds ckn gh fdlh QSlys ij lger u gksaA 29) twjh ds funsZk % fdlh eqdíes dk QSlyk djus ls Bhd igys fu.kkZ;d e.My dks tt }kjk fn, x, funsZkA ;s funsZk fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dks crkrs gSa fd ml eqdíes ij dkSu&dkSu ls dkuwu ykxw gksrs gSaA 30) twjh }kjk lquokbZ % og lquokbZ tks fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa }kjk dh tkrh gS vkSj ftldk QSlyk Hkh os gh djrs gSaA 31) vkSfpR; % fdlh ds dk;Z&Dykiksa vFkok xyfr;ksa ds fy, dkuwuh vFkok i;kZIr dkj.kA vkSfpR; }kjk cpko ds fy, cpkodÙkkZ dks vius dk;Z ds fy, i;kZIr dkj.k fl) djuk iM+rk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, ekjihV ds fdlhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 120
  • 124. eqdíes esa cpkodÙkkZ dks fl) djuk iM+rk gS fd ekjihV t:jh FkhA 32) U;k; ;ksX; % os eqís vkSj nkos ftudh vnkyr }kjk mfpr <ax ls tkap&iM+rky dh tk ldrh gSA 33) U;k;&;ksX; gR;k % fcuk fdlh lkftk ds fdlh dh tku&cw> dj gR;k D;ksafd ml le; dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ,slk djuk t:jh Fkk vr% ;g dk;Z mfpr gksus ds dkj.k gR;k djus okys ij dksbZ nks"k ugha NksM+rkA 34) ckyd tqoSukbZy % 18 o"kZ ls de vk;q dk O;fDr 35) tqoSukbZy dksVZ % cky&vijk/kksa vkSj vkfJr cPpksa ds eqdíes lquus okyh Åijh vnkyr dk HkkxA 37) tqoSukbZy osoj % og izfØ;k ftlds vUrxZr fdlh ckyd ds fo:) eqdíes dks cky&vijk/k vnkyr ls {ks=kh; vnkyr esa Hkst fn;k tkrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 121
  • 125. ---K---- 1. KIDNAPPING - The taking or detaining of a person against his or her will and without lawful authority. 2. KEEPER - An officer that the court appoints to be responsible for money or property legally seized in connection with a pending case. 3. KNOWINGLY - With knowledge, willfully or intentionally with respect to a material element of an offense.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 122
  • 126. 1) vigj.k % fdlh iq:"k@L=kh dks mldh bPNk ds fo:) xSj&dkuwuh vf/kdkj ls mBkdj ys tkuk vkSj fgjklr esa j[kukA 2) j[kokyk % og vf/kdkjh ftldh fu;qfDr vnkyr }kjk fdlh yafcr eqdíes ds laca/k esa dCts esa yh xbZ /kujkfk vFkok laifÙk ds fy, mÙkjnk;h ds :i esa dh tkrh gSA tkucw> dj fdlh vijk/k ds laca/k esa HkkSfrd rRo ds ckjs esa tkudkjh] LosPNk vkSj bjkns ds lkFk fd;k tkukAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 123
  • 127. -----L------ 1. LACKING CAPACITY – Lacking qualification, competency, power or fitness. Being incapable of giving legal consent. Lack of fundamental ability to be accountable for actions. 2. LARCENY - Stealing or theft. 3. LAW - Combination of rules and principles of conduct made known by legislative authority, derived from court decisions, and established by local custom. 4. LAW AND MOTION - A setting before a judge at which time a variety of motions, pleas, sentencing, orders to show cause or procedural requests may be presented. Normally, evidence is not taken. Defendants must be present. 5. LAW CLERKS - Persons trained in the law who assist judges in researching legal opinions. 6. LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENT - A sworn peace officer with legal authorization to arrest individuals under suspicion of breaking the law. 7. LAWSUIT - An action between two or more persons in the courts of law, not a criminal matter. 8. LAY PERSON - One not trained in law. 9. LEADING QUESTION - A question which instructs the witness how to answer or puts words in his mouth. Suggests to the witness the desired answer. 10. LEASE - An agreement for renting real property. Usually written and for a specific amount of time. 11. LEGAL AID - Professional legal services available usually to persons or organizations unable to afford such services. 12. LENIENCY - Recommendation for a sentence less than the maximum allowed. 13. LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSE - A crime composed of some, but not all, of the elements of a greater crime; commission of the greater crime automatically includes commission of the lesser included offense. 14. LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION - Legal document issued by a court that shows an administrators legal right to take control of assets in the deceased persons name. 15. LETTERS OF CONSERVATORSHIP - A court paper that states that the conservator is authorized to act on the conservatees behalf. Also called "Letters.” 16.LETTERS OF GUARDIANSHIP - The instrument by which a person is empowered to take charge of the person and/or estate of minors and insane or incompetent persons, whenever necessary or convenient. 17. LETTERS ROGATORY - A formal communication, in writing, sent by a court in which an action is pending to a court or judge of a foreign country, requesting that the testimony of a witness who lives within the jurisdiction of the foreign court may be taken under its direction and transmitted to the first court for use in the pending action.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 124
  • 128. 18. LETTERS TESTAMENTARY - Legal document issued by a court that shows an executors legal right to take control of assets in the deceased persons name. 19. LEVY - To obtain money by legal process through seizure and/or sale of property. 20. LEWD CONDUCT - Behavior that is obscene, lustful, indecent, vulgar. 21. LIABILITY - Legal debts and obligations. 22. LIABLE - Legally responsible. 23. LIBEL - False and malicious material that is written or published that harms a persons reputation. See DEFAMATION. 24. LIE DETECTOR - A machine which records by a needle on a graph varying emotional disturbances when answering questions truly or falsely, as indicated by fluctuations in blood pressure, respiration, or perspiration. 25. LIEN - The right to keep a debtors property from being sold or transferred until the debtor pays what he or she owes. 26. LIFE IMPRISONMENT - A type of sentence where the convicted criminal is ordered to spend the rest of his or her life in prison. 27. LIMINE - A motion requesting that the court not allow certain evidence that might prejudice the jury. 28. LIMINE MOTION - A pretrial motion requesting the court to prohibit opposing counsel from referring to or offering evidence on matters. 29. LIMITATION OF ACTIONS – The time period imposed by law to bring an action in court. (Example—statutes of limitation) 30. LIMITED ACTION - A civil action in which recovery of less than a certain amount (as specified by statute) is sought. Simplified rules of procedure are used in such actions. 31. LIMITED JURISDICTION - Refers to courts that are limited in the types of criminal and civil cases they may hear. For example, traffic violations generally are heard by limited jurisdiction courts. 32. LINEUP - A police identification procedure by which the suspect to a crime is exhibited, along with others, before the victim or witness to determine if the victim or witness can identify the suspect as the person who committed the crime. 33. LIS PENDENS - A pending suit. 34. LITIGANT - A party, or side involved in a lawsuit. 35. LITIGATION - A case, controversy, or lawsuit. 36. LIVING TRUST - A trust set up and in effect during the lifetime of the person. Also called inter vivos trust. 37. LOCALITY DISCRIMINATION – Those either giving undue preference to any locality or subjecting it to undue prejudice.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 125
  • 129. 38. LOCAL RULES - A set of rules you have to follow to start a court case. Every county and court has different local rules. 39. LOCUS DELICTI - The place of the offense. 40. LOITERING - To stand idly around, particularly in a public place. 41. LYNCHING - Putting a person to death, usually by hanging, without legal authority.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 126
  • 130. 1) lkeF;Z dh deh % ;ksX;rk] dkcyh;r] kfDr ,oa LokLF; dh dehA dkuwuh lgefr nsus esa vleFkZA vius dk;ks± ds izfr mÙkjnkf;Ro ds fy, izkFkfed lkeF;Z dh dehA 2) ykjlSuh dkuwu % pqjkuk ;k pksjh djukA LFkkfud ijaijkvksa }kjk LFkkfir] QSlyksa ls m/n`r vkSj fo/kk;h laLFkkvksa }kjk izpkfjr fu;eksa vkSj fl)karksa dk lewgA 4) dkuwu ,oa izLrko % fdlh tt ds le{k og eap tgka vusd izdkj ds izLrko] vkosnu ltk ds vknsk] dkj.k crkvks vknsk vFkok izfØ;k laca/kh vkosnu isk fd, tk ldrs gSaA vkerkSj ls xokgh ugha dh tkrh gSA cpkodÙkkZ dh mifLFkfr vko;d gSA 5) yk&dydZl % dkuwu esa izfkf{kr os yksx tks dkuwuh fopkjksa dh [kkst esa ttksa dh enn djrs gSaA 6) dkuwu ykxw djus % os iDds kkafrfiz; vf/kdkjh ftUgsa yksxksa dks kkafr Hkax djus ds lansg esa okys ,tsaV fxj¶rkj djus dk dkuwuh vf/kdkj izkIr gksrk gSA 7) yk&lwV % dkuwuh vnkyr esa nks ;k nks ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa ds chp pyh jgh dk;Zokgh ftldk laca/k fdlh vijk/k ls u gksA 8) ys&ijlu % og O;fDr tks dkuwu esa izfkf{kr u gksA 9) yhfMax izu % og izu tks xokg dks ;g funsZk ns fd mÙkj fdl izdkj nsuk gS ;k mlds eqag esa kCn Hkjrk gSA xokg dks visf{kr mRrj lq>krk gSA 10) iV~Vk % tehu tk;nkn fdjk, ij nsus dk bdjkjukekA ;g vDlj fyf[kr vkSj fufpr vof/k ds fy, gksrk gSA 11) dkuwuh lgk;rk % O;olkf;d dkuwuh lsok,a tks vkerkSj ij ,sls yksxksa vkSj laLFkkvksa dks izkIr gksrh gSa tks ,slh lsokvksa dk [kpZ lgu ugha dj ldrsA 12) ujekbZ % fu/kkZfjr vf/kdre ltk ls de ltk nsus ds fy, flQkfjkA 14) izkklu ds i=k % fdlh vnkyr }kjk tkjh fd;k x;k og nLrkost+ ftlls fdlh e`rd dh laifÙk dks vius dCts esa ysus ds izkklfud vf/kdkjh ds dkuwuhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 127
  • 131. vf/kdkj dks nkkZrk gSA 15) ySPlZ vkQ % vnkyr dk og nLrkost tks ;g ckrkr gS fd j{kd dks jf{kr dh vksj dUtosVjfki ls dk;Zokgh djus dk vf/kdkj gSA 16) ySVlZ vkQ % og nLrkost ftlds vk/kkj ij dksbZ O;fDr fdlh O;fDr rFkk@vFkok xkbMZ;ufki fdlh ckyd ,oa fdlh fof{kIr O;fDr ;k v{ke O;fDr;ksa dh tk;nkn dks t:jr ds le; vkSj tc vko;d gks] vius fu;a=k.k esa ys ldrk gSA 17) ySVlZ jksxsVjh % fdlh vnkyr }kjk Hkstk x;k fyf[kr lansk ftlesa fdlh fonskh vnkyr yafcr eqdíes ds laca/k esa ml vnkyr ds vf/kdkj {ks=k esa jgs xokg dh xokgh dks igyh vnkyr esa Hkstus dh izkFkZuk fonskh vnkyr ;k mlds tt dh gksrh gS rkfd igyh vnkyr esa bldk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldsA 18) ySVlZ VSLVkeSaVjh % fdlh vnkyr }kjk tkjh fd;k x;k dkuwuh nLrkost tks e`rd ds uke laifÙk dks izca/kd }kjk vius fu;a=k.k esa ysus ds dkuwuh vf/kdkj dks nkkZrk gSA 19) izknsfkd HksnHkko % dkuwuh izfØ;k }kjk laifÙk dks dCts esa ysdj vkSj@vFkok cspdj /ku izkIr djukA 20) Y;wM daMDV % vyhy] dke okluk iw.kZ vkSj vHknz O;ogkjA 21) ykbfcfyVh % dkuwuh _.k vkSj ftEesnkfj;ka 22) Ykbcy % dkuwuu mÙkjnk;hA 23) fycYy % fyf[kr vFkok izdkfkr >wBk vkSj }s"kiw.kZ elkSnk tks fdlh O;fDr dh izfr"Bk dks gkfu igqapkrk gSA 24) ykbZ fMVSDVj % ,d ,slh ekhu tks ,d lqbZ dh lgk;rk ls jDr pki] okl&fØ;k ;k ilhus esa lp ;k >wB cksy dj mÙkj nsus ij mrkj&p<+ko dksEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 128
  • 132. xzkQ ij vafdr djrh gSA 25) Yhvu % fdlh dtZnkj }kjk vius dtZ dk Hkqxrku u djus rd mldh laifÙk ds fcdus ;k gLrka=k.k ij jksd yxkus dk vf/kdkj 26) mez dSn % ,slh ltk ftlds vuqlkj fdlh ltk izkIr iq:"k@L=kh vijk/kh dks viuk ks"k thou tsy esa dkVuk gksrk gSA 27) Fyfeuh % ,slk izLrko ftlesa vnkyr ls izkFkZuk dh tkrh gS fd fdlh foks"k xokgh dh vkKk u nh tk, tks fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa esa iwokZxzg dks tUe ns ldrh gSA 28) fyeuh eksku % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys dk izLrko ftlesa vnkyr ls izkFkZuk dh tkrh gS fd foi{kh odhy dks ekeys esa xokgh isk djus ls jksdk tk,A 29) dk;Zokgh dh le; % vnkyr esa dh tkus okyh fdlh dk;Zokgh ds fy, dkuwu }kjk lhek fufpr le; lhekA 30) lhfer dk;Zokgh % ,d ,slh ukxfjd dk;Zokgh ftlesa ¼dkuwu }kjk fu/kkZfjr½ fufpr jkfk ls de jkfk dh olwyh djuh gksA ,slh dk;Zokgh esa izfØ;k laca/kh ljy fu;eksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 31) lhfer vf/kdkj {ks=k % bldk vFkZ mu vnkyrksa ls gS tks vkijkf/kd ;k ukxfjd fdLe ds eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ djrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, ;krk;kr ds fu;eksa ds mYya?ku ds eqdís lhfer vf/kdkj {ks=k okyh vnkyrksa }kjk gh lqus tkrs gSaA 32) ykbZu&vi % iqfyl dh igpku izfØ;k ftlesa ,sls O;fDr ftl ij vijk/k djus dk lansg gks] dks vU; O;fDr;ksa ds lkFk ihfM+r vFkok xokg ds lkeus [kM+k fd;k tkrk gS rkfd ;g fufpr fd;k tk lds fd ihfM+r ;k xokg mldks vijk/k djus okys ds :i esa igpku ldrs gSaA 33) fyl iSubSUl % dksbZ yafcr eqdíekA 34) fyfVxSaV % fdlh eqdíesa esa kkfey dksbZ O;fDr ;k i{kAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 129
  • 133. 35) fyVhxsku % dksbZ elyk] fookn ;k eqdíekA 36) fyfoax VªLV % fdlh O;fDr }kjk vius thou esa LFkkfir vkSj dk;Zkhy VªLV 37) izknsfkd HksnHkko % fdlh {ks=k dks uktk;t+ izkFkfedrk nsuk ;k mldh uktk;t mis{kk djukA 38) yksdy :yl % fdlh eqdíes dks kq: djus ds fy, ftu fu;eksa dk ikyu djuk iM+rk gS mudh J`a[kykA izR;sd dkaÅVh vkSj izR;sd vnkyr ds fHké&fHké fu;e gSaA 39) yksdy MhfdDVh % og LFkku tgka vijk/k gqvk gksA 40) yks,Vfjax % b/kj&m/kj fuBYys [kM+s jguk] [kkldj lkoZtfud LFkku ij 41) Fdafpax % dkuwuh vf/kdkj ds fcuk fdlh dh yVdk dj gR;k djukAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 130
  • 134. -----M------- 1. MAGISTRATE - Judicial officer with the power to issue arrest warrants. 2. MAKE OR DRAW – To cause to exist. To fashion or produce in legal form. To prepare a draft; to compose and write out in due form, such as a deed, contract, complaint, answer, petition, etc. 3. MALFEASANCE - Performance of an act that should not have been done at all. 4. MALICE - Ill will, hatred, or hostility by one person toward another which may prompt the intentional doing of a wrongful act without legal justification or excuse. 5. MALICE AFORETHOUGHT – Intending to kill another person or intending to do an act with knowledge that it is dangerous to human life. 6. MALICIOUS MISCHIEF - Willful destruction of property, from actual ill will or resentment toward its owner or possessor. 7. MALICIOUS PROSECUTION - An action with the intention of injuring the defendant and without probable cause, and which terminates in favor of the person prosecuted. 8. MALICIOUSLY – To annoy, or injure another, or an intent to do a wrongful act, and may consist in direct intention to injure, or in reckless disregard of another’s rights 9. MALPRACTICE - Violation of a professional duty to act with reasonable care and in good faith without fraud or collusion. This term is usually applied to such conduct by doctors, lawyers, or accountants. 10. MANDAMUS - A writ issued by a court ordering a public official to perform an act. 11. MANDATE - A judicial command or order proceeding from a court or judicial officer, directing the proper officer to enforce a judgment, sentence, or decree. 12. MANDATORY - Required, ordered. 13. MANSLAUGHTER, INVOLUNTARY - Unlawful killing of another, without malice, when the death is caused by some other unlawful act not usually expected to result in great bodily harm. 14. MANSLAUGHTER, VOLUNTARY - Unlawful killing of another, without malice, when the act is committed with a sudden extreme emotional impulse. 15. MARIJUANA – "Cannabis" is an annual herb having angular rough stem and deeply lobed leaves. It is an illegal drug commonly used through smoke inhalation or ingestion, the use of which results in prolonged intoxication. Any person who cultivates, transports, or possesses marijuana, for personal use or sale, is guilty of a crime, unless they can assert a proper defense. 16. MARIJUANA, defense of compassionate use – The cultivation, transportation, or possession of marijuana is lawful for compassionate use under certain circumstances, such as when its medical use is deemed appropriate by a physician and has been recommended by the physician orally or in writing, provided it is for the personal use of the patient and it is a reasonable amount.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 131
  • 135. 17. MARSDEN MOTION – A minor who is represented by appointed counsel requests the Court to remove the attorney and appoint new counsel if the minor’s right to effective counsel would be substantially impaired by continuing with the original attorney. 18. MASSIAH MOTION - A motion to exclude fraudulently obtained confessions. 19. MASTER - An attorney who is appointed by the judges of a circuit court with the approval of the Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, to conduct hearings and to make finding of facts, conclusions of law, and recommendations as to an appropriate order. 20. MATERIAL EVIDENCE - That quality of evidence which tends to influence the judge and/or jury because of its logical connection with the issue. 21. MATERIAL WITNESS - In criminal trial, a witness whose testimony is crucial to either the defense or prosecution. 22. MAYHEM - A malicious injury which disables or disfigures another. 23. MEDIATION - A process in which people that are having a dispute are helped by a neutral person to communicate so they can reach a settlement acceptable to both. 24. MEMORANDUM OF COSTS - A certified, itemized statement of the amount of costs after judgment. 25. MEMORIALIZED - To mark by observation in writing. 26. MENACE – A threat; the declaration or show of a disposition or determination to inflict an evil or injury upon another. 27. MENS REA - The “guilty mind” necessary to establish criminal responsibility. 28. MENTAL HEALTH - The wellness of a persons state of mind. 29. MENTAL INCAPACITY – Where a person is found to be incapable of understanding and acting with discretion in the ordinary affairs of life due to a loss of reasoning faculties. 30. MENTAL STATE – Capacity or condition of one’s mind in terms of ability to do or not to do a certain act. 31. MERITS - A decision "on the merits" is one that reaches the right(s) of a party, as distinguished from disposition of a case on a ground not reaching the right(s) raised in an action. 32. MINOR – A child under the age of 18 years. (See also JUVENILE). 33. MINUTE ORDER - Document prepared by the clerk recording the orders of the clerk. 34. MIRANDA RIGHTS - Requirement that police tell a person who is arrested or questioned their constitutional rights before they question him or her: specifically, the right to remain silent; that any statement made may be used against him or her; the right to an attorney; and if the person cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed if he or she desires. 35. MIRANDA WARNING - See MIRANDA RIGHTS. 36. MISDEMEANOR - A crime that can be punished by up to one year in jail.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 132
  • 136. 37. MISTAKE – Some unintentional act, omission, or error arising from ignorance, surprise, imposition, or misplaced confidence. 38. MISTRIAL - A trial that has been ended and declared void (of no legal effect) due to prejudicial error in the proceedings or other extraordinary circumstances. 39. MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES - Facts which do not constitute a justification or excuse for an offense but which may be considered as reasons for reducing the degree of blame. 40. MITIGATING FACTORS - Facts that do not constitute a justification or excuse for an offense but which may be considered as reasons for reducing the degree of blame. 41. MITIGATION OF DAMAGES – Imposes on the injured party duty to minimize his damages after injury has been inflicted. 42. MITTIMUS - The name of an order in writing, issuing from a court and directing the sheriff or other officer to take a person to a prison, asylum, or reformatory, and directing the jailer or other appropriate official to receive and safely keep the person until his or her fate shall be determined by due course of law. 43. MODIFICATION - A spoken or written request that one side makes to ask the judge to make a decision or an order on a specific point. 44. MOOT - A point or question related to a legal case that usually has no practical importance or relevance to the case. A moot point is a point that cant be resolved by the judge, is not disputed by either side, or is resolved out of court. 45. MORAL TURPITUDE - Immorality. An element of crimes inherently bad, as opposed to crimes bad merely because they are forbidden by statute. 46. MOTION - Oral or written request made by a party to an action before, during, or after a trial asking the judge to issue a ruling or order in that partys favor. 47. MOTION DENIED - Ruling or order issued by the judge refusing the partys request. 48. MOTION GRANTED - Ruling or order issued by the judge approving the partys request. 49. MOTION IN LIMINE - A written motion which is usually made before or after the beginning of a jury trial for a protective order against prejudicial questions and statements. 50. MOTION TO QUASH - A request to make something null or ineffective, such as to "quash a subpoena." 51. MOTION TO SEVER - A request usually by defense, to have a separate trial as to either jointly tried defendants or jointly charged counts. 52. MOTION TO SUPPRESS - A request to suppress as evidence at trial things or statements obtained as a result of an allegedly illegal search and seizure (commonly referred to as 1538.5 PC motions.) 53. MUGSHOT - Pictures taken after a suspect is taken into custody (booked), usually used as an official photograph by police officers. 54. MULTIPLICITY OF ACTIONS - Numerous and unnecessary attempts to litigate the same issue.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 133
  • 137. 55. MURDER - The unlawful killing of a human being with deliberate intent to kill. 56. MURGIA MOTION - A request made by defense counsel to dismiss based on a group of people being systematically discriminated against.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 134
  • 138. 1) eSftLVªSv % og U;kf;d vf/kdkjh ftls fxj¶rkjh ds fy, okjaV tkjh djus dk vf/kdkj gksA 2) esd ;k Mªk % vfLrRo iznku djukA dkuwuh :i nsukA bdjkjukek] le>kSrk] fkdk;r] mÙkj] izkFkZuk vkfn dh mfpr :i esa jpuk vkSj mUgsa fy[kuk] izk:i rS;k djukA 3) ESydhlSal % fdlh dkuwu dk rekkk tks fcYdqy Hkh ugha fn[kk;k tkuk pkfg, FkkA 4) ESykbl % nqHkkZouk] bZ";kZ ;k fdlh ,d O;fDr }kjk fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds izfr fgalk tks dkuwuh vkSfpR; ds fcuk dksbZ xyr dk;Z djus ds fy, izsfjr djrh gSA 5) eSdkbl vdksj FkkSV % fdlh O;fDr dh gR;k djus dh bPNk djuk ;k tku&cw> dj ,slk dke djuk tks ekuo thou ds fy, [krjukd gksA 6) eSdhfk;l felFkhd % okLrfod nqHkkZouk ;k blds Lokeh ;k /kkjd ds izfr ukjkt+xh ds dkj.k tku&cw> dj laifÙk dks u"V djukA 7) eSyhfk;l izkSlhD;wku % cpkodÙkkZ dks gkfu igqapkus ds bjkns ls dh xbZ dk;Zokgh vkSj ftldk dksbZ laHkkfor dkj.k u gks rFkk ftldk fu.kZ; cpkodÙkkZ ds i{k esa gksrk gSA 8) eSyhfk;lyh % nwljksa dks ijskku djuk ;k gkfu igqapkuk ;k dksbZ xyr dk;Zokgh djus dk bjknk] ftlesa izR;{k :i ls nwljksa dks gkfu igqapkuk ;k muds vf/kdkjksa dh ?kksj mis{kk djuk kkfey gks ldrs gSaA 9) eSy izSfDVl % O;kolkf;d ftEesnkjh dks mfpr lko/kkuh] fooluh; <ax ls fcuik Ny&diV ;k lkaB&xkaB ls fuHkkus esa ykijokghA bl kCn dk iz;ksx MkDVjksa] odhyksa vkSj ys[kk dkjksa }kjk ,sls O;ogkj ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 10) ESUMsel % vnkyr }kjk fdlh ljdkjh vf/kdkjh dks dksbZ dk;Zokgh djus dk vknskA 11) ESUMsV % vnkyr vFkok fdlh U;kf;d vf/kdkjh tkjh fd;k U;kf;d vknsk ftlesa lacaf/kr vf/kdkjh dks vnkyr dk QSlyk] ltk vFkok fMxzhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 135
  • 139. ykxw djus ds funsZk fn, tkrs gSaA 13) eSuLykSVj] buokSySaVjh % fcuk nqHkkZouk ds fdlh nwljs dh xSj&dkuwuh gR;k] tcfd gR;k fdlh ,sls xSj dkuwuh rjhds ls gqbZ gks ftlesa vDlj xaHkhj kkjhfjd pksV dh vkkk ugha gksrhA 14) eSuLykSVj] okSyVjh % fdlh dh xSj&dkuwuh gR;k tks fcuk fdlh nqHkkZouk ls vR;kf/kd vpkud HkkoukRed vkosx ds dkj.k dh xbZ gksA 15) ESjhtqvkuk % ÞdSukfolß ,d okf"kZd tM+h&cwVh gS ftldk ruk dksf.kd vkSj [kqjnjk gksrk gS vkSj ftlds iÙks vR;kf/kd xksy gksrs gSaA ;g ,d xSj&dkuwuh vkS"kf/k gS ftldk iz;ksx blds /kqa, dks vanj [khap dj fd;k tkrk gSA blds iz;ksx ls dkQh nsj rd ukk jgrk gSA dksbZ Hkh O;fDr tks bldh [ksrh djrk gS] bldks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd ys tkrk gS ;k vius ikl j[krk gSA vius O;fDrxr iz;ksx ds fy, ;k cspus ds fy, og vijk/k dk nks"kh gksrk gS tc rd fd og mfpr cpko isk u dj ldsA 16) eSjh tqvkuk ds iz;ksx % dqN ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa eSjhtqvkuk dh [ksrh] bldks ,d LFkku ls nwljs ds fy, lgkuqHkwfr iw.kZ LFkku rd ys tkuk ;k vius ikl j[kuk dkuwuu gksrk gS tSls fdlh iz;ksx dk cpko MkDVj }kjk nokbZ ds rkSj ij bldk iz;ksx vko;d gS vkSj bl laca/k esa MkDVj us ekSf[kd ;k fyf[kr lykg nh gks ckrsZ ;g jksxh ds O;fDrxr iz;ksx ds fy, vkSj mfpr ek=kk esa gksA 17) ekjlMSu eksku % tc dksbZ vo;Ld] ftldk izfrfuf/kRo fdlh fu;qDr fd, x, odhy }kjk fd;k tkrk gS] vnkyr ls vkosnu djs fd ml odhy dks gVkdj u, odhy dh fu;qfDr dh tk,] ;fn iqjkus odhy ds jgrs izHkkoh odhy izkIr djus ds mlds vf/kdkj dk guu gks jgk gksA 18) elhgk eksku % /kks[ks ls fy, x, LohdkjksfDr ds c;ku dks [kkfjt djus ds fy, izLrko 19) EkLVj % vihyh; vnkyr ds eq[; tt dh eatwjh ls ljfdV vnkyr }kjk fu;qDr fd;k x;k odhy tks lquokbZ dk lapkyu djus vkSj dkuwu ds rF;ksa rFkk fud"kks± dk irk yxkus dk dke djrk gS vkSj mfprEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 136
  • 140. vknsk ds fy, flQkfjk djrk gSA 20) eSVhjh;y ,ohMSal % izek.k dk og xq.k tks eqís ds lkFk tt vkSj vius rdZ laxr laca/k ds dkj.k vFkok twjh dks izHkkfor djrk gSA 21) eSVhjh;y foVuSl % vijk/k laca/kh eqdíes dh lquokbZ esa ftl xokg dh xokgh cpko i{k vFkok vfHk;ksx i{k ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gksA 22) EsgSe % nqHkkZoukiw.kZ gkfu tks nwljksa dks fod`r vkSj vleFkZ cukrh gSA 23) ehMh;sku % ,slh izfØ;k ftlesa dksbZ rVLFk O;fDr >xM+s ls lacaf/kr yksxksa esa ckrphr djkus esa lgk;rk djrk gS rkfd os nksuksa dks Lohdk;Z le>kSrs dh vksj c<+ ldsaA 24) eSeksjS.Me vkQ % vnkyr ds QSlys ds ckn enkuqlkj [kpks± dh jkfk izekf.kr lwph dkSLVl 25) eSeksfj;ykbZTM % fyf[kr :i esa fVIi.kh djukA 26) Ehusl % /kedh] eukso`fÙk dh ?kks"k.kk vFkok iznkZu ;k fdlh dks gkfu igqapkus dh n`<+rkA 27) eSaljh;k % vkijkf/kd mÙkjnkf;Ro fl) djus ds fy, nks"kiw.kZ lkspA 28) eSaVy gSYFk % fdlh O;fDr dh fnekxh gkyr Bhd gksukA 29) eSaVy budSisflVh % tc dksbZ O;fDr foosd dh deh ds dkj.k thou dh lk/kkj.k ckrksa dks le>us vkSj bPNkuqlkj djus esa vleFkZ gksA 30) eSaVy LVsV % fdlh dk;Z dks djus ;k u djus dh lkeF;Z ds laca/k esa fdlh dh fnekxh gkyrA 31) eSfjVl % rdks± ds vk/kkj ij fd;k x;k fu.kZ; tks fdlh ,d i{k ds vf/kdkjksa ls esy [kkrk gks tksfd fdlh vU; vk/kkj ij tks eqdíesa esa mBk, x, vf/kdkjksa ls esy u [kkrk gks] ij fd, x, fu.kZ; ls fHké gksrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 137
  • 141. 32) ekbZuj % 18 o"kZ ls de mez dk cPpk 33) ekbZU;wV vkMZj % fdlh DydZ }kjk rS;kj fd;k x;k DydZ ds vknsk dk nLrkost 34) fejkUMk jkbZVl % og krZ ftlds vuqlkj fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dh fxj¶rkjh ds ckn iwNrkN ls igys iqfyl dks mlds laoS/kkfud vf/kdkjksa dh tkudkjh nsuh gksrh gS ftuesa foks"k rkSj ls pqi jgus dk vf/kdkj] ;g crkuk fd mlds }kjk fn;k x;k c;ku mlds fo:) iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS] odhy dh lsok izkIr djus dk vf/kdkj] vkSj ;fn og O;fDr odhy dk [kpZ lgu u dj ldrk gks rks mldh bPNkuqlkj ,d odhy dh fu;qfDr dk vf/kdkj kkfey gksrs gSaA 35) fejkUMk okjfuax % ns[kks fejkUMk jkbZVl 36) felfMehuksj % ,slk vijk/k ftlds fy, 1 o"kZ dh tsy dh ltk nh tk ldrh gSA 37) felVsd % fdlh v;ksX; O;fDr ij fookl] /kks[ks] vkp;Z] vufHkKrk ls mRié dksbZ xSj&bjknru xYrh] Hkwy ;k dk;Zokgh 38) feLVªk;y % og eqdíek ftls dk;Zokgh esa iwokZxzg ds vk/kkj ij ;k fdUgha vU; vlk/kkj.k ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds dkj.k xSj&dkuwuh ¼ftldk dksbZ dkuwuh izHkko u gks½ ?kksf"kr dj lekIr dj fn;k x;k gksA 39) fefVxsfVax % os rF; tks fdlh vijk/k ds fy, vkSfpR; ;k cgkuk ugha gksrs cfYd ljdelVkalst+ tks nks"k dh ek=kk dks de djus ds dkj.k curs tk ldrs gSaA 40) fefVxsfVax QSDVlZ % ns[kks fefVxsfVax ljdElVkalst+ 41) fefVxsku vkWQ % gkfu igaqpkus ds ckn ihfM+r O;fDr dks gtkZus dh jkfk dks de ls MSest+t de djus dk vknskA 42) fefVel % fdlh vnkyr }kjk tkjh og fyf[kr vknsk ftlesa izeq[k ftyk vf/kdkjh ;k fdlh vU; vf/kdkjh dks funsZk fn;k tkrk gS fd ogEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 138
  • 142. fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dks tsy] ikxy[kkus vFkok lq/kkjx`g esa Hksts vkSj tsyj fdlh vU; mfpr vf/kdkjh dks funsZk fn, tkrs gSa fd og ml iq:"k @ L=kh dks rc rd ogka lqjf{kr j[ks tc rd dkuwuh dk;Zokgh }kjk mlds HkkX; dk QSlyk u gks tk,A 43) eSMhfQdsku % fdlh ,d i{k }kjk ekSf[kd ;k fyf[kr vkosnu ftlesa fdlh eqn~ns ij tt dks QSlyk ;k vknsk nsus ds fy, izkFkZuk dh tkrh gSA 44) ewV % fdlh dkuwuh eqdíes ls lacaf/kr dksbZ eqík ;k izu ftldk vDlj eqdís ds fy, dksbZ O;ogkfjd egRo ugha gksrkA vfufpr eqík ,d ,slk fo"k; gksrk gS ftldk QSlyk tt ds }kjk ugha fd;k tk ldrk gS] nwljs i{k ds }kjk bl ij fookn ugha mBk;k tkrk vFkok bls vnkyr esa mBk;k gh ugha x;kA 45) ekSjy Vj;hP;wM % vuSfrdrk] LoHkkfod cqjs vijk/kksa dk rRo tks dkuwu }kjk izfrcaf/kr vijk/kksa ls foijhr gksA 46) eksku % fdlh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys] nkSjku ;kckn esa fdlh i{k }kjk vius gd esa QSlyk ;k vknsk nsus ds fy, tt dks izkFkZuk 47) eksku fMuhM % fdlh tt }kjk fn;k x;k fu.kZ; vFkok vknsk ftlesa fdlh i{k dh izkFkZuk vLohdkj dh xbZ gksA 48) ekSku xzkaVsM % fdlh tt }kjk fn;k x;k fu.kZ; vFkok vknsk ftlesa fdlh i{k dh izkFkZuk Lohdkj dh xbZ gksA 49) eksku bu fyfeuh % ,d ,slh fyf[kr ;kfpdk tks vDlj fu.kkZ;d eaMy }kjk eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh izkjaHk gksus ls igys ;k ckn esa iwokZxzg iw.kZ lokyksa ;k c;kuksa ls cpus ds fy, vknsk tkjh djus ds fy, dh tkrh gSA 50) ekSku Vw DoSk % fdlh pht+ dks voS/k vkSj izHkkoghu cukus ds fy, ;kfpdk 51) ekSku Vw lSoj % vkerkSj ij cpko i{k dh vksj ls dh tkus okyh ;kfpdk ftlesa la;qDr cpko dÙkkZvksa ;k la;qDr vnkyrksa ls vyx lquokbZ dh izkFkZuk dh tkrh gSA 52) eksku Vw lIizSl % rFkk dfFkr xSj&dkuwuh rykkh vkSj cjkenxh ds nkSjku yh xbZEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 139
  • 143. oLrqvksa vkSj c;kuksa dks eqdíes dh lquokbZ ds nkSjku xokgh ds rkSj ij iz;ksx u djus nsus ds fy, ;kfpdkA 53) exkkSV % fdlh lansg ;qDr O;fDr dks fgjklr esa ysus ds ckn [khaps x, fp=k ¼iqLrd ds :i esa½ tks vkerkSj ij iqfyl vf/kdkfj;ksa }kjk ljdkjh fp=kksa ds :i esa iz;ksx fd, tkrs gSaA 54) eYVhIyhflVh vkWQ % ,d gh eqís ds ckjs esa vuko;d vkSj vla[; eqdíesckth dh ,sDkul dksfkksaA 55) eMZj % tku ls ekj nsus ds bjkns ls dh xbZ fdlh izk.kh dh xSj&dkuwuh bR;kA 56) ejftvk eksku % yksxksa ds lewg ds izfr ;kstukc) rjhds ls fd, x, HksnHkko ds vk/kkj ij cpko i{k ds odhy }kjk [kkfjt djus dh ;kfpdkAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 140
  • 144. ------N------- 1. NECESSITY – Controlling force; irresistible compulsion; a power or impulse so great that it admits no choice of conduct. 2. NE EXEAT - A writ or court order which forbids the person to whom it is addressed to leave the country, the state, or the jurisdiction of the court. 3. NEGLECT – Absence of care or attention in the doing or omission of a given act. 4. NEGLIGENCE - When someone fails to be as careful as the law requires to protect the rights and property of others. 5. NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS – A written and signed unconditional promise or order to pay a specified sum of money on demand or at a definite time payable to the bearer. 6. NEXT FRIEND - One acting without formal appointment as guardian for the benefit of an infant, a person of unsound mind not judicially declared incompetent, or other person under some disability. 7. NO BILL - This phrase, endorsed by a grand jury on the written indictment submitted for approval, means that the evidence was found insufficient to indict. 8. NO-CONTEST CLAUSE - Language in a will that is meant to keep people from challenging the will. It says that if a person challenges the will and loses, the person gives up anything he or she would have inherited. 9. NO-FAULT PROCEEDINGS - A civil case in which parties may resolve their dispute without a formal finding of error or fault. 10. NOLLE PROSEQUI - Decision by a prosecutor not to go forward with charging a crime. It translates, “I do not choose to prosecute.” Also loosely called nolle pros. 11. NOLO CONTENDRE - Same as pleading guilty, except that your plea cannot be used against you in civil court. This can only be used in traffic or criminal court. From the Latin for "I do not wish to contend.” 12. NOMINAL PARTY - One who is joined as a party or defendant merely because the technical rules of pleading require his presence in the record. 13. NON COMPOS MENTIS - Not of sound mind; insane. 14. NON-CAPITAL CASE - A criminal case in which the allowable penalty does not include death. 15. NON EST (INVENTUS) - A return of process when the sheriff could not find the person who is to be served. Latin meaning "not to be found." 16. NON OBSTANTE VERDICTO (N.O.V.) - A verdict entered by the judge contrary to a jurys verdict. 17. NONSUIT - The name of a judgment given against a plaintiff when he is unable to prove a case,English/Hindi Legal Glossary 141
  • 145. or when he refuses or neglects to proceed to trial and leaves the issue undetermined. 18. NOT GUILTY - The form of verdict in criminal cases where the jury acquits the defendant. 19. NOT GUILTY BY REASON OF INSANITY - The jury or the judge must determine that the defendant, because of mental disease or defect, could not commit the offense. 20. NOTARY PUBLIC - A person authorized to certify a persons signature, administer oaths, certify that documents are authentic, and take depositions. 21. NOTICE - Written information or warning. For example, a notice to the other side that you will make a motion in court on a certain date. 22. NOTICE OF MOTION - A notice to the opposing party, that on a certain date a motion will be made in court. 23. NOTICE TO PRODUCE - A notice in writing requiring the opposite party to produce a certain described paper or document at the trial, or in the course of pre-trial discovery. 24. NUISANCE – That activity which arises from unreasonable, unwarranted or unlawful use by a person of his own property, and producing such material annoyance resulting in damage. 25. NULL AND VOID - Having no force, legal power to bind, or validity. 26. NULLITY - A legal action that says a marriage never existed and the persons are still single. (Compare DISSOLUTION.) 27. NUNC PRO TUNC - When a court order is issued on one date, but is effective as of a date that is in the past. From the Latin for "now for then.” 28. NUNCUPATIVE WILL - An oral (unwritten) will.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 142
  • 146. 1) ulSLVh % fu;a=kd kfDr] vizfrjks/; etcwjh] bruh izcy kfDr ;k Hkkouk tks O;ogkj esa fdlh izdkj dh ilan dks Lohdkj u djsA 2) uh ,sXthV % vnkyr dk vknsk ftlesa fdlh ,sls O;fDr ftlds f[kykQ og vknsk fn;k x;k gS] dks nsk jkT; ;k ml vnkyr ds vf/kdkj {ks=k ls ckgj tkus dh eukgh dh xbZ gksrh gSA 3) uSxySDV % fn, x, fdlh dk;Z dks djus esa dh xbZ Hkwy vFkok vlko/kkuhA 4) uSXyhtSal % nwljksa ds vf/kdkjksa vkSj laifÙk dh lqj{kk djus esa dkuwu }kjk izR;kfkr lko/kkuh cjrus esa vlQy jgukA 5) uSxksfk;scy bLVªweSaV~l % ekaxus vFkok /kkjd dks fdlh fufpr le; ij fufpr /kujkfk dk fcuk krZ Hkqxrku djus ds fy, ,d fyf[kr vkSj gLrk{kfjr opu ;k vknskA 6) uSDLV QSaM % fcuk fu;qfDr ds fdlh fkkq ds laj{kd dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okyk dksbZ O;fDr] vLoLFk fnekx okyk O;fDr ftls dkuwuh rkSj ij ukckfyx ?kksf"kr ugha fd;k x;k gks ;k fdlh vU; vleFkZrk ls xzflr dksbZ O;fDrA 7) uks&fcy % fyf[kr vfHk;ksx&i=k dks iw.kZ fu.kkZ;d e.My }kjk eatwjh ds fy, lkSairs gq, bl okD;kak ls lgefr dk vFkZ gS fd nks"kh Bgjkus ds fy, nh xbZ xokgh i;kZIr ugha FkhA 8) uks dkaVSLV dykWt % olhgr ukes dh og Hkk"kk ftldk iz;kstu yksxksa }kjk bldks pqukSrh nsus ls jksduk gSA blesa fy[kk gksrk gS fd ;fn olhgrukes dks pqukSrh nsus okyk O;fDr gkj tkrk gS rks ml iq:"k @ L=kh dks fojklr esa izkIr gksus okyh oLrqvksa ls gkFk /kksuk iM+rk gSA 9) uks QkYV izkslhfMaXl % ,d nhokuh eqdíek ftldk nksuksa i{k Hkwy ;k xyrh dk irk yxk, fcuk le>kSrk dj ldrs gSaA 10) ukSyh izkslhfDoV % fdlh vfHk;kstd }kjk eqdíes dks vkxs u pykus dk fu.kZ; 11) uksyksdksUVS.Mª % Lo;a dks nks"kh Lohdkj djus ds leku] ijUrq nhokuh vnkyr esaEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 143
  • 147. vkidh LohdkjksfDr dks vkids fo:) iz;ksx ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldk iz;ksx dsoy ;krk;kr vFkok vijk/k laca/kh vnkyr esa fd;k tk ldrk gSA 12) uksehuy ikVhZ % dksbZ Hkh O;fDr ftldks i{k ;k cpkodÙkkZ ds :i esa dsoy bl fy, kkfey fd;k tkrk gS D;ksafd lquokbZ ds rduhdh fu;eksa ds vuqlkj nLrkostksa esa mldh mifLFkfr vko;d gksrh gSA 13) uku dkEiksl eSafVl % vLoLFk fnekx okyk O;fDr] ikxy O;fDr 14) uku dSihVy dsl % ,slk vkijkf/kd eqdíek ftlesa Qkalh dh ltk dk izko/kku ugha gSA 15) uku ,sl ¼bu oSaVl½ % tc dksbZ ftys dk izeq[k vf/kdkjh ml O;fDr dks u <wa< ik, ftls lEeu dh rkehy djokuh gks rks izfØ;k dks nksgjkukA 16) uku vksClVSaVs ojfMDVk % fu.kkZ;d e.My ds QSlys ds fo:) fn;k x;k tt tk QSlyk 17) ukulwV % fdlh ;kfpdkdÙkkZ ds f[kykQ fn, x, QSlys dk uke] tc og viuh ckr dks fl) dj ikus] ;k eqís dk QSlyk gksus ls igys dk;Zokgh esa vkxs Hkkx ysus esa ykijokgh vFkok badkj dj nsrk gSA 18) ukSV fxYVh % QSlys dk og :i ftlesa fu.kkZ;d e.My cpkodÙkkZ dks cjh dj nsrk gSA 19) ukSV fxYVh ckbZ jht+u % fu.kkZ;d e.My vFkok tt ds fy, ;g fufpr djuk vko;d gS vkQ bulsfuVh fd D;k cpkodÙkkZ fnekxh chekjh ;k [kjkch ds dkj.k vijk/k ugha dj ldrk FkkA 20) uksVjh ifCyd % ,d ,slk O;fDr ftls fdlh O;fDr ds gLrk{kj izekf.kr djus] kiFk fnykus nLrkostksa ds vlyh gksus dk izek.k nsuk vkSj xokgh vkfn ysus dk vf/kdkj gksrk gSA 21) uksfVl % fyf[kr lwpuk ;k psrkouhA mnkgj.k ds fy, nwljs i{k dks uksfVl nsuk fd vki Qyka frfFk dks vnkyr esa ,d ;kfpdk nksxsA 22) uksfVl vkQ eksku % nwljs i{k dks uksfVl fd Qyka frfFk dks vnkyr esa ,d ;kfpdk nhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 144
  • 148. tk,xhA 23) uksfVl Vw izksM~;wl % foi{kh i{k dks fyf[kr uksfVl fd og mfYyf[kr nLrkost dks eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku vFkok dk;Zokgh ls igys rF;ksa dh [kkst ds le; isk djsA 24) U;wlSal % fdlh O;fDr }kjk viuh laifÙk dk vuqfpr] voS/k vFkok xSj&dkuwuh iz;ksx ls mRié xfrfo/kh vkSj mlls gksus okyh foks"k ijskkuh ftlds ifj.kke Lo:i gkfu igqapsA 25) uy ,saM oks,M % ftlesa cka/kus dh dksbZ dkuwuh kfDr ;k vkSfpR; u gksA 26) ufYyVh % og dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ftlds dFkukuqlkj fookg dHkh gqvk ghugha vkSj nksuksa O;fDr vHkh Hkh ,dy gSaA 27) ud izks Vad % tc fdlh vnkyr dk vknsk mlds tkjh gksus dh frfFk ls igys Hkwrdky dh fdlh frfFk ls izHkkoh gksA 28) uudwisfVo % ,d ekSf[kd ¼vfyf[kr½ olhgrukekAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 145
  • 149. -----O------ 1. OATH - When a witness promises to tell the truth in a legal proceeding. 2. BJECT - To protest to the court against an act or omission by the opposing party. 3. OBJECTION - A formal protest made by a party over testimony or evidence that the other side tries to introduce in court. 4. BJECTION OVERRULED - A ruling by the court upholding the act or omission of the opposing party. 5. OBJECTION SUSTAINED - A ruling by the court in favor of the party making the objection. 6. OBSCENITY – Conduct tending to corrupt the public morals by its indecency or lewdness. 7. OF COUNSEL - A phrase commonly applied to counsel employed to assist in the preparation or management of the case, or its presentation on appeal, but who is not the principal attorney for the party. 8. OFFENDER - One who commits a crime, such as a felony, misdemeanor, or other punishable unlawful act. 9. OFFENSE - An act that breaks the law. 10. OFFENSIVE WORDS – Language that offends; displeasing or annoying language. 11. OFFER OF PROOF - Presentation of evidence to the court (out of the hearing of the jury) for the courts decision of whether the evidence is admissible. 12. ON A PERSONS OWN RECOGNIZANCE - Release of a person from custody without the payment of any BAIL or posting of BOND, upon the promise to return to court. 13. ONE-THIRD THE MIDTERM RULE - The rule that limits a person sentence when they have been convicted of multiple offenses. 14. OPENING ARGUMENT - The initial statement made by attorneys for each side, outlining the facts each intends to establish during the trial. 15. OPENING STATEMENT - See OPENING ARGUMENT. 16. OPINION - A judges written explanation of a decision of the court or of a majority of judges. A dissenting opinion disagrees with the majority opinion because of the reasoning and/or the principles of law on which the decision is based. A concurring opinion agrees with the decision of the court but offers further comment. A PER CURIAM OPINION is an unsigned opinion “of the court.” 17. OPINION EVIDENCE - Witnesses are normally required to confine their testimony to statements of fact and are not allowed to give their opinions in court. However, if a witness is qualified as an expert in a particular field, he or she may be allowed to state an opinion as an expert based on certain facts.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 146
  • 150. 18. OPPOSITION - (1) act of opposing or resisting. (2) confronting another. 19. ORAL ARGUMENT - The part of the trial when lawyers summarize their position in court and also answer the judges questions. 20. ORAL COPULATION – the act of copulating the mouth of one person with the sexual organ or anus of another person, however slight. Penetration of the mouth, sexual organ or anus is not required. 21. ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE - Court order that makes someone go to court to explain to the judge why he or she did not follow the rules. 22. ORDER, COURT - (1) Decision of a judicial officer; (2) a directive of the court. 23. ORDINARY NEGLIGENCE – The failure to use that degree of care which the ordinary or reasonably prudent person would have used under the circumstances and for which the negligent person is liable. 24. ORDINANCE - A regulation made by a local government to enforce, control, or limit certain activities. 25. ORIGINAL JURISDICTION - The court in which a matter must first be filed. 26. OVERRULE - A judges decision not to allow an objection. A decision by a higher court finding that a lower court decision was wrong. 27. OVERRULED - See OVERRULE. 28. OVERT ACT - An open act showing the intent to commit a crime. 29. OWN RECOGNIZANCE - Release of a person from custody without the payment of any bail or posting of bond.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 147
  • 151. 1) vksFk % tc dksbZ xokg dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku lR; cksyus dk opu nsrk gSA 2) vkCtSDV % foi{kh O;fDr dh fdlh dk;Zokgh ;k Hkwy dk vnkyr esa fojks/k djukA 3) vkCtSDku % fdlh O;fDr }kjk fdlh ,slh xokgh ;k izek.k dk vkSipkfjd fojks/k ftls foi{kh O;fDr }kjk vnkyr esa izLrqr djus dk iz;Ru fd;ktk jgk gksA 4) vkCtSDku vksoj& % foi{kh O;fDr dh dk;Zokgh vFkok Hkwy dks ekU;rk nsus dk vnkyr :YM dk fu.kZ; 5) vkCtSDku lLVsaM % fojks/k djus okys O;fDr ds i{k esa vnkyr dk fu.kZ;A 6) vkClhfuVh % ,slk O;ogkj tks viuh vyhyrk vkSj vHkznrk ds }kjk lkoZtfud uSfrdrk dks Hkz"V djus dk iz;Ru djrk gksA 7) vkQ dkSaly % ,d ,sls odhy ds fy, iz;ksx fd, tkus okyk okD;kak ftldh fu;qfDr eqdíes dh rS;kjh vkSj mlds izcU/k ds fy, ;k vihy ds fy, izLrqr djus ds fy, dh tkrh gS ijUrq og ml O;fDr dk eq[; odhy ugha gksrk gSA 8) vkSQSaMj % og O;fDr tks O;fHkpkj vFkok nq"deZ tSls vijk/k djrk gS tks dkuwu ds vuqlkj n.Muh; gSA 9) vkSQSal % dkuwu rksM+us okyh dksbZ dk;Zokgh 10) vkSQSaflo oMZl % f[k>kus okyh Hkk"kk] ukjkt+ ;k ijskku djus okyh Hkk"kk 11) vkQj vkQ izwQ % vnkyr esa izek.kksa dk izLrqfrdj.k djuk rkfd izek.kksa dh Lohdk;Zrk ds ckjs esa vnkyr dk fu.kZ; tkuk tk ldsA 12) vku , ijlul vksu % fdlh O;fDr dks bl opu ij fcuk tekur fn, ;k fcuk ckaM Hkjs fjdksxuhtSal fgjklr ls eqDr djuk fd og Lo;a gh vnkyr esa iqu% isk gks tk,xkA 13) ou FkMZ nk feM & VeZ % og fu;e tks fdlh O;fDr dks vusd vijk/kksa ds fy, nh xbZ ltkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 148
  • 152. :y dks lhfer djrk gSA 14) vksifuax vkxwZeSaV % izR;sd i{k ds odhy }kjk fn;k x;k izkjafHkd oDrO; ftlesa eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku izR;sd i{k }kjk fl) fd;s tkus okys rF;ksa dh :i js[kk nh tkrh gSA 15) vksifuax LVsVeSaV % ns[kks ^vksifuax vkxwZeSaV* 16) vksihfu;u % fdlh tt }kjk vnkyr vFkok ttksa ds cgqer ds fu.kZ; dk fyf[kr :i esa Li"Vhdj.kA fojks/kh fu.kZ; ml dkuwu dh rdZ&;ksX;rk rFkk @ vFkok fl)karksa ds dkj.k] ftl ij fu.kZ; fd;k tkrk gS cgqer ds fu.kZ; ls vlgefr izdV djrk gSA erSD; dk fu.kZ; vnkyr ds fu.kZ; ;s lgefr izdV djus ds vfrfjDr fVIi.kh Hkh djrk gSA 17) vksihfu;u ,sohMSal % xokgksa dks viuh xokgh rF;ksa laca/kh c;kuksa rd lhfer j[kuh gksrh gS vkSj vnkyr esa mUgsa vius fopkj izdV djus dh vuqefr ugha nh tkrh gSA ijUrq ;fn dksbZ xokg fdlh foks"k esa dksbZ ekfgj gks rks ml iq:"k @ L=kh dks dqN foks"k rF;ksa ds ckjs esa ekfgj gksus ds rkSj ij vius fopkj izdV djus dh vuqefr nh tk ldrh gSA 18) viksthku % ¼1½ fojks/k ;k izfrjks/k djus dh dk;Zokgh ¼2½ fdlh nwljs dk lkeuk djukA 19) vksjy vkxwZeSaV % vnkyrh dk;Zokgh dk og Hkkx tc odhy vnkyr esa eqdíes dk lkj crykrs gSa vkSj tt ds izuksa dk mÙkj nsrs gSaA 20) vksjy dksiwysku % fdlh O;fDr ds eqag ;k xqnk esa fdlh Hkh xgjkbZ rd iq:"k dk fyax Mky dj laHkksx djus dh fØ;kA eq[k&Nsnu] fyax vFkok xqnk Nsnu dh vko;drk ugha gSA 21) vkMZj Vw kks dkt+ % vnkyr }kjk fdlh O;fDr dks tkjh vknsk fd og vnkyr tkdj tt dks Li"Vhdj.k ns fd mlus iq:"k @ L=kh us fu;eksa dk ikyu D;ksa ugha fd;kA 22) vkMZj] dksVZ % ¼1½ fdlh U;kf;d vf/kdkjh dk vknsk] ¼2½ fdlh vnkyr dk funsZkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 149
  • 153. 23) vkfMZujh uSXyhtSal % lko/kkuh dh ml ek=kk dk iz;ksx djus esa vlQy jguk ftldk iz;ksx mu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa fdlh lk/kkj.k le> okys O;fDr }kjk fd;k tkrk rFkk ftlds fy, og ykijokg O;fDr mÙkjnk;h gSA 24) vkMhZuSal % dqN foks"k xfrfof/k;ksa dks fu;af=r djus] ykxw djus vFkok lhfer djus ds fy, fdlh LFkkfud ljdkj }kjk cuk;k x;k fu;eA 25) vkSjhftuy % ,slh vnkyr tgka fdlh eqdíes dks kq: esa nk;j djuk t:jh gSA twfjlfMdku 26) vksoZ:y % fdlh tt }kjk fdlh ,srjkt dks Lohdkj djus ls badkj djukA fdlh Åijh vnkyr dk fu.kZ; ftlesa fupyh vnkyr ds QSlys dks xyr Bgjk;k x;k gksA 27) vksoZ:YM % ns[kks ^vkso:Zy* 28) vksoVZ ,sDV % ,d Li"V dk;Z ftlesa vijk/k djus ds bjkns dk irk pyrk gksA 29) vksu fjdksxuhtSal % fcuk tekur fn, ;k fcuk ckaM Hkjs fdlh O;fDr dh fgjklr ls fjgkbZEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 150
  • 154. -----P------ 1. PANDERING – Pimping. Arranging for acts of prostitution. 2. PARALEGAL - A person with legal skills, but who is not an attorney, and who works under the supervision of a lawyer or who is otherwise authorized by law to use those legal skills. 3. PARDON - When the chief executive of a state or country releases a convicted person from the punishment given him or her by a court sentence. 4. PARENS PATRIAE - The power of the state to act in the parents place to protect a child or his or her property. 5. PAROLE - Supervised release of a prisoner that allows the person to serve the rest of the sentence out of prison if all conditions of release are met. 6. PAROLE EVIDENCE - Oral or verbal evidence rather than written. The Parole Evidence Rule limits the admissibility of parole evidence which would directly contradict the clear meaning of terms of a written contract. 7. PARTY - One of the sides of a case. The person who started the case is called the plaintiff or defendant. The person being sued is called the defendant or respondent. 8. PAT DOWN SEARCH – A limited search of the outer clothing of a person in an attempt to discover weapons which might be used to assault the officer and may be conducted if the officer has a reasonable belief that the detained person is armed and dangerous. 9. PATENT - A government grant giving an inventor the exclusive right to make or sell his or her invention for a term of years. 10. PATERNITY - Who the birth (biological) parents of a child are. 11. PEACE OFFICER – Includes sheriffs and their deputies, members of the police force of cities, and other officers whose duty is to enforce and preserve the public peace. 12. PENALTY - Punishment for breaking a law. 13. PENALTY ASSESSMENT - An amount of money added to a fine. 14. PENALTY OF PERJURY – Circumstances under which a person takes an oath that he will testify, declare, depose or certify truthfully. 15. PENDING - The status of a case that is not yet resolved by the court. 16. PENETRATION, UNLAWFUL – Unlawful insertion of the male part into the female parts, however slight an extent. 17. PENITENTIARY - A prison or place of confinement where convicted felons are sent to serve out the term of their sentence. 18. PEOPLE (PROSECUTION) - A state, for example, the People of the State of California.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 151
  • 155. 19. PER CURIUM OPINION - An unsigned OPINION of the court. 20. PEREMPTORY CHALLENGE - The right to challenge a juror without assigning a reason for the challenge. 21. PERJURY - A false statement made on purpose while under oath in a court proceeding. 22. PERMANENCY HEARING – The hearing for children placed in or awaiting placement in foster care who were under age three at the time of detention, and for all children, to monitor the welfare of the child, evaluate the parents’ reunification efforts and establish a permanent plan for the child. 23. PERMANENT INJUNCTION - A court order requiring that some action be taken, or that some party refrain from taking action. It differs from forms of temporary relief, such as a TEMPORARY RESTRIANING ORDER or PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION. 24. PERMANENT PLANNED LIVING ARRANGEMENT (PPLA) – One of the permanent plans that may be ordered for a child who is not returned to parental custody (formerly long term foster care). 25. PERMANENT RESIDENT - One who lives in a location for a period of time and indicates that it is their official address or residence. 26. PERSON IN NEED OF SUPERVISION - Juvenile found to have committed a status offense rather than a crime that would provide a basis for a finding of delinquency. Typical status offenses are habitual truancy, violating a curfew, or running away from home. These are not crimes, but they might be enough to place a child under supervision. In different states, status offenders might be called children in need of supervision or minors in need of supervision. (See STATUS OFFENDERS.) 27. PERSONAL PROPERTY - Things that you own and can move, like furniture, equipment, or paintings. 28. PERSONAL RECOGNIZANCE - Pre-trial release based on the persons own promise that he or she will show up for trial (no bond required). Also referred to as release on own recognizance or ROR. (See ON A PERSONS OWN RECOGNIZANCE.) 29. PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVE - A person picked by the court to collect, manage and distribute a persons property (estate) when they die. If named in a will, that persons title is an EXECUTOR. If there is no valid will, that persons title is an ADMINISTRATOR. 30. PETIT JURY or (TRIAL JURY) - A group of citizens that listen to the evidence presented by both sides at trial and figure out the facts in dispute. Criminal juries are made up of 12 people; civil juries are made up of at least 6 people. 31. PETITION - A court paper that asks the court to take action. For example, in juvenile cases, the Petition starts the court case. (Compare MOTION.) 32. PETITIONER - A person who presents a petition to the court. 33. PETTY OFFENSE - An offense for which the authorized penalty does not exceed imprisonment for 3 months or a fine of $500. 34. PETTY THEFT - The act of taking and carrying away the personal property of another of a value usually below $100.00 with the intent to deprive the owner of it permanently.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 152
  • 156. 35. PIMP - (1) the act of getting customers for a whore or prostitute; (2) one who gets customers for a whore or prostitute. 36. PITCHESS MOTION - A request made by the defendant for discovery of a peace officer’s personnel file with regards to any complaints or acts of excessive force and violence. 37. PLAINTIFF - The person or company that files a lawsuit. 38. PLEA - In a criminal case, the defendants statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges. (See also NOLO CONTENDRE). 39. PLEA BARGAIN - An agreement between the prosecutor and the defendant. It lets the defendant plead guilty to a less serious charge, if the court approves. 40. PLEAD - To admit or deny committing a crime. 41. PLEADING - Written statements filed with the court that describes a partys legal or factual claims about the case and what the party wants from the court. 42. POLLING THE JURY - A practice in which jurors are asked individually whether they agree with the final verdict in the case they just decided. 43. POLYGRAPH - Lie detector test and the apparatus for conducting the test. 44. POSSESSION OF DRUGS – The presence of drugs on the accused for recreational use or for the purpose to sell. 45. POST CONVICTION – A procedure by which a convicted defendant challenges the conviction and/or sentence on the basis of some alleged violation or error. 46. POSTPONEMENT – To put off or delay a court hearing. 47. POUR-OVER WILL – A will that leaves some or all estate property to a trust established before the will-maker’s death. 48. POWER OF ATTORNEY – Formal authorization of a person to act in the interest of another person. 49. PRAYER- A request of the court to grant the process, aid, or relief which the complainant desires; also, that portion of a document containing such request. 50. PRECEDENT –A court decision in an earlier case that the court uses to decide similar or new cases. 51. PREINJUNCTION – Court order requiring action or forbidding action until a decision can be made whether to issue a permanent injunction. It differs from a TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDER. 52. PREJUDICE – When an act or decision affects a persons rights in a negative way. 53. PREJUDICIAL ERROR – Synonymous with reversible error ; an error which authorizes the appellate court to reverse the judgment before it. 54. PREJUDICIAL EVIDENCE – Evidence which might unfairly sway the judge or jury to one side or the other.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 153
  • 157. 55. PRELIMINARY HEARING – The hearing available to a person charged with a felony to determine if there is enough evidence (probable cause) to hold him for trial. 56. PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION – In civil cases when it is necessary to preserve the status quo prior to trial, the court may issue this or a temporary restraining order ordering a party to carry out a specified activity. 57. PREMEDITATION –The planning of a crime before the crime takes place, rather than committing the crime on the spur of the moment. 58. PREMISES – That which is put before; that which precedes; the foregoing statements. 59. PREPERMANENCY HEARING – The hearing conducted according to Welfare and Institutions Code Section 366.21(e) for foster care placement children who were over age three at the time of detention, to monitor the welfare of the child and evaluate the parents’ reunification efforts. 60. PREPONDERANCE OF THE EVIDENCE – To win a civil case, the plaintiff has to prove that most of the evidence is on his or her side. 61. PRESENTENCE REPORT – A report prepared by the probation department for the judge when sentencing a defendant. Describes defendants background: financial, job, and family status; community ties; criminal history; and facts of the current offense. 62. PRESENTMENT – Declaration or document issued by a grand jury that either makes a neutral report or notes misdeeds by officials charged with specified public duties. It ordinarily does not include a formal charge of crime. A presentment differs from an INDICTMENT. 63. PRESUMED FATHER – A man who is married to the mother of the child, who has signed a declaration of paternity, or has received the child into his home and held the child out to the community as his child, whether that man is the biological father of the child, or not. 64. PRESUMPTION – An inference of the truth or falsity of a proposition or fact, that stands until rebutted by evidence to the contrary. 65. PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE – A hallowed principle of criminal law that a person is innocent of a crime until proven guilty. The government has the burden of proving every element of a crime beyond a reasonable doubt and the defendant has no burden to prove his innocence. 66. PRESUMPTION OF LAW – a rule of law that courts and judges shall draw a particular inference from a particular fact, or from particular evidence. 67. PRETERMITTED CHILD - A child born after a will was written, who is not provided for by the will. Most states have laws that provide for a share of estate property to go to such children. 68. PRETRIAL CONFERENCE - Any time both sides of the case go to court before trial. In criminal cases, its usually when the defendant and prosecutor talk about settling the case. 69. PRIMA FACIE CASE - A case that is sufficient and has the minimum amount of evidence necessary to allow it to continue in the judicial process. From the Latin for "from first view." 70. PRINCIPAL – The source of authority or right. 71. PRINCIPALS – Persons who are involved in committing or attempting to commit a crime. Includes those who directly and actively commit or attempt to commit the crime, or those who assist (aid and abet) in the commission or attempted commission of the crime.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 154
  • 158. 72. PRINCIPLE TERM - Greatest term of imprisonment imposed by the court on any one count, imposed of base term plus any enhancements, to which subordinate terms are added. 73. PRIORS - Term meaning previous conviction(s) of the accused. 74. PRIOR CONVICTION - As used in Superior Court pleadings, an allegation that defendant has previously been imprisoned. 75. PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENT – In evidence, these are prior statements made by the witness which contradict statements the witness made on the witness stand. 76. PRISON – A federal or state public building or other place for the confinement of persons. It is used as either a punishment imposed by the law or otherwise in the course of the administration of justice. Also known as penitentiary, penal institution, adult correctional institution, or jail. 77. PRIVACY, RIGHT OF – The right to be left alone; the right of a person to be free from unwarranted publicity. 78. PRIVILEGE - An advantage not enjoyed by all; a special exemption from prosecution or other lawsuits. (See also IMMUNITY.) 79. PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATIONS - Confidential communications to certain persons that are protected by law against any disclosure, including forced disclosure in legal proceedings. Communications between lawyer and client, physician and patient, psychotherapist and patient, priest, minister, or rabbi and penitent are typically privileged. 80. PRIVITY - Mutual or successive relationships to the same right of property, or the same interest of one person with another which represents the same legal right. 81. PROBABLE CAUSE - A good reason to believe that a crime has or is being committed; the basis for all lawful searches, seizures, and arrests. 82. PROBATE - The judicial process to determine if a will of a dead person is genuine or not; lawful distribution of a decedents estate. 83. PROBATE COURT - The court with authority to deal with the estates of people who have died. 84. PROBATE ESTATE - All the assets in an estate that are subject to probate. This does not include all property. For example, property in joint tenancy are not part of the probate estate. 85. PROBATION - A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases a convicted defendant under supervision of a probation officer that makes certain that the defendant follows certain rules, for example, gets a job, gets drug counseling. 86. PROBATION BEFORE JUDGMENT (PBJ) - A conditional avoidance of imposing a sentence after conviction. 87. PROBATION DEPARTMENT - The department that oversees the actions of those who are on probation as well as the location of where probation officers work. 88. PROBATION OFFICER - One who supervises a person placed on probation and is required to report the progress and to surrender them if they violate the terms and conditions of the probation. 89. PRO BONO - Legal work done for free. From the Latin meaning "for the public good."English/Hindi Legal Glossary 155
  • 159. 90. PROCEDURAL LAW - The method, established normally by rules to be followed in a case; the formal steps in a judicial proceeding. 91. PRODUCTS LIABILITY – Refers to the legal liability of manufacturers and sellers to compensate buyers, users and even bystanders for damages or injuries suffered because of defects in goods purchased. 92. PROFFER - An offer of proof as to what the evidence would be if a witness were called to testify or answer a question. 93. PRO HAC VICE - for this one particular occasion. For example, an out-of-state lawyer may be admitted to practice in a local jurisdiction for a particular case only. From the Latin meaning "for this turn." 94. PROHIBITION - Act or law that forbids something. 95. PROMISSORY NOTE - A written document that says a person promises to pay money to another. 96. PROOF - Any fact or evidence that leads to a judgment of the court. 97. PROOF OF SERVICE - A form filed with the court that proves that court papers were properly delivered to someone. 98. PRO PER - Person who presents their own cases in court without lawyers (See also IN PROPIA PERSONA and PRO SE.) 99. PROPERTY – Something tangible or intangible that someone holds legal title. 100. PRO SE - Person who presents their own cases in court without lawyers (See also PRO PER and PRO SE.) 101. PROSECUTING ATTORNEY - A public office who prosecutes criminal cases for the state. See PROSECUTOR and DISTRICT ATTORNEY. 102. PROSECUTION - The party that starts a criminal case and files criminal charges. The prosecution is the lawyer for the state. A common name for the states side of the case. 103. PROSECUTOR - A trial lawyer representing the government in a criminal case and the interests of the state in civil matters. In criminal cases, the prosecutor has the responsibility of deciding who and when to file charges. 104 PROSTITUTION - The performance or agreement to perform a sexual act for hire. 105. PROTECTIVE ORDER - A court order to protect a person from further harassment, service of process, or discovery. 106. PRO TEM - A temporary assigned official with authority to hear and decide cases in a court. 107. PROXIMATE CAUSE - The act that caused an event to occur. 108. PUBLIC DEFENDER - A lawyer picked by the court to represent a defendant who cannot afford a lawyer.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 156
  • 160. 109. PUNITIVE DAMAGES - Money awarded to an injured person, over and above the measurable value of the injury, in order to punish the person who hurt him. 110. PURGE - To clean or clear, such as eliminating inactive records from court files; with respect to civil contempt, to clear the noncompliance that caused the contempt finding.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 157
  • 161. 1) iSaMfjax % nykyh djuk] oS;o`fÙk laca/kh xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, izca/k djukA 2) iSjkyhxy % dkuwuh fuiq.krk okyk O;fDr] ijUrq tks odhy u gks vkSj tks fdlh odhy dh ns[kjs[k esa dke djrk gks ;k ftls fdlh vU; rjhds ls viuh dkuwuh fuiq.krk dk iz;ksx djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksA 3) ikjMu % fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dks dkuwu }kjk nh xbZ ltk dks fdlh jkT; ;k nsk ds eq[; dk;Zdkjh vf/kdkjh }kjk ekQ dj nsukA 4) isjsal iSfVª;s % fdlh ckyd @ ckfydk ds ekrk&firk ds LFkku ij jkT; }kjk mldh laifÙk dks lqjf{kr j[kus dk vf/kdkjA 5) iSjksy % fdlh dSnh dh ij[k v/khu fjgkbZ ftlds vuqlkj og ckdh dh ltk tsy ls ckgj jgdj dkV ldrk gS ;fn og fjgkbZ dh lHkh krks± dks iwjk djsA 6) iSjksy ,sohMSal % fyf[kr xokgh dh ctk, ekSf[kd vFkok cksy dj nh xbZ xokghA iSjksy ,sohMSal laca/kh fu;e ,sls ekeyksa eas iSjksy ,sohMSal dh Lohdk;Zrk dks lhfer djrs gSa tgka ,slh xokgh fdlh fyf[kr le>kSrs dh krks± dk Li"V mYya?kuk djrh gksA 7) ikVhZ % fdlh eqdíes ds i{kksa esa ls dksbZ ,d i{kA eqdíek kq: djus okys O;fDr dks oknh ;k fkdk;rdÙkkZ dgk tkrk gSA ftl O;fDr ds fo:) eqdíek fd;k tkrk gS mls cpkodÙkkZ ;k izfroknh dgk tkrk gSA 8) iSV MkÅu lpZ % mu gfFk;kjksa dh cjkenxh ds fy, ckgjh oL=kksa dh lhfer rykkh ftudk iz;ksx vf/kdkjh ij vpkud geyk djus ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,slh rykkh rc dh tk ldrh gS tc vf/kdkjh dks mfpr fookl gks fd fgjklr eas fy;k x;k O;fDr gfFk;kj fy, gq, vkSj [krjukd gSA 9) isVsaV % fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh vkfo"dkjd dks vius vkfo"dkj dk dqN o"kks± dh vof/k ds fy, fuekZ.k vFkok foØ; djus dk ljdkj }kjk fn;k x;k ,dkf/kdkjAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 158
  • 162. 10) iSVjfuVh % tks cPps ds ¼thou laca/kh½ tUe ls ekrk&firk gksaA 11) ihl vkQhlj % blesa ftyksa ds izeq[k vf/kdkjh] muds lgk;d] kgjh iqfyl cy ds lnL; vkSj vU; vf/kdkjh] ftudk dke lkoZtfud kkafr ykxw djuk vkSj cuk, j[kuk gS] kkfey gksrs gSaA 12) iSufyVh % fdlh dkuwu dks rksM+us dh lt+kA 13) iSuYVh vlSlesaV % tqekZus ds lkFk tksM+h xbZ /kujkfkA 14) iSuYVh vkQ ijtjh % os ifjfLFkfr;ka ftuesa dksbZ O;fDr ;g kiFk ysrk gS fd og lR;rkiwoZd c;ku o xokgh nsxk vkSj izekf.kr djsxkA 15) iSafMax % ml eqdíes dh fLFkfr ftldk vHkh vnkyr }kjk fu.kZ; ugha fd;k x;k gSA 16) iSuhVªsku] vu&yk& % iq:"k ds fyax dk L=kh ds vaxksa esa xSj&dkuwuh <ax ls izosk djkuk] Qqy pkgs fdruh Hkh de xgjkbZ gksA 17) iSuhVSafk;jh % dkjxkj ;k canhxzg tgka ltk ;k¶rk eqtfjeksa dks viuh ltk dkVus ds fy, Hkstk tkrk gSA 18) I;wiy ¼izkSlhD;wku½ % dksbZ jkT;] mnkgj.k ds fy, dSyhQkSjfu;k jkT;A 19) ij dqfj;e vksihfu;u % fdlh vnkyr dk vfyf[kr fu.kZ;A 20) fijSaiVªh pSysat % fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fdlh lnL; dks fcuk dkj.k crk, pqukSrh nsukA 21) ijtjh % fdlh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku vnkyr esa kiFk ysdj Hkh xyr c;kuh djukA 22) ijekuSalh gh;fjax % ekrk&firk dh fxj¶rkjh ds le; 3 o"kZ ls de mez ds cPps ftudk ikyu&iks"k.k /keZ ds ekrk&firk ds }kjk fd;k tk jgk gS ;k ftudks vHkh muds ikl Hkstk tkuk gS] muds rFkk lHkh cPpksa ds dY;k.k dsEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 159
  • 163. fy, mUgsa vius ekrk&firk ls iqu% feykus ds fy, iz;Ruksa ds fy, rFkk cPpksa ds fy, LFkk;h ;kstuk ds fy, dh xbZ lquokbZA 23) ijekuSaV butaDku % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlesa dksbZ dk;Zokgh djus dk funsZk gksrk gS ;k fdlh i{k dks dksbZ dk;Zokgh djus ls jksdk tkrk gSA bldk izk:i vLFkk;h jkgr ls fHké gS] tSls fd VSaizsjh jSLVªsfuax vkMZj ;k fizfyehujh bUtaDkuA 24) ijekuSaV IySUM fyfoax % fdlh ,sls cPps ds fy, ftls vius ekrk&firk dk laj{k.k izkIr ugha vjsateSaV gqvk gS] ds fy, fdlh LFkk;h ;kstuk] ftldk vknsk fn;k tkuk gSA 25) ijekuSaV jsthMSaV % og O;fDr tks fdlh LFkku ij dqN vof/k rd jgrk gS vkSj bafxr djrk gS fd ;gha mldk ljdkjh irk vkSj fuokl LFkku gSA 26) ijlu bu uhM vkWQ % 18 o"kZ ls de mez dk cPpk ftlus vijk/k dh vis{kk LoHkkfod lqijoht+u nks"k fd;k gks] mlds fo:) lkekftd nqjO;ogkj dk nks"k lkfcr djus dk vk/kkj curk gSA bl oxZ ds nks"k gSa] vknru dÙkZO;&R;kx] dfdZ;w dk mYya?ku ;k ?kj ls Hkkx tkukA ;s vijk/k ugha gSa ijUrq fdlh cPps dks ns[kjs[k v/khu j[kus ds fy, i;kZIr gSA 27) ilZuy izksiVhZ % os oLrq,a ftu ij vkidk LokfeRo gS vkSj tks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ys tkbZ tk ldrh gSa] tSls QuhZpj] lkt&lkeku ;k isafVaXl vkfnA 28) ijlZuy jSdksxuh tSal % fdlh iq:"k@L=kh }kjk fn, x, bl opu f dog eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh esa Lo;a mifLFkr gks tk,xk] ds vk/kkj ij dk;Zokgh ls igys mldh fjgkbZ ¼ftlds fy, fdlh ckaM dh t:jr ugha gksrh½ 29) ilZuy fjizt+SaVsfVo % fdlh O;fDr dh e`R;q ds le; mldh laifÙk dks ,d=k djus mldk izca/k vkSj forj.k djus ds fy, vnkyr ds }kjk pquk x;k dksbZ O;fDrA ;fn olhgr ukes esa mldk uke fy[kk gks rks mls izca/kd dgk tk,xkA ;fn dksbZ oS/k olhgrukek ugha gS rks mldks izkkld dgk tk,xkA 30) iSfVV twjh ;k Vªk;y % ukxfjdksa dk og lewg tks eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds le; nksuksa i{kksaEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 160
  • 164. twjh ds }kjk isk fd, x, xokgksa dks lqurs gSa vkSj >jksM+ ds rF;ksa dk vuqeku yxkrs gSaA vijk/k laca/kh fu.kkZ;d e.My ds 12 lnL; gksrs gSaA nhokuh eqdíeksa ls lacaf/kr fu.kkZ;d e.My ds de ls de 6 lnL; gksrs gSaA 31) iSVhku % vnkyrh nLrkost ftlesa vnkyr dks dk;Zokgh djus dk vkosnu fd;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] 18 o"kZ ls de mez ds cPpksa ds eqdíes ;kfpdk ls kq: gksrs gSaA 32) iSVhkuj % og O;fDr tks vnkyr esa ;kfpdk nk;j djrk gSA 33) iSV~Vh vkSQSal % ,slk nks"k ftlds fy, vf/kd`r 3 o"kZ ls vf/kd dSn ;k 500 Mkyj tqekZus ls vf/kd ltk ugha nh tk ldrhA 34) iSV~Vh FkS¶V % fdlh nwljs dh 100 Mkyj ls de dher dh laifÙk blds Lokeh dks lnk ds fy, blls oafpr djus ds fy, mBk ys tkukA 35) fiEi % ¼1½ fdlh jaMh ;k oS;k ds fy, xzkgd tqVkus dk dk;ZA ¼2½ og O;fDr tks fdlh jaMh ;k oS;k ds fy, xzkgd tqVkrk gSA 36) fiPpSl eksku % vko;drk ls vf/kd cy iz;ksx vkSj fgalk dh dk;Zokgh ;k fdUgha fkdk;rksa ds laca/k esa kkafr dk;e j[kus okys vf/kdkjh ds deZpkfj;ksa dh QkbZy cjken djus ds fy, cpkodÙkkZ }kjk dh xbZ ;kfpdkA 37) IysafVd % eqdíek nk;j djus okyk dksbZ O;fDr ;k daiuhA 38) Iyh % yxk, x, nks"kksa ds mÙkj esa fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes esa cpkodÙkkZ dk c;ku fd Þnks"kh gwaß ;k Þnks"kh ugha gwaß dk c;kuA 39) Iyh ckjxsu % vfHk;kstd vkSj cpkodÙkkZ ds chp gqvk le>kSrkA ;g cpkodÙkkZ dks de xaHkhj vijk/k ds fy, nks"kh gksus dh Lohdk;Zrk dh NwV nsrk gS] ;fn vnkyr eatwjh ns rksA 40) IyhM % fdlh vijk/k djus dks Lohdkjuk ;k udkjukA 41) IyhfMax % fdlh i{k }kjk vnkyr esa fn, x, fyf[kr c;ku ftuesa eqdíes dsEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 161
  • 165. ckjs esa ml i{k ds dkuwuh rFkk rF;ksa ij vk/kkfjr nkoksa dk o.kZu fn;k gksrk gS vkSj ;g Hkh fy[kk jgrk gS fd og i{k vnkyr ls D;k pkgrk gSA 42) ikSfyax nh twjh % og izfØ;k ftlds vuqlkj fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa vyx&vyx iwNk tkrk gS fd D;k os ml eqdíes ds vafre QSlys ls lger gS ftldk fu.kZ; mUgksaus vHkh&vHkh fd;k gS 43) ikSyhxzkQ % >wB idM+us ds fy, fd;k x;k ijh{k.k vkSj ,sls ijh{k.k ds fy, iz;ksx dh tkus okyh ekhu 44) ikstSku vkQ MªXl % eu cgykos vFkok foØ; ds fy, nks"kh ds ikl ukhyh nokvksa dk gksuk 45) iksLV dfUoDku % og izfØ;k ftlds vUrxZr rFkk dfFkr mYya?ku ;k xyrh ds dkj.k dksbZ ltk izkIr O;fDr viuh ltk ds vknsk dks pqukSrh nsrk gSA 46) iksLV;ksueSaV % vnkyrh lquokbZ dks vkxs Mkyuk ;k mlesa nsjh djukA 47) iksj&vksoj foy % ,slk olh;rukek ftlesa olh;r djus okys us viuh tk;nkn dk dqN Hkkx vFkok iwjh tk;nkn fdlh ,sls VªLV ds uke dh gks ftldh LFkkiuk mldh e`R;q ls igys gqbZ gksA 48) ikoj vkQ vVkuhZ % fdlh nwljs ds fgr esa dk;Zokgh djus dk vf/kdkj nsukA 49) izs;j % fkdk;rdÙkkZ }kjk okafNr izfØ;k] lgk;rk vFkok jkgr dh eatwjh ds vnkyr ls vkosnu] ,sls vkosnu okys nLrkost dk dksbZ Hkkx HkhA 50) izSlhMSaV % iqjkus eqdíeksa esa vnkyr }kjk fn;k x;k QSlyk ftldk iz;ksx vnkyr }kjk ml tSls ;k u, eqdíes dk QSlyk djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 51) izh&bUtaDku % vnkyr }kjk LFkk;h vknsk ds fu.kZ; rd fdlh dk;Zokgh dks djus ;k u djus dk vknskA ;g vLFkk;h LFkxu vknsk ls fHkUu gSA 52) izStqMkbZl % tc dksbZ dk;Z vFkok fu.kZ; fdlh ds vf/kdkjksa dks udkjkRed <ax ls izHkkfor djrk gksAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 162
  • 166. 53) izStqMhfk;y vkMZj % ifjorZuh; xyrh] og xyrh tks vihyh; vnkyr dks fopkjk/khu QSlys dks myVkus dk vf/kdkj nsrh gSA 54) izStqMh fk;y ,sohMSal % og xokgh tks tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My dks utk;t <ax ls fdlh ,d i{k dh vksj >qdk nsA 55) fizfyfeujh gh;fjax % ;g tkuus ds fy, fdlh dqdeZ djus ds fdlh nks"kh O;fDr ij eqdíek pykus ds fy, I;kZIr izek.kA laHkkfor dkj.k gS ;k ugha] ml O;fDr dks miyC/k lquokbZ dk volj 56) fizfyfeujh bUtaDku % tc nhokuh eqdíeksa esa dk;Zokgh ls igys iwoZ&fLFkfr cgky j[kuk vko;d gks rks vnkyr ;g vknsk ;k LFkk;h LFkxu vknsk ns ldrh gS ftlesa fdlh i{k dks fdlh foks"k dk;Z dks djus dk vknsk fn;k gksrk gSA 57) izheSMhVsku % ,dne vijk/k djus dh ctk, ftls igys djus ls igys vijk/k djus dh ;kstuk cukukA 58) izhekbZtst+ % ftls igys j[kk tkrk gS] igys vkus okyk] igys fn, x, c;kuA 59) izh&ijekuSalh gh;fjax % oSYQs;j ,.M bUlVhV~;wku dksM ds lSDku 366-21 ¼bZ½ ds vuqlkj ekrk&firk dh fxj¶rkjh ds le; 3 o"kZ ls Åij dh mez okys cPpksa dks /keZ ds ekrk&firk dh laHkky esa Hkstus] cPps dh HkykbZ dk /;ku j[kus vkSj ekrk&firk ds lkFk iqufeZyu ds iz;Ruksa dk ewY;kadu djus ds fy, dh xbZ lquokbZA 60) izh&ikSaMªSal vkQ nh % fdlh iq:"k@L=kh oknh dks eqdíek thrus ds fy, fl) djuk gksrk ,sohMSal gS fd vf/kdkak izek.k mlds i{k esa gSaA 61) izStSaVsl fjiksVZ % tt }kjk fdlh cpkodÙkkZ dks ltk nsrs le; fuxjku foHkkx }kjk rS;kj dh xbZ fjiksVZA blessa cpkodÙkkZ dh i`"BHkwfe dk o.kZu gksrk gS] foÙkh;] dkedkth ,oa ikfjokfjd fLFkfr] lkeqnkf;d laca/k] vkijkf/kd bfrgkl vkSj orZeku vijk/k ds rF; vkfnA 62) izStSaVeSaV % iw.kZ fu.kkZ;d e.My }kjk tkjh og ?kks"k.kk ;k gLrkost ftlesa lkoZtfud mÙkjnkf;Ro ds inksa ij vklhu ljdkjh vf/kdkfj;ksa dsEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 163
  • 167. dqd`R;ksa dh rVLFk fjiksVZ ;k mYys[k gksrk gSA lk/kkj.kr;k blesa vijk/k dk vkSipkfjd nks"k kkfey ugha gksrk gSA izStSaVeSaV vkSj bufMDVeSaV esa varj gksrk gSA 63) fizT;wEM Qknj % og vkneh ftldk cPps dh ekrk ls fookg gqvk gks] ftlus iSr`drk dh ?kks"k.kk ij gLrk{kj fd, gksa ;k ftlus cPps ?kj esa izkIr fd;k vkSj cPps dks vius cPps ds :i esa leqnk; ds le{k izLrqr fd;k gks] pkgs og vkneh tho&foKku ds vk/kkj ij ml cPps dks firk gS ;k ughaA 64) fiztEiku % fdlh izLrko vFkok rF; dh lR;rk vFkok >wBk gksus dk fu"d"kZ tks rc rd ekU; gksrk gS tc rd blds foijhr izek.k }kjk bls xyr fl) u dj fn;k tk,A 65) fiztEiku vkQ % vijk/k laca/kh dkuwu dk og lkfRod fl)kar ftlds vuqlkj dksbZ bUukslSal O;fDr vijk/k ds fy, rc rd funksZ"k gksrk gS tc rd fd mls nks"kh fl) u fd;k x;k gksA ljdkj dh ftEesnkjh gS fd og vijk/k ds izR;sd rRo dks izekf.kr djus esa kd dh xqatkbk u NksM+s vkSj cpkodÙkkZ ij vius funksZ"k gksus dk izek.k nsus dh ftEesnkjh ugha gSA 66) fiztEiku vkQ yk % dkuwu dk og fu;e ftlds vuqlkj vnkyrsa vkSj tt fdlh foks"k fu"d"kZ ij fdlh foks"k rF; vFkok foks"k izek.k ds vk/kkj ij gh igqapsaxsA 67) izhVfeZVsM pkbZYM % og cPpk ftldk tUe olh;rukek fy[kus ds ckn gqvk gks vkSj ftlds ckjs esa olh;r ukes esa dksbZ izko/kku u fd;k x;k gksA vf/kdrj jkT;ksa esa ,sls dkuwu gS ftuesa ;g izca/k fd;k x;k gS fd tk;nkn esa ,sls dk fgLlk mUgsa feysA 68) izh&Vªk;y dkUÝSal % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys fdlh Hkh le; nksuksa i{k vnkyr ds le{k tk ldrs gSaA vkijkf/kd ekeyksa ;g og le; gS tc cpkodÙkkZ vkSj vfHk;kstd nksuksa le>kSrs ds ckjs esa ckrphr djrs gSaA 69) izkbZlk QslkbZ dsl % og ;ksX; eqdíek ftlesa dkuwuh izfØ;k ds tkjh j[ks tkus dh vkKkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 164
  • 168. nsus ds fy, vko;d de ls de izek.k ekStwn gksaA ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS] ÞizFke n`f"V lsßA 70) fizalhiy % kfDr vFkok vf/kdkj dk lzks=kA 71) fizalhiYl % os yksx tks vnkyr djus vFkok vijk/k djus dh dksfkk esa kkfey gksa bues os yksx Hkh kkfey gksrs gSa tks izR;{k ,oa lfØ; :i ls vijk/k djrs gSa ;k vijk/k djus dk iz;Ru djrs gSa vFkok tks vijk/k djus ;k vijk/k djus ds iz;Ru esa lgk;rk djrs gSa ;k mdlkrs gSaA 72) fizalhiy VeZ % vnkyr }kjk fdlh ,d vijk/k ds fy, nh tkus okyh tsy tkus dh vR;kf/kd vof/k dh ltk] vk/kkjHkwr ltk rFkk blesa dh xbZ o`f);ka] ftlesa vkfJr vof/k;ka Hkh tksM+h tkrh gSaA 73) izk;lZ % nks"kh dks igys nh xbZ ltk dh vof/k;ka 74) izk;j dfUodku % Åijh vnkyrksa esa iz;ksx vuqlkj] ;g vkjksi fd cpkodÙkkZ dks igys Hkh tsy tk pqdk gSA 75) izk;j budafllVSaV % xokgh esa ;s fdlh Xokg }kjk igys fn, x, c;ku gSa tks xokg }kjk LVsVeSaV dV?kjs esa fn, x, c;ku ls foijhr gSaA 76) fizt+u % dksbZ la?kh; vFkok izkarh; ljdkjh bekjr ;k dksbZ vkSj LFkku tks yksxksa dks fgjklr esa j[kus ds fy, gksrk gSA bldk iz;ksx ;k rks ltk feyus ds ckn ;k U;k; ds izkklu ds nkSjku fd;k tkrk gSA bldks ipkrki x`g] lq/kkjx`g ;k tsy Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 77) izkbZoslh] jkbZV vkWQ % vdsyk NksM+s tkus dk vf/kdkj] fdlh O;fDr dk vupkgs izpkj ls Lora=k jgus dk vf/kdkjA 78) fizfoyst+ % ,slk ykHk ftls lHkh ugha ys ldrs] bLrxkls ;k fdlh vU; eqdíes ls NwV 79) fizfoysTM % dqN yksxksa dks Hksts tkus okys xqIr lansk tks dkuwuh izfØ;k esa tcju dE;wfudskul [kqykls lfgr lHkh izdkj ds [kqyklksa ds fo:) dkuwu }kjk lqj{kkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 165
  • 169. izkIr gSaA odhy rFkk eqofDdy ds chp] MkDVj rFkk jksxh ds chp] euksfpfdRld rFkk jksxh ds chp] iqtkjh] ea=kh rFkk ipkrki djus okys ds chp laokn blh Js.kh esa vkrs gSaA 80) izkbZfoVh % laifÙk ds leku vf/kdkj ds izfr ijLij vFkok Øekuqlkj laca/k vFkok fdlh ,d O;fDr dk nwljs ds lkFk leku fgr tks lekt dkuwuh vf/kdkj dks izdV djrk gSA 81) izkscscy dkWt+ % ;g fookl djus ds fy, fd vijk/k fd;k tk pqdk gS ;k fd;k tk jgk gS] mi;qZDr dkj.kA lHkh oS/k rykfk;ksa] cjkenfx;ksa vkSj fxj¶rkfj;ksa dk vk/kkjA 82) izkscsV % ;g fufpr djus ds fy, fdlh e`rd ;k clh;rukek vlyh gS ;k ugha] viukbZ tkus okyh U;kf;d izfØ;kA fdlh okfjl dh tk;nkn dk oS/k foHkktuA 83) izkscsV dksVZ % og vnkyr ftls e`rdksa dh tk;nkn dk caVokjk djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksA 84) izkscsV ,sLVsV % fdlh tk;nkn esa kkfey lHkh laifÙk;ka ftu ij oS/k foHkktu dh krZ ykxw gksrh gSA blesa lkjh tk;nkn ugha vkrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] la;qDr iV~Vsnkjh dh laifÙk izkscsV ,sLVsV dk Hkkx ugha gSA 85) izkscsku % tsy tkus dh ltk dk ,d fodYi ftlds vUrxZr fdlh nks"kh dks izkscsku vf/kdkjh dh ns[kjs[k esa vnkyr fjgk dj nsrh gS tks ;g fufpr djrk gS fd cpkodÙkkZ dqN fu;eksa dk ikyu djrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] og dksbZ dke /ka/kk djrk gS] og ukhyh nokvksa ds izfr ijkekZ ysrk gSA 86) izkscsku fcQksj tteSaV % nks"kh djkj fn, tkus ds ckn ltk ykxw djus ls lkrZ cpkoA 87) izkscsku fMikVZeSaV % og foHkkx tks mu yksxksa dh xfrfof/k;ksa ij utj j[krk gS tks izkscsku ij gSaA lkFk gh mu LFkkuksa ij Hkh utj j[kh tkrh gS tgka izkscsku vf/kdkjh dk;Zjr gSA 88) izkscsku vkQhlj % og vf/kdkjh tks izkscsku ij fjgk fd, x, O;fDr;ks ij ut+jEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 166
  • 170. j[krk gS vkSj ftls bl ckjs izxfr fjiksVZ nsuh gksrh gSA og mu yksxksa ls leiZ.k djokrk gS tks izkscsku dh krks± dk mYya?ku djrs gSaA 89) izkscksuks % fu%kqYd dh xbZ dkuwuh dk;ZokghA ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS] Þyksd&dY;k.k ds fy,Aß 90) izkslhtjy ykW % lk/kkj.kr;k fdlh eqdíes esa viuk, tkus okys fu;eksa }kjk LFkkfir fof/k] U;kf;d dk;Zokgh esa vkSipkfjd pj.kA 91) izksbDVl yk;fcfyVh % bldk vFkZ mRikndksa vkSj foØsrkvksa }kjk [kjhnnkjksa] iz;ksxdÙkkZvksa vkSj ;gka rd fd ikl [kM+s yksxksa dks [kjhns x, eky esa [kjkch ds dkj.k gqbZ gkfu ds cnys eqvkotk nsus dh oS/kkfud ftEesnkjh gSA 92) izksQj % izek.k nsus dh iskdk fd ;fn fdlh xokg dks xokgh nsus ;k fdlh izu dk mÙkj nsus ds fy, cqyk;k tkrk rks xokgh dSlh gksrhA 93) izks gSd okbZl % bl foks"k volj ds fy,A mnkgj.k ds fy,] fdlh ckgjh jkT; ds odhy dks LFkkfud vf/kdkj {ks=k ds fdlh foks"k eqdíesa dh dk;Zokgh esa Hkkx ysus dh vkKk nh tk ldrh gSA 94) izksfgchku % og dkuwu ;k fu;e tks fdlhckr ij ikcanh yxkrk gksA 95) izksfeljh uksV % og fyf[kr nLrkost ftlesa dksbZ O;fDr fdlh nwljs dks /ku pqdkus dk opu nsrk gSA 96) izwQ % dksbZ rF; ;k izek.k ftlds vk/kkj ij vnkyr fdlh fu.kZ; ij igqaprh gSA 97) izwQ vkQ lfoZl % vnkyr esa nkf[ky fd;k x;k og QkeZ tks ;g fl) djrk gS fd vnkyr ds dkxt fdlh O;fDr ds ikl Bhd <ax ls igqapk, tk pqds gSaA 98) izks ij % os yksx tks odhy ds fcuk vius eqdíeksa dks vnkyr esa Lo;a isk djrs gSaA 99) izkSiVhZ % dksbZ Li"V vFkok LikkZrhr oLrq ftl ij fdlh dk oS/kkfud LokfeRo gksAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 167
  • 171. 100) izks ls % os O;fDr tks vnkyr esa vius eqdíes fcuk odhy ds Lo;a isk djrs gSaA 101) izkSlhD;wfVax vVkuhZ % og ljdkjh vf/kdkjh tks ljdkj dh vksj ls vkijkf/kd eqdíeksa dk vfHk;kstu djrk gSA 102) izkSlhD;wku % og i{k tks vkijkf/kd eqdíek nk;j djrk gS vkSj vkijkf/kd nks"k nk;j djrk gSA izkSlhD;wku ljdkjh odhy gksrk gSA og eqdíes esa ljdkj dk lkekU; uke gSA 103) izkslhD;wVj % fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh esa ljdkj dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okyk vkSj nhokuh ekeyksa esa jkT; ds fgrksa dk /;ku j[kus okyk odhyA vkijkf/kd eqdíes esa ;g QSlyk djuk vfHk;kstd dk dke gksrk gS fd nks"kkjksi.k dc vkSj fdls djuk gSA 104) izkSLVhV~;wku % /ku ds cnys ;kSu laca/kh fØ;k djuk ;k djus ds fy, bdjkj djukA 105) izkSVsfDVo vkMZj % vnkyr og vknsk ftlds }kjk fdlh O;fDr dks vkSj vf/kd ijskkuh] izfØ;k dh rkehy vkSj cjkenxh ds fo:) lqj{kk iznku dh tkrh gSA 106) izks VSe % fdlh vnkyr esa vLFkk;h rkSj ij eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ vkSj mudk QSlyk djus ds fy, fu;qDr fd;k x;k vf/kdkjhA 107) izkSDlhesaV dkSt+ % og dk;Z ftlds dkj.k dksbZ ?kVuk ?kVhA 108) ifCyd fMQSaMj % vnkyr }kjk fdlh ,sls cpkodÙkkZ dk izfrfu/kRo djus ds fy, pquk x;k odhy tks odhy dk [kpZ ogu ugha dj ldrkA 109) I;wuhfVo MSestu % ?kk;y djus okys O;fDr dks ltk nsus ds mn~ns; ls ?kk;y O;fDr dks ?kko dh ewY;kafdr jkfk ls vf/kd fn;k x;k /kuA 110) i.kZ % lkQ&lQkbZ djuk] tSls fd vnkyrh QkbZyksa esa ls iqjkus fjdkMZ dks ckgj fudky dj u"V djukA nhokuh vogsyuk ds laca/k esa] ml dk;Zokgh dks lekIr djuk ftlds dkj.k vogsyuk gqbZ FkhAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 168
  • 172. ------Q------- 1. QUANTUM MERUIT - Latin meaning "as much as he deserves," and describes the extent of liability on a contract implied by law. 2. QUASH - To overthrow, to vacate, to annul or make void. 3. QUASI JUDICIAL - Authority or discretion vested in an officer whose actions are of a judicial character. 4. QUID PRO QUO - Something for something; giving one valuable thing for another. 5. QUO WARRANTO - A writ issuable by the state, through which it demands an individual show by what right he or she exercises authority which can only be exercised through a grant from the state or why he or she should not be removed from a state office.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 169
  • 173. 1) DoSaVl eS;wZV % ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS ftldk vFkZ gS] Þmruk ftrus dk og gdnkj gSß vkSj ;g fdlh le>kSrs esa dkuwu }kjk fufgr mRrjknkf;Ro dk o.kZu djrk gSA 2) DoSk % iyVuk] [k.Mu djuk] jí djuk ;k voS/k ?kksf"kr djukA 3) Doklh tqMhfk;y % U;kf;d izd`fr okys dk;ks± ds in ij vklhu fdlh vf/kdkjh esa fufgr vf/kdkj vFkok LosPNk dk vf/kdkjA 4) fDoM izks D;ks % fdlh pht ds cnys dksbZ pht+] fdlh ewY;oku oLrq ds cnys dksbZ vU; ewY;oku oLrq nsukA 5) Doks okjaVks % jkT; }kjk tkjh fd, tkus ;ksX; og vknsk ftlds }kjk fdlh O;fDr ls ;g iwNk tkrk gS fd og lÙkk dk iz;ksx fdl vf/kdkj ls djrk@djrh gS ftldk iz;ksx dsoy jkT; dh vuqefr ls gh fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj mls jkT; ds dk;kZy; ls D;ksa u fudky fn;k tk,AEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 170
  • 174. -----R------ 1. RAP SHEET - A written summary of a persons criminal history. 2. RAPE - Unlawful intercourse with an individual without their consent. 3. RAPE, STATUTORY - See STATUTORY RAPE. 4. RATIFICATION - The confirmation or adoption of a previous act done either by the party himself or by another. 5. RATIO DECIDENDI - The ground or reason of the decision in a case. 6. RE - In the matter of; in the case of. 7. REAL EVIDENCE - Evidence given to explain, repel, counteract, or disprove facts given in evidence by the adverse party. 8. REAL PROPERTY - Land and buildings. 9. REASONABLE DOUBT, BEYOND A - The degree of certainty required for a juror to legally find a criminal defendant guilty. An accused person is entitled to acquittal if, in the minds of the jury, his or her guilt has not been proved beyond a "reasonable doubt"; that state of mind of jurors in which they cannot say they feel a persisting conviction as to the truth of the charge. 10. REASONABLE PERSON - A phrase used to define a hypothetical person who exercises qualities of attention, knowledge, intelligence, and judgment that society requires of its members for the protection of his or her own interest and the interests of others. Thus, the test of negligence is based on either a failure to do something that a reasonable person, guided by considerations that ordinarily regulate conduct, would do, or on the doing of something that a reasonable and prudent (wise) person would not do. 11. REBUTTAL - Evidence presented at trial by one party in order to overcome evidence introduced by another party. 12. RECALL - Cancellation by a court of a warrant before its execution by the arrest of a defendant; also, a process by which a retired judge may be asked to sit on a particular case. 13. RECEIVING STOLEN PROPERTY – Offense of receiving any property with the knowledge that it has been feloniously, or unlawfully stolen, taken, extorted, obtained, embezzled, or disposed of. 14. RECIDIVISM – The continued, habitual, or compulsive breaking the law after having been convicted of prior offenses. 15. RECKLESS DRIVING – Operation of a motor vehicle that shows a reckless disregard of possible consequences and indifference of other’s rights. 16. RECLASSIFY - To change the jurisdiction of the case from Limited (up to $25,000) to Unlimited (more than $25,000) and vice versa.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 171
  • 175. 17. RECOGNIZANCE – The practice which enables an accused awaiting trial to be released without posting any security other than a promise to appear before the court at the proper time. Failure to appear in court at the proper time is a separate crime. 18. RECORD – The official papers that make up a court case. 19. RECUSE – When you remove yourself or are removed from a criminal or civil proceeding because you have a conflict of interest. For example, a judge can recuse himself because someone in the case is a friend or business partner. 20. REDACT - To adapt or edit for public record. 21. RE-DIRECT EXAMINATION – Opportunity to present rebuttal evidence after one’s evidence has been subjected to cross-examination. 22. REDRESS – To set right; to remedy; to compensate; to remove the causes of a grievance. 23. REFEREE – A person appointed by the court to hear and make decisions on limited legal matters, like juvenile or traffic offenses. 24. REGULATION – A rule or order prescribed for management or government. 25. REHEARING – Another hearing of a civil or criminal case by the same court in which the case was originally heard. 26. REINSTATED - To bring back to a previous condition. When bail that had been forfeited, exonerated, or reduced is reestablished in its original amount. 27. REJOINDER – Opportunity for the side that opened the case to offer limited response to evidence presented during the REBUTTAL by the opposing side. 28. RELEVANT – Evidence that helps to prove a point or issue in a case. 29. RELINQUISHMENT – A forsaking, abandoning, renouncing, or giving over a right. 30. REMAND – (1) When an appellate court sends a case to a lower court for further proceedings; (2) to return a prisoner to custody. 31. REMEDY – The means by which a right is enforced or the violation of a right is prevented, redressed or compensated. 32. REMITTITUR - The transfer of records of a case from a court of appeal to the original trial court for further action or other disposition as ordered by the appellate court. 33. REMOVAL – The transfer of a state case to federal court for trial; in civil cases, because the parties are from different states; in criminal and some civil cases, because there is a significant possibility that there could not be a fair trial in state court. 34. REPLEVIN – An action for the recovery of a possession that has been wrongfully taken. 35. REPLY – The response by a party to charges raised in a pleading by the other party. 36. REPORT – An official or formal statement of facts or proceedings. 37. RES - A thing; an object; a subject matter; or a status.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 172
  • 176. 38. RES IPSA LOQUITUR - Latin meaning "a thing that speaks for itself." In tort law, the doctrine which holds a defendant guilty of negligence without an actual showing that he or she was negligent. 39. RES JUDICATA - A rule of civil law that once a matter has been litigated and final judgment has been rendered by the trial court, the matter cannot be relitigated by the parties in the same court, or any other trial court. 40. RESCUE DOCTRINE – Rescue doctrine is that one who has, through his negligence, endangered safety of another and may be held liable for injuries sustained by third person who attempts to save other from injury. 41. RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR - "Let the master answer." The doctrine which holds that employers are responsible for the acts and omissions of their employees and agents, when done within the scope of the employees duties. 42. RESPONDENT - If you are the person that answers the original Petition, you are the respondent. Even if you later file an action of your own in that case, you are still the respondent for as long as the case is open. 43. REST - When a party in a case has presented all the evidence it intends to offer. 44. RESTITUTION - Giving something back to its owner. Or, giving the owner something with the same value, like paying to fix his or her property. 45. RESTITUTION HEARING - A hearing that may be requested to dispute the amount of restitution ordered by the court. 46. RESTRAINING ORDER - A court order that tells a person to stop doing something for a certain amount of time, usually until a court hearing is held. 47. RETAINER - Act of the client employing the attorney or counsel. Also, the fee the client pays when he or she retains the attorney to act for him or her. 48. RETALIATION – Infliction upon someone in response to an injury that he/she has caused another. 49. RETURN - A report to a judge by police on the implementation of an arrest or search warrant. Also, a report to a judge in reply to a subpoena, civil or criminal. 50. REUNIFICATION SERVICES – Services that help parents get their children back after they are taken away. 51. REVERSE - An action of a higher court in setting aside or revoking a lower court decision. 52. REVERSIBLE ERROR - A procedural error during a trial or hearing sufficiently harmful to justify reversing the judgment of a lower court. (See PREJUDICIAL ERROR.) 53. REVOCABLE TRUST - A trust that the grantor may change or revoke. 54. REVOKE - To change or take back. 55. RIGHTS, CONSTITUTIONAL - The rights of a person guaranteed by the state or federal constitutions.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 173
  • 177. 56. RIOT – A public disturbance involving acts of violence by persons where three or more persons are gathered. 57. ROBBERY - The act of taking money, personal property, or any other article of value that is in the possession of another by means of force or fear. 58. ROUT - Two or more persons, assembled and acting together, making any attempt or advance toward the commission of an act which would be a riot if actually committed. 59. RULE - An established standard, guide, or regulation. 60. RULE OF COURT - An order made by a court having competent jurisdiction. Rules of court are either general or special; the former are the regulations by which the practice of the court is governed, the latter are special orders made in particular cases. 61. RULES OF EVIDENCE - Standards governing whether information can be admitted and considered in a civil or criminal case.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 174
  • 178. 1) jSi khV % fdlh O;fDr ds vkijkf/kd bfrgkl dk fyf[kr lkjA 2) jsi % vlgefr ds lkFk fdlh O;fDr ds lkFk voS/k laHkksx 3) jsi] LVSpqVjh % ns[kks LVSpqVjh jsi 4) jSVhfQdsku % fdlh O;fDr vFkok fdlh vU; }kjk iwoZ esa fd, x, fdlh dk;Z dh iqf"V djuk vFkok vuqeksnu djukA 5) jskks MSlhMSaMh % fdlh eqdíes ds QSlys dk dkj.k vFkok vk/kkjA 6) jh % ds fo"k; esa] ds laca/k esa 7) jh;y ,sohMSal % fojks/kh i{k }kjk nh xbZ xokgh esa fn, x, rF;ksa dks vizekf.kr fl) djus ds fy,] Li"Vhdj.k nsus ds fy,] izfrfØ;k nsus ds fy, vFkok lekIr djus ds fy, nh xbZ xokghA 8) jh;y izkSiVhZ % Hkwfe rFkk Hkou vkfnA 9) jht+uscy MkÅV fo?kksaM % fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fdlh lnL; }kjk fdlh vkijkf/kd cpkodÙkkZ dks nks"kh djkj fn, tkus ds fy, vko;d fufprrk dh ek=kkA ;fn fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fopkj ls fdlh vkjksih iq:"k@L=kh ds fo:) nks"k lansg dh mfpr lhek ls ijs rd fl) ugha gqvk gks rks og vkjksih cjh fd, tkus dk vf/kdkjh gksrk gS] fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dh og euks&fLFkfr ftlds vk/kkj ij os ;g ugha dg ldrs fd os nks"k ds fy, lt+k nsus ij n`<+ jguk pkgrs gSaA 10) jht+uscy ilZu % ml dkYifud O;fDr ds ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, okD;kak tks lko/kkuh fo)rk] cqf)erk vkSj fu.kZ;kfDr tSls xq.kksa dk iz;ksx djrk ftudh vis{kk lekt }kjk gj iq:"k@L=kh ls vius o nwljksa ds fgrksa dh j{kk ds fy, dh tkrhgSA bl izdkj ykijokgh dh ij[k ;k rks ,slk dqN djus esa vlQyrk ij ftls dksbZ foosdh O;fDr mu fopkjksa ls izsfjr gksdj] tks vDlj O;ogkj dks fu;af=kr djrs gSa] djrk gS] vFkok ml dk;Z dks djus ij ftls dksbZ foosdh vkSj le>nkj O;fDr ugha djrk gS] ij fuHkZj djrh gSaA 11) fjcV~Vy % fojks/kh i{k }kjk nh xbZ xokgh dks iyVus ds fy, nh xbZ xokghAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 175
  • 179. 12) fjdky % fdlh cpkodÙkkZ dh fxj¶rkjh ls igys vnkyr }kjk vius okjaV dks jí djuk] og izfØ;k Hkh ftlds vuqlkj fdlh lsok eqDr tt dks fdlh foks"k eqdíes dh lquokbZ djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 13) fjlhfoax LVksyu % fdlh ,slh laifÙk dks izkIr djus dk vijk/k ftlds ckjs esa irk gks fd ;g ?kksj vijkf/kd vkSj voS/k <ax ls yh xbZ] pqjkbZ xbZ] Nhuh xbZ] izkIr dh xbZ] xcu dh xbZ ;k csph xbZ FkhA 14) jSlhfMfoT+e % iwoZ esa fd, x, vijk/kksa ds fy, ltk feyus ds ckn vknru ;k etcwju dkuwu dks fuajrj rksM+ukA 15) jSdySl MªkbZfoax % nwljksa ds vf/kdkjksa vkSj laHkkfor ifj.kkeksa dh ijokg fd, fcuk [krjukd <ax ls eksVjxkfM+;ksa dks pykukA 16) jhDyklhQkbZ % fdlh lhfer ¼25]000 Mkyj rd½ vf/kdkj {ks=k okys eqdíes dks vlhfer ¼25]000 Mkyj ls vf/kd½ vf/kdkj&{ks=k esa cnyuk vkSj blds foijhrA 17) fjdkXuhtSal % og izfØ;k ftlds vuqlkj dksbZ vkjksih eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys dksbZ tekur fn, fcuk ;g opu nsdj fd og mfpr le; ij vnkyr ds le{k mifLFkr gks tk,xk] fjgkbZ izkIr dj ldrk gSA 18) fjdkMZ % vnkyrh eqdíes ls lacaf/kr dkxtkr 19) fjD;wt+ % tc vki fgrksa ds fookn ds dkj.k vkijkf/kd ;k nhokuh dk;Zokgh ls gV tk,a ;k gVk fn, tk,aA mnkgj.k ds fy,] dksbZ tt fdlh eqdn~nes ls Lo;a dks gVk ysrk gS D;ksafd eqdíes esa dksbZ O;fDr mldk fe=k ;k O;kolkf;d lka>snkj gks ldrk gSA 20) jhMSDV % ljdkjh fjdkMZ ds fy, vuqdwyu ,oa laiknu djukA 21) jh&MkbZjSDV % fdlh O;fDr }kjk nh xbZ xokgh ij ftjg ds ckn ml xokgh dks ,sXtkehusku >wBk lkfcr djus ds fy, xokgh isk djus dk voljA 22) jhMªSl % Bhd djuk] lq/kkj djuk] eqvkotk nsuk] fkdk;r ds dkj.kksa dks nwjEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 176
  • 180. djukA 23) jSÝh % lhfer oS/kkfud elkysa tSls cPpksa vkSj ;krk;kr laca/k ekeyksa ij lqukbZ vkSj QSlyk djus ds fy, vnkyr }kjk fu;qDr fd;k x;k O;fDrA 24) jSxwysku % izca/kd eaMy vFkok ljdkj ds fy, fu/kkZfjr dksbZ fu;e ;k vknskA 25) fjgfl±x % mlh vnkyr esa eqdíes dh nksckjk lquokbZ ftlesa og eqdíek igyh ckj lquk x;k FkkA 26) jhbUlVsVsd % iqu% iwoZ&fLFkfr esa ykukA tc dksbZ tekur dh jkfk tcr gks xbZ gks] eqDr gks xbZ gks ;k ?kV xbZ gks rks mls iqu% izkFkfed jkfk ds leku djukA 27) jhtkSaMj % fojks/kh i{k }kjk jhcV~Vy ds nkSjku xokgh ds izfr tokc nsus ds fy, eqdíek kq: djus okys i{k dks lhfer voljA 28) jSysoSaV % fdlh eqdíes esa fdlh eqís ;k fo"k; dks fl) djus ds fy, izek.kA 29) fjfyfDokeSaV % fdlh vf/kdkj dks NksM+uk] ifjR;kx djukA 30) fjekaM % ¼1½ tc dksbZ vihyh; vnkyr fdlh eqdn~nes dks vxyh dk;Zokgh ds fy, fupyh vnkyr esa Hkstrh gSA ¼2½ fdlh dSnh dks iqu% fgjklr esa HkstukA 31) jSesMh % og lk/ku ftlds }kjk fdlh vf/kdkj dks ykxw fd;k tkrk gS vFkok fdlh vf/kdkj ds mYya?ku dks jksdk tkrk gS] Bhd fd;k tkrk gS vkSj mlds fy, eqvkotk fn;k tkrk gSA 32) jSehVksVj % fdlh eqdíes dk vihyh; vnkyr ls izkFkfed vnkyr esa gLrka{k.k rkfd mlesa vxyh dk;Zokgh ;k vihyh; vnkyr }kjk funsZfkr dk;Zokgh dh tk ldsA 33) fjewoy % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds fy, fdlh izkarh; eqdíes dks la?kh; vnkyr esa Hkstuk] nhokuh eqdíeksa esa D;ksafd eqdíes ds i{k fHké&fHké jkT;ksaEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 177
  • 181. ls lacaf/kr gSa] dqN nhokuh eqdíeksa esa tgka ;g iwjh laHkkouk gks fd izkarh; vnkyr esa eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh fu"i{k :i ls ugha gks ldrhA 34) fjiySfou % xyr <aax ls dh xbZ laifÙk dh iqu% izkfIr ds fy, dh tkus okyh dk;ZokghA 35) fjIykbZ % fojks/kh i{k }kjk fdlh ;kfpdk esa yxk, x, nks"kksa ds izfr nwljs i{k dk mÙkjA 36) fjiksVZ % rF;ksa vFkok dk;Zokgh ds ckjs esa ljdkjh vFkok vkSipkfjr :phA 37) jSl % dksbZ oLrq] dksbZ inkFkZ] dksbZ fo"k;&oLrq vFkok dksbZ voLFkkA 38) jSl bilk ykSDohVj % ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk dk gS] ftldk vFkZ gS og oLrq tks vius ckjs esa Lo;a cksyrh gSA jkVZ dkuwu dk og fl)kar tks fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh opudÙkkZ dks fcuk okLrfod izek.k ds ykijokgh dk nks"kh Bgjkrk gSA 39) jSl twMh dSVk % nhokuh dkuwu dk og fu;e ftlds vuqlkj ;fn dksbZ elyk eqdíes ckth ds ckn V«ªk;y dksVZ ds vafre fu.kZ; }kjk fuiVk fn;k x;k gS rks ml elys ds ckjs esa mlh vnkyr ;k fdlh vU; vnkyr esa iqu% eqdíek ugha pyk;k tk ldrkA 40) jSlD;w MkSfDVªu % ;g og fl)kar gS ftlds vuqlkj tks O;fDr viuh ykijokgh ds dkj.k fdlh nwljs O;fDr dh lqj{kk dks [krjs esa Mkyrk gS mls ml rhljs O;fDr dks igqaph pksV ds fy, ftEesnkj Bgjk;k tk ldrk gS tks mls nwljs O;fDr dk cpko djrs le; igqaph gksA 41) jSLikSaMhV lqihfj;j % ÞLokeh dks mÙkj nsus nksAß og fl)kar tks ;g nkkZrk gS fd ekfyd vius deZpkfj;ksa vkSj ,tsaVksa ds mu dk;ks± vkSj xyfr;ksa ds fy, ftEesnkj gksrs gSa tks os viuh ukSdjh ds le; esa djrs gSaA 42) jSLiksSaMSaV % ;fn vki os O;fDr gSa tks ewy ;kfpdk dk tcko nsrs gSa rks vki izfroknh gSaA pkgs vki ckn esa ml eqdíes esa viuh dk;Zokgh nk;j djrs gSa] rc Hkh vki rc rd izfroknh gh jgsaxs tc rd ogEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 178
  • 182. eqdíek pyrk jgrk gSA 43) jSLV % tc fdlh eqdíes esa fdlh ,d i{k }kjk os lkjs izek.k ns fn, gksa tks og nsuk pkgrk FkkA 44) jSLVhV~;wku % fdlh oLrq dks iqu% blds ekfyd dks ykSVkuk @ vFkok] ekfyd dks ml oLrq ds ewY; ds leku ewY; dh dksbZ oLrq nsuk] tSls fd ml iq:"k @ L=kh dh laifÙk dks fufpr djus ds fy, Hkqxrku djukA 45) jSLVhV~;wku gh;fjax % vnkyr }kjk {kfriwfrZ ds fy, ftl jkfk dk vknsk fn;k x;k Fkk ml jkfk ds ckjs esa erHksn [kM+k djus ds fy, ekaxh xbZ lquokbZA 46) jSLVªsfuax vkMZj % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk fdlh O;fDr dks ,d fufpr le; rd dksbZ dk;Zokgh jksdus ds fy, dgk tkrk gS] vkerkSj ls vnkyr }kjk lquokbZ djus rdA 47) fjVusj % fdlh eqn~nbZ }kjk fdlh odhy dks ukSdjh esa j[kus dh dk;ZokghA blh ds lkFk ml iq:"k @ efgyk eqn~nbZ }kjk ml odhy dks j[kus ds fy, nh tkus okyh QhlA 48) fjVSfy;sku % fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh }kjk fdlh nwljs dks igqapkbZ xbZ gkfu ¼pksV½ ds mÙkj esa igqapkbZ xbZ gkfu ¼pksV½ 49) fjVuZ % fdlh dh fxj¶rkjh vFkok rykkh ds okjaV dks ykxw djus ds ckjs esa iqfyl }kjk tt dks nh tkus okyh fjiksVZA nhokuh vFkok QkStnkjh ekeys esa lEeu rkehy djkus ds mRrj esa nh tkus okyh fjiksVZ HkhA 50) jh;wuhfQdsku lfoZlst % os lsoka, tks ekrk&firk dks vius vig`r cPpksa dks okfil izkIr djus esa lgk;d gksrh gSaA 51) fjolZ % Åijh vnkyr }kjk fupyh vnkyr ds fu.kZ; dks fujLr djus vFkok iyVus dh dk;ZokghA 52) fjolhZcy ,sjj % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh vFkok lquokbZ ds nkSjku izfØ;k laca/kh dksbZ dkQh gkfudkjd xyrh tks fupyh vnkyr ds fu.kZ; dks iyVus ds fy, mi;qDr gksA 53) jSoksdscy VªLV % og /kjksgj ftls j[kus okyk cny ldrk gS ;k okfil ys ldrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 179
  • 183. 54) fjoksd % cnyuk ;k okfil ysukA 55) jkbZVl] dkaLVhV~;wkuy % fdlh O;fDr ds os vf/kdkj ftuds ckjs esa izkarh; vFkok la?kh; lafo/kku esa xkjaVh nh xbZ gSA 56) jkW;V % vke minzo ftlesa yksxksa }kjk fgalk dh dk;Zokgh kkfey gksrh gS tgka 3 ;k 3 ls vf/kd O;fDr ,d=k gksrs gSaA 57) jkSojh % /ku] futh laifÙk vFkok fdlh vkSj dherh oLrq dks Nhuus dh dk;Zokgh tks cy iz;ksx vFkok Mjk dj Nhuh tkrh gSA 58) jkÅV % nks ;k nks ls vf/kd O;fDr ,d LFkku ij feydj dk;Zokgh djrs gq, fdlh ,sls dk;Z dks djus dk iz;kl vFkok vxzlj gksrs gq, ftls djus ds ckn minzo gks ldrs gSaA 59) :y % dksbZ LFkkfir ekinaM] ekxZnkZd vFkok fu;eA 60) :y vkWQ dksVZ % fdlh l{ke vf/kdkj {ks=k okyh vnkyr }kjk tkjh vknskA vnkyr ds fu;e ;k rks lk/kkj.k gksrs gSa ;k foks"k] iwoZorhZ fu;e foks"k eqdíeksa esa fu.kZ; ds :i esa fn, tkrs gSaA 61) :y vkWQ ,sohMSal % fdlh nhokuh vFkok QkStnkjh eqdíes esa lwpuk dks xokgh ds rkSj ij Lohdkj fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k ugha] ;g fufpr djus ds fy, cuk, x, ekinaMAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 180
  • 184. ----S----- 1. SANCTION - A financial punishment meant to make someone obey the law. For example, a judge can order someone to pay for not following court orders. 2. SATISFACTION OF JUDGMENT - Payment of a judgment amount by the losing party. 3. SEALING - The closure of court records to inspection, except to the parties. 4. SEARCH AND SEIZURE - A person or place is searched and evidence useful in the investigation and prosecution of a crime is taken. The search is conducted after an order is issued by a judge. 5. SEARCH WARRANT - An order that tells the police to search a specific place to find specific people or things. A judge can order a search warrant if there is probable cause. 6. SECURED DEBT - In bankruptcy proceedings, a debt is secured if the debtor gave the creditor a right to repossess the property or goods used as collateral. 7. SELECTION AND IMPLEMENTATION HEARING - The hearing conducted post- reunification failure according to Welfare and Institutions Code Section 366.26, to decide whether to terminate parental rights and free the child for adoption, order a legal guardianship, or order permanent planned living arrangement. 8. SELF-DEFENSE - Claim that an act was legally justifiable because it was necessary to protect a person or property from the threat or action of another. 9. SELF-INCRIMINATION - Acts or declarations by which one implicates oneself in a crime. 10. SELF-PROVING WILL - A will that is signed under penalty of perjury by two people who will not get anything from the will. You do not have to get an affidavit from the witnesses. 11. SENTENCE - A judges formal pronouncement of the punishment to be given to a person convicted of a crime. 12. SENTENCE REPORT - A document containing background material on a convicted person. It is prepared to guide the judge in the imposition of a sentence. Sometimes called a PRE-SENTENCE REPORT. 13. SENTENCE, CONCURRENT - Two or more sentences of jail time to be served simultaneously. 14. SENTENCE, CONSECUTIVE - Two or more sentences of jail time to be served in sequence. 15. SENTENCE, SUSPENDED - A sentence postponed in which the defendant is not required to serve time unless he or she commits another crime or violates a court-imposed condition. 16. SENTENCING - The hearing where the court determines a persons punishment. 17. SEPARATE MAINTENANCE - Allowance ordered to be paid by one spouse to the other for support while the spouses are living apart, but not divorced.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 181
  • 185. 18. SEPARATION - An arrangement where a husband and wife live apart from each other while remaining married either by mutual consent or by a judicial order. 19. SEQUESTRATION OF WITNESSES - Keeping all witnesses (except plaintiff and defendant) out of the courtroom except for their time on the stand, and cautioning them not to discuss their testimony with other witnesses. Also called separation of witnesses. This prevents a witness from being influenced by the testimony of a prior witness. 20. SERVE A SENTENCE - The act of spending an allotted amount of time in a designated location such as a prison as punishment for the crime committed. 21. SERVICE - When someone over 18 and not involved with your case gives the other party a copy of the court papers in person or by mail. 22. SERVICE OF PROCESS - The delivery of legal papers to the opposing party. The papers must be delivered by an adult aged 18 or older that is not involved in the case and that swears to the date and method of delivery to the recipient. 23. SETTLEMENT - When both sides reach an agreement that solves the case before the judge or jury makes a decision. 24. SETTLOR - The person who sets up a trust. Also called the GRANTOR. 25. EVERANCE DAMAGES – Compensation, which may be recovered in the courts by any person who has suffered loss or detriment as a consequence of being cut off from something (i.e. employment). 26. SEXUAL ABUSE / ASSAULT - Unlawful sexual contact with another person. 27. SEXUAL BATTERY – The forced penetration of or contact with another’s sexual organs or the sexual organs of the perpetrator. 28. SEXUAL HARASSMENT – Sexual words, conduct, or action (usually repeated and persistent) that, being directed at a specific person, annoys, alarms, or causes substantial emotional distress in that person and serves not legitimate purpose. 29. SEXUAL MOLESTATION – Illegal sex acts performed against a minor by a parent, guardian, relative or acquaintance. 30. SEXUALLY VIOLENT PREDATOR - a person who has been convicted of a sexually violent offense against two or more victims and has a diagnosed mental disorder that makes him or her a danger to the health and safety of others. 31. SHERIFF – Elected officer of a county whose job is to conserve peace within his or her territorial jurisdiction as well as aid in the criminal and civil court processes. 32. SHOPLIFTING – The willful taking and concealing of merchandise from a store or business with the intention of using the goods for one’s personal use without paying the purchase price. 33. SHOW CAUSE – A court order telling a person to appear in court and present any evidence why the orders requested by the other side should not be granted or executed. 34. SIDEBAR – A conference between the judge and lawyers, usually in the courtroom, out of hearing of the jury and spectators.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 182
  • 186. 35. SLANDER – Defamation of a persons character or reputation through false or malicious oral statements. See DEFAMATION. 36. SMALL CLAIMS COURT – A court that handles civil claims for $5,000 or less. People often represent themselves rather than hire an attorney. 37. SODOMY – Oral or anal copulation between humans, or between humans or animals. 38. SOLICITATION – Getting someone else to commit a crime. 39. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY - The doctrine that the government, state or federal, is exempt to lawsuit unless it gives its consent. 40. SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCE - Allegation that a case or charge warrants the death penalty. 41. SPECIAL VERDICTS – A verdict that gives a written finding for each issue, leaving the application of the law to the judge. 42. SPECIFIC INTENT CRIME - A crime which requires a specific mental state. 43. SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE - A remedy requiring a person who has breached a contract to perform specifically what he or she has agreed to do. Ordered when damages would be inadequate compensation. 44. SPEEDY TRIAL - The right of an accused to an immediate trial as guaranteed by the 6th Amendment of the United States Constitution. 45. SPENDTHRIFT TRUST - A trust that says that the beneficiary cannot give away or sell their part of the trust. This means that creditors cannot take money from the trust. 46. SPOUSAL SUPPORT - Court-ordered support of a spouse or ex-spouse; also called "maintenance" or "alimony." 47. SPOUSE/COHABITANT BEATING – See DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 48. STALKING – The act or an instance of following another by stealth; the offense of following or loitering near another, often surreptitiously, with the purpose of annoying or harassing that person or committing a further crime such as assault or battery. 49. STANDARD OF PROOF - There are essentially three standards of proof applicable in most court proceedings. In criminal cases, the offense must be proven BEYOND A REASONABLE DOUBT, the highest standard. In civil cases and neglect and dependency proceedings, the lowest standard applies by a mere PREPONDERANCE OF THE EVIDENCE, (more likely than not). In some civil cases, and in juvenile proceedings such as a permanent termination of parental rights, an intermediate standard applies, proof by CLEAR AND CONVINCING EVIDENCE. 50. STANDING - The legal right to bring a lawsuit. Only a person with something at stake has the right to bring a lawsuit. 51. STARE DECISIS - The doctrine that courts will follow principles of law established in previous cases. Similar to PRECEDENT. 52. STATEMENT, CLOSING - The final statements by the attorneys to the jury or court summarizing the evidence that they have established and the evidence that the other side has failed to establish. Also known as CLOSING ARGUMENT.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 183
  • 187. 53. STATEMENT, OPENING - Outline or summary of the nature of the case and of the anticipated proof presented by the attorney to the jury before any evidence is submitted. Also known as OPENING ARGUMENT. 54. STATEMENT OF FACT - Any written or oral declaration of facts in a case. 55. STATUS OFFENDERS - Youths charged with being beyond the control of their legal guardian or who are habitually disobedient, truant from school, or have committed other acts that would not be a crime if committed by an adult. They are not delinquents, but are persons in need of supervision, minors in need of supervision, or children in need of supervision, depending on the state in which they live. Status offenders are placed under the supervision of the juvenile court. (See PERSON IN NEED OF SUPERVISION.) 56. STATUTE - A law passed by Congress or a state legislature. 57. STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS - A law that says how much time you have to file a lawsuit after something happens. 58. STATUTORY - Relating to a statute; created, defined, or required by a statute. 59. STATUTORY ACTIONS – Actions relating or conforming to, or created, defined, or required by a statute. 60. STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION - Process by which a court seeks to interpret the meaning and scope of legislation. 61. STATUTORY LAW - Law enacted by the legislative branch of government, as distinguished from CASE LAW or COMMON LAW. 62. STATUTORY RAPE - The unlawful sexual intercourse with a person under an age set by statute, regardless of whether they consent to the act. 63. STAY - The act of stopping a judicial proceeding by order of the court. 64. STAY OF EXECUTION - An order that prevents the execution of an action, e.g. the serving of a sentence. The stay may be granted on a motion by the defendant, or it may be ordered in accordance with statutory law, e.g. Calif. Penal Code Section 654. 65. STIPULATE - To agree to something. 66. STRICT LIABILITY - A concept applied by courts in product liability cases in which a seller is responsible for any and all defective or hazardous products which unduly threaten a consumers personal safety. 67. STRICKEN EVIDENCE – Evidence that has been removed from the record. 68. STRIKE - (1) to delete or remove. (2) To dismiss an allegation before sentencing. (3) A serious violent felony prior conviction that is charged as a prior allegation, e.g. a second strike, or third strike. 69. SUA SPONTE - Used to describe when a judge does something without being asked to by either party. Latin meaning "of ones own will." 70. SUB CURIA - Latin meaning "under the law;" the holding of a case by a court under consideration, sometimes to await the filing of a document, such as a presentence investigation report or memorandum of law, or to write an opinion.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 184
  • 188. 71. SUBMIT - To yield to the will of another. 72. SUBPOENA - An official order to go to court at a certain time. Subpoenas are commonly used to tell witnesses to come to court to testify in a trial. 73. SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM - A court order to bring papers or records to court at a certain time. 74. SUBROGATION - To substitute one person for another in a legal claim. 75. SUBSTANTIAL PERFORMANCE – Where a party has honestly and faithfully performed the essential and material portions of the contract and the only non-performance consists of technical or unimportant provisions. 76. SUBSTANTIVE LAW - The law dealing with rights, duties, and liabilities, as contrasted with PROCEDURAL LAW, which governs the technical aspects of enforcing civil or criminal laws. 77. SUCCESSION - The acquisition of title to the property of one who dies without disposing of it by will. 78. SUE - To commence legal proceedings for recovery of a right. 79. SUIT - Any proceeding by one person or persons against another in a court of law. 80. SUMMARY JUDGMENT - When the judge decides a case without going to trial. The decision is based on the papers filed by both sides. 81. SUMMONS - (1) A notice to a defendant that he or she has been sued or charged with a crime and is required to appear in court. (2) A jury summons requires the person receiving it to report for possible jury duty. 82. SUPERSEDEAS - A writ issued by an appellate court to preserve the status quo pending review of a judgment, or pending other exercise of its jurisdiction. 83. SUPPORT TRUST - A trust that instructs the trustee to spend only as much income and principal (the assets held in the trust) as needed for the beneficiarys support. 84. SUPPRESS - To stop or put an end to someones activities. See also EXCLUSIONARY RULE. 85. SUPPRESSION HEARING - A hearing on a criminal defendants motion to prohibit the prosecutors use of evidence alleged to have been obtained in violation of the defendants rights. This hearing is held outside of the presence of the jury, either prior to or at trial. The judge must rule as a matter of law on the motion. 86. SURETY BOND - An insurance policy taken out by a defendant with a national insurance company in which the insurer agrees to pay the court the amount of bail required for the defendants release if the defendant fails to come to court when he or she is supposed to. Often called a fidelity bond. 87. SURVIVORSHIP - Another name for JOINT TENANCY. 88. SUSPEND - To postpone, stay, or withhold certain conditions of a judicial sentence for a temporary period of time. 89. SUSTAIN - To maintain, to affirm, to approve.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 185
  • 189. 90. SWEAR - To put to oath and declare as truth.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 186
  • 190. 1) lSDku % fdlh dks dkuwu dk ikyu djus ds fy, ok/; djus ds fy, vkfFkZd n.M nsukA mnkgj.k ds fy, vnkyr ds vknsk dk ikyu u djus ds fy, vnkyr fdlh dks tqekZuk yxk ldrh gSA 2) lSfVlQSDku vkQ % gkjus okys i{k ds }kjk fu.kZ; dh jkfk dk HkqxrkuA tteSaV 3) lhfyax vnkyr ds fjdkMZ dks fujh{k.k ds fy, can djuk] eqdíes ds i{kksa dks NksM+ djA 4) lpZ ,saM lhtj % fdlh O;fDr ;k LFkku dh rykkh yh tkrh gS vkSj vijk/k dh Nkuchu rFkk vfHk;kstu ds fy, ykHknk;d lcwr bDV~Bs fd, tkrs gSaA ,slh rykkh tt }kjk vknsk tkjh djus ds ckn yh tkrh gSA 5) lpZ okjUV % og vknsk tks iqfyl dks fdlh foks"k LFkku dh rykk }kjk foks"k O;fDr;ksa ij oLrqvksa dks <wa<us ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA dksbZ Hkh tt laHkkfor dkj.k gksus ij rykkh dk okjaV tkjh dj ldrk gSA 6) flD;ksMZ MSV % nhokyk fudkyus dh dk;Zokgh esa dksbZ _.k lqjf{kr gksrk gS ;fn dtZnkj _.knkrk dks og laifÙk vkSj eky dks xzg.k&vf/kdkj ns nsrk gS ftl ij mldk nwljk LokfeRo gSA 7) lySDku ,s.M % oSYQs;j ,.M bULVhV~;wkul dksM ds lSDku 366-26 ds vuqlkj iqu% bEiyheSaVsku gh;fjax ,dhdj.k esa vlQyrk ds ckn ;g fu.kZ; djus ds fy, dh xbZ lqokbZ fd D;k ekrk&firk ds vf/kdkj dks lekIr dj cPps dks xksn tkus ds fy, Lora=k NksM+ fn;k tk, ;k ugha] dkuwuh laj{k.k u fn;k tk, ;k ugha vFkok LFkk;h :i ls ;kstuk c) thou dk izca/k fd;k tk, ;k ughaA 8) lSYQ fMQSal % ;g nkok fd dksbZ dk;Zokgh oS/kkfud :i ls vkSfpR; fl) fd, tkus ;ksX; Fkh D;ksafd ;g fdlh O;fDr vFkok laifÙk dh fdlh nwljs dh /kedh vFkok dk;Zokgh ls j{kk djuh vko;d FkhA 9) lSYQ bufØehusku % os dk;Z vkSj ?kks"k.kk,a ftuds dkj.k dksbZ O;fDr Lo;a dks vijk/k esaEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 187
  • 191. fyIr dj ysrk gSA 10) lSYQ izwfoax foy % og olh;r ukek ftl ij >wBh kiFk mBkus dh ltk ds v/khu mu nks O;fDr;ksa }kjk gLrk{kj fd, x, gksa ftudks bl olh;r ukes ls dqN Hkh ugha feysxkA vkidks xokgksa ls kiFk&i=k ysus dh vko;drk ugha gksrhA 11) lSaVSal % fdlh vijk/k ds fy, nks"kh Bgjk, tk pqds O;fDr dks tt }kjk ltklquk, tkus dh vkSipkfjd ?kks"k.kkA 12) lSaVSal fjiksVZ % og nLrkost ftlesa nks"kh Bgjk, x, O;fDr dh i`"BHkwfe dk fooj.k gksrk GSA bldks tt }kjk ml O;fDr dks ltk nsus esa ekxZnkZu ds fy, rS;kj fd;k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh bls izh&lSaVSal fjiksVZ Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 13) lSaVSal] dUdj.V % tsy tkus dh ltk dh nks vof/k;ka tks ,d lkFk pyrh gSaA 14) lSaVSal] dUtSfDVo % tsy tkus dh ltk dh nks vof/k;ka tks ,d ds ckn nwljh vkjaHk gksrh gSaA 15) lSaVSal lLiSaMsM % ,slh ltk ftls vkxs Mky fn;k x;k gks ftlesa cpkodÙkkZ dks rc rd tsy tkus dh vko;drk ugha gksrh tc rd fd og dksbZ vkSj vijk/k u djs vFkok tt }kjk yxkbZ xbZ fdlh krZ dk mYya?ku u djsA 16) lSaVSaflax % og lquokbZ ftlesa dksbZ tt fdlh O;fDr ds fy, ltk dk fu.kZ; djrk gSA 17) lSizsV esaVhuSal % vyx&vyx jg jgs ifr&iRuh esa ls fdlh ,d }kjk nwljs dks xqtkjk&HkÙkk fn, tkus dk vknsk tcfd muds chp rykd ugha gqvk gksA 18) lSizsku % ,slk izcU/k ftlesa kknh&kqnk ifr&iRuh vkilh lgefr ls vFkok U;kf;d vknsk ds vk/kkj ij ,d nwljs ls vyx jgrs gSaA 19) lhDoSLVªsku vkQ % ¼;kfpdkdÙkkZ o cpko dÙkkZ½ dks NksM+dj lHkh xokgksa dks vnkyr ds foVuSlst+ dejs ls ckgj j[kuk flok, ml le; tc dV?kjs esa [kM+s gksdjEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 188
  • 192. mUgsa xokgh nsuh gks vkSj mUgsa lko/kku djuk fd os viuh xokgh ds ckjs esa ,d nwljs ls fopkj&foekZ u djsaA blds }kjk fdlh xokg dks igys nh xbZ xokgh ls izHkkfor gksus ls jksdk tk ldrk gSA 20) loZ , lSaVSal % fd, x, vijk/k dh ltk ds :i esa fufpr fd;k x;k le; fdlh fufpr LFkku] tSls tsy esa fcrkukA 21) lfoZl % tc dksbZ 18 o"kZ ls vf/kd vk;q dk O;fDr tks vkids eqdn~nesa esa kkfey ugha gS] vnkyr ds dkxtkr dh ,d udy nwljs i{k dks O;fDrxr :i esa vFkok Mkd }kjk igqapkrk gSA 22) lfoZl vkQ izkSlSl % dkuwuh dkxtkr dks izfroknh rd igaqpkukA ,sls dkxtkr fdlh 18 o"kZ ls vf/kd vk;q okys O;fDr }kjk igqapk, tkus pkfg, tks eqdíes esa kkfey u gks vkSj tks izkIrdÙkkZ rd dkxtkr igqapkus dh fefr rFkk fof/k dk kiFk lfgr fooj.k fy[ksA 23) lSVyeSaV % tc fdlh tt ;k fu.kkZ;d e.My }kjk dksbZ fu.kZ; fd, tkus ls igys nksuksa i{k le>kSrk djds elys dks gy dj ysaA 24) lSVyj % og O;fDr tks fdlh VªLV dh LFkkiuk djrk gSA mls xzkaVj Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 25) lSojSal MSejst+st % og eqvkotk tks fdlh O;fDr }kjk fdlh dk;Z ls gVk, tkus ds ifj.kke&Lo:i ¼tSls ukSdjh½ igqaph {kfr ds fy, vnkyr ds ek/;e ls olwy fd;k tk,A 26) lSDlqvy ,sD;wt @ % fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds lkFk voS/k ;kSu laca/kA ,slkYV 27) lSDlqvy cSVjh % fdlh ds }kjk vius fyax dk nwljs dh ;kSu vaxksa esa tcju izosk vFkok LikZ 28) lSDlqvy gjkkeSaV % ;kSu&laca/kh kCn] O;ogkj vFkok fØ;k ¼tks vDlj ckj&ckj vkSj yxkrkj½ ,d gh O;fDr ds izfr tkjh jgrh gS tks ml O;fDr dks dkQh ijskku vkSj Hk;Hkhr djrh gS vFkok ml O;fDr ds fy, vR;kf/kd HkkoukRed ijskkuh iSnk djrh gS vkSj ftlls fdlh tk;t+ mís; dh iwfrZ ugha gksrh gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 189
  • 193. 29) lSDlqvy eksySLVsku % fdlh ckyd ds fo:) mlds ekrk&firk laj{kd] fjrsnkj vFkok tku&igpku okys O;fDr }kjk dh xbZ voS/k ;kSu laca/k fØ;k,aA 30) lSDlqvyh ok;ksySV % og iq:"k @ L=kh tks nks ;k nks ls vf/kd ihfM+rksa ds fo:) izhMsVj ;kSu&laca/kh fgalk ds vijk/k ds fy, ltk izkIr dj pqdk gks rFkk tks fnekxh [kjkch ds dkj.k nwljksa ds LokLF; vkSj lqj{kk ds fy, [krjk gksA 31) kSfjd % pquk gqvk og iq:"k @ L=kh tks vius vf/kdkj {ks=k okys ftys esa kkafr dk ;e j[kus ds lkFk&lkFk vnkyrksa dh nhokuh rFkk QkStnkjh dk;Zokgh esa Hkh lgk;rk nsus dk dke Hkh djrk gSA 32) kkSifyf¶Vax % tku&cw> dj fcuk dher pqdk, fdlh O;kikjh ds LVksj esa vius iz;ksx ds fy, lkeku mBkdj ys tkuk vkSj Nqik nsukA 33) kks dkWt+ % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk fdlhO;fDr dks vnkyr esa mifLFkr gksdj ;g crkus ds fy, dgk tkrk gS fd nwljs i{k }kjk vkosnu fd, x, vknsk dks mlds fo:) eatwj @ ykxw D;ksa u fd;k tk,A 34) lkbZM ckj % tt rFkk odhyksa ds chp fopkj&foekZ tks vDlj vnkyr ds dejs esa gh gksrk gS vkSj ftlesa fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL; vkSj nkZd kkfey ugha gksrs gSaA 35) lySaMj % >wBs vkSj cqjkbZiw.kZ ekSf[kd C;kuksa }kjk fdlh O;fDr dk pfj=k gju vFkok cnukeh djukA ns[kks fMQsesku 36) elky Dysel dksVZ % og nhokuh vnkyr tks 5]000 Mkyj ;k blls de jkfk ds eqdíeksa dk fu.kZ; djrh gSA yksx fdlh odhy dh lsok ysus dh vis{kk vDlj Lo;a gh isk gksrs gSaA 37) lksMkseh % nks izkf.k;ksa vFkok ,d izk.kh vkSj ,d ikq ds chp ekSf[kd vFkok ySafxd laHkksx dh fØ;kA 38) lksfyflVsku % fdlh nwljs ls vijk/k djokukA 39) lkSoju bE;wfuVh % og fl)kar ftlds vuqlkj ;fn dksbZ izkarh; vFkok la?kh; ljdkjEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 190
  • 194. lgefr u ns rks mls eqdíes ls NwV gksrh gSA 40) LiSky ljdElVkal % izek.k&jfgr og c;ku ftlesa dgk x;k gks fd fdlh ekeys ;k nks"k ds fy, e`R;qn.M mfpr gSA 41) LiSky ofMZDVl % fu.kkZ;d e.My dk og QSlyk ftlesa izR;sd eqís ds rF;ksa ds ckjs esa fyf[kr tkudkjh nh tkrh gS vkSj ml dkuwu ykxw djus dk dke tt ds fy, NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA 42) LiSlhfQd bUVSaV ØkbZe % og vijk/k ftls djus ds fy, ,d foks"k ekufld voLFkk dh vko;drk gksrh gSA 43) LiSlhfQd ijQkSjeSal % ml iq:"k @ L=kh }kjk fd;k tkus okyk dksbZ mik; ftlus fdlh foks"k dk;Z dks djus ds le>kSrs dk mYya?ku fd;k gksA bldk vknsk rHkh fn;k tkrk gS tc eqvkots ds lkFk esa fn;k x;k gjtkuk vi;kZIr gksA 44) LihMh Vªk;y % ;wukbfVM LVsVl lafo/kku esa NVs lakks/ku }kjk nh xbZxkjaVh ds vuqlkj fdlh Hkh vkjksih dks izkIr rqjar lquokbZ dk vf/kdkjA 45) LiSaMfFkzQV VªLV % og VªLV ftlds dFkukuqlkj dksbZ Hkh ykHkkFkhZ VªLV esa viuh Hkkxhnkjh dks R;kx vFkok csp ugha ldrs gSaA bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd mUgsa _.k nsus okys viuk iSlk VªLV ls olwy ugha dj ldrs gSaA 46) LikÅt+y LiksVZ % vnkyr ds vknsk }kjk fdlhifr ;k iRuh vFkok iwoZ ifr ;k iRuh dks nh tkus okyh lgk;rk jkfk ftls esaVhuSal vFkok ,syheksuh Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 47) LikÅt @ dksgSchVSaV % ns[kks ÞMkseSfLVd ok;ksySalß chfVax 48) LVkfdax % xqIr :i ls fdlh dk ihNk djuk ;k bldk ,d mnkgj.k] fdlh O;fDr dks ijskku djus ds mís; ls vDlj xqIr :i ls mldk ihNk djuk ;k mlds vklikl ?kweus dk vijk/k] vFkok blds ckn geyk djus dk vijk/k djukA 49) LVSaMMZ vkQ izwQ % vnkyr dh vf/kdkak dk;Zokgh esa ykxw gksus okys lcwrksa ds rhu vko;d ekin.M gSa vkijkf/kd ekeyksa esa vijk/k dks lansg dhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 191
  • 195. mfpr lhek ls ijs rd fl) fd;k tkuk pkfg,] tksfd mPpre ekinaM gSA nhokuh elyksa ;k ykijokgh rFkk vkfJrksa ds eqdíeksa esa lcls fupyk ekin.M] ÞizhikSaMjSal vkQ nk ,sohMSalß ¼bldh vf/kd laHkkouk gS½ dks viuk;k tkrk gSA dqN nhokuh rFkk cPpksa ds eqdíeksa esa tSls ekrk&firk laca/kh vf/kdkjksa dks LFkkbZ rkSj ij lekIr djuk] ,d chp dk ekin.M ykxw fd;k tkrk gS] tSls ÞizwQ ckbZ Dyh;j ,s.M dfEodfVax ,sohMSalß 50) LVSafMax % eqdíek djus dk oS/kkfud vf/kdkjA dsoy ogha O;fDr ftldk dqN u dqN nko ij yxk gks] eqdíek dj ldrk gSA 51) LVs;j fMlkbZfll % og fl)kar ftlds vuqlkj vnkyrsa fiNys eqdíeksa esa LFkkfir dkuwuksa dk vuqoj.k djsaA ;g izSlhMSaV dk i;kZ;okph gSA 52) LVsVeSaV] Dyksfuax % odhyksa ds os vafre c;ku ftuesa muds }kjk LFkkfir xokgh rFkk tks xokgh nwljk i{k isk djus esa vlQy jgk gks] mldk mYys[k gksrk gSA bldks Dyksfuax vkjxweSaV Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 53) LVsVeSaV vksifuax % fdlh izdkj dh xokgh nsus ls igys fdlh odhy }kjk fu.kkZ;d e.My dks eqdíes rFkk visf{kr izek.k dh izd`fr dk lkj crkus okyk c;kuA bls vksifuax vkjxweSaV Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 54) LVsVeSaV vkQ QSDV % fdlh ekeys ls lacaf/kr rF;ksa ds ckjs esa fyf[kr vFkok ekSf[kd c;kuA 55) LVsVl vksQSaMlZ % os ukStoku ftu ij vkjksi gks fd os vius oS/kkfud laj{kdksa ds fu;a=k.k ls ckgj gSa ;k tks vk;ru voKkdkjh gSa] Ldwy ls Hkkxus okys gSa] ;k ftUgksaus ,sls dk;Z fd, gksa tks fdlh O;Ld O;fDr }kjk fd, tkus ij vijk/k ugha dgykrsA os vijk/kh ugha gSa ijUrq ,sls O;fDr gSa ftudks fujh{k.k dh vko;drk gksrh gS] os cPps ftudks fujh{k.k dh t:jr gks] tks ml jkT; ij fuHkZj djrk gS] ftlesa os jgrs gSaA LVsVl vksQSaMlZ dks tqoSuy dksVZl ds fujh{k.k ds v/khu j[kk tkrk gSA ns[kksa] ilZu bu uhM vkQ lqijohtuA 56) LVsV;wV % laln vFkok fdlh jkT; ds fo/kku eaMy }kjk ikl fd;k x;k dksbZEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 192
  • 196. dkuwuA 57) LVSP;wV vkWQ % og dkuwu tks ;g crkrk gS fd fdlh ?kVuk ds ckn fdrus le; ds fyfeVskul vanj vki eqdík nk;j dj ldrs gSaA 58) LVSP;wVjh % fdlh dkuwu ls lacaf/kr] fdlh dkuwu }kjk fufeZr] ifjHkkf"kr vFkok vko;dA 59) LVSP;wVjh ,sDkul % fdlh dkuwu ls lacaf/kr vFkok dkuwu ds vuqlkj dk;Zokgh vFkok fdlh dkuwu }kjk fufeZr] ifjHkkf"kr vFkok vko;d dk;ZokghA 60) LVSP;wVjh dUlVªDku % og izfØ;k ftlds }kjk dksbZ vnkyr dkuwu&fuekZ.k dk vFkZ rFkk mn~ns; dh O;k[;k djus dk iz;Ru djrh gSA 61) LVSP;wVjh ykW % ljdkj dh dkuwu cukus okyh kk[kk ds }kjk cuk;k x;k dkuwuA ;g dsl ykW vkSj dkWeu ykW ls fHké gSA 62) LVSP;wVjh jsi % dkuwu }kjk fufpr vk;q ls de vk;q ds fdlh O;fDr ds lkFk voS/k ySafxd laHkksx] ftldk nksuksa O;fDr;ksa dh lgefr dk dksbZ laca/k ugha gSA 63) LVs % vnkyr ds vknsk }kjk fdlhU;kf;d dk;Zokgh dks jksdus dh izfØ;kA 64) LVs vkWQ ,sDlhD;wku % og vknsk ftlds }kjk fdlh dk;Zokgh dks ykxw gksus ls jksdk tkrk gS] tSls dksbZ ltk HkksxukA ,slk vknsk fdlh cpkodÙkkZ dh ;kfpdk ij fn;k tkrk gS vFkokLVSP;wVjh dkuwu ds vuqlkj ;g vknsk tkjh fd;k tk ldrk gS] tSls dSfyQ ihuy dksM dk lSDku 654A 65) fLViqysV % fdlh ckr ds fy, lger gksukA 66) fLVªDV yk;fcfyVh % og /kkj.kk ftldks vnkyrksa }kjk mRiknksa laca/k mRrjnkf;Ro ds ekeyksa esa ykxw fd;k tkrk gS ftuesa fdlh ,d ;k lHkh izdkj ds nks"kiw.kZ vkSj [krjukd mRiknksa ds fy, foØsrk ftEesnkj Bgjk;k tkrk gS D;ksafd ,sls mRikn xzkgd dh O;fDrxr lqj{kk ds fy, cM+k [krjk gksrs gSaA 67) fLVªdu ,sohMSal % fjdkMZ ls gVkbZ xbZ xokgh ;k izek.kAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 193
  • 197. 68) LVªkbZd % ¼1½ dkVuk ;k gVkuk ¼2½ ltk lqukus ls igys fdlh vkjksi dks jí djuk] ¼3½ nks"kh Bgjk, tkus ls iwoZ dksbZ xaHkhj fgald nq"deZ ftls iwoZ vkjksi dk nks"k dgk tkrk gS* mnkgj.k ds fy, nwljh rFkk rhljh LVªkbZdA 69) lqvk LikSaVh % bldk iz;ksx ml le; o.kZu djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS tc dksbZ tt nksuksa ds vuqjks/k ds fcuk dksbZ vknsk nsrk gSA bl ykrhuh kCn dk vFkZ gS] ÞLosPNk lsßA 70) lc dqfj;k % bl ykrhuh kCn dk vFkZ gS] Þdkuwu ds vuqlkjß] fdlh vnkyr }kjk fdlh ekeys dks fopkjk/khu j[kuk] dHkh&dHkh nLrkostksa dks nk;j djus ds fy,] tSls tkap&iM+rky dh fjiksVZ vFkok dkuwu laca/kh Kkiu isk djuk vFkok viu er fy[kus ds fy,A 71) lcfeV % nwljs dh bPNkuqlkj dk;Z djukA 72) lciksbuk % fdlh fufpr le; ij vnkyr esa tkus dk ljdkjh vknskA vkerkSj ij ,sls vknskksa ds iz;ksx }kjk xokgksa dks vnkyr esa xokgh nsus ds fy, vnkyr vkus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 73) lciskbuk M~;wlSv % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk dkxtkr ,oa fjdkMZl dks fdlh Vhde fufpr le; ij vnkyr esa ykus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 74) lojksxsku % fdlh oS/kkfud nkos esa fdlh ,d O;fDr ds LFkku ij fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks LFkkfir djukA 75) lclVkafk;y ij % tgka fdlh i{k us le>kSrs ds vko;d ,oa egRoiw.kZ Hkkx dk QkSjeSal bZekunkjh rFkk fooluh; <ax ls ikyu fd;k gks vkSj ftl Hkkx dk ikyu u fd;k gks mlesa rduhdh vFkok egRoghu krsZ kkfey gksaA 76) lClVkafVo ykW % vf/kdkjksa] dÙkZO;ksa rFkk ftEesnkfj;ksa ls lacaf/kr dkuwuA 77) lDlSku % fdlh ,sls O;fDr dh laifÙk ds izfr LokfeRo dk vf/kdkj izkIr djukEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 194
  • 198. tks fcuk olh;r ukek fy[ks e`R;q dks izkIr gqvk gksA 78) lwv % fdlh vf/kdkj dks izkIr djus ds fy, dkuwuh dk;Zokgh vkjaHk djukA 79) lwV % dkuwuh vnkyr esa fdlh ,d O;fDr vFkok O;fDr;ksa }kjk fdlh nwljs ds fo:) dksbZ dk;ZokghA 80) lejh tteSaV % tc dksbZ tt fcuk dk;Zokgh ds fdlh ekeys dk fu.kZ; nsrk gSA mldk fu.kZ; nksuksa i{kksa }kjk nk;j fd, x, nLrkostksa ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA 81) lEeul % ,slk uksfVl ftlds }kjk fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dks lwfpr fd;k tkrk gS fd mlds fo:) eqdíek nk;j fd;k x;k gS vFkok ml ij vijk/k dk vkjksi yxk;k x;k gS vkSj vnkyr esa mldk mifLFkr gksuk vko;d gSA ¼2½ twjh lEeu izkIr djus okys fdlh O;fDr dks laHkkfor twjh M~;wVh fuHkkus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 82) lqijflMht+ % fdlh vihyh; vnkyr }kjk fdlh fu.kZ; ij iqufoZpkj ds nkSjku vFkok vius vf/kdkj {ks=k dh fdlh dk;Zokgh ds yafcr jgus rd iwoZ&fLFkfr cuk, j[kus dk vknskA 83) liksVZ VªLV % og VªLV tks vius VªLVh dks dsoy mruh vk; rFkk ewy/ku ¼VªLV dh laifÙk½ [kpZ djus dks dgrh gS ftruk ykHkkFkhZ dh lgk;rk djus ds fy, vko;d gksA 84) lizSl % fdlh dh xfrfof/k;ksa ij jksd yxkuk ;k mUgsa lekIr djukA ns[kks] ,sDlDywt+ujh :yA 85) lizSku gh;fjax % fdlh vkijkf/kd cpkodÙkkZ dh ;kfpdk ij vfHk;kstd }kjk ml xokgh ds iz;ksx ij jksd yxkus ds fy, lquokbZ tks xokgh cpkodÙkkZ ds vf/kdkjksa dk mYya?ku djds izkIr dh xbZ FkhA ;g lquokbZ ;k rks eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys vFkok dk;Zokgh ds le;] fu.kkZ;d e.My dh vuqifLFkfr eas dh tkrh gSA tt }kjk bldks dkuwuh ekeyk ekudj fu.kZ; djuk pkfg,A 86) ;ksfjVh ckaM % fdlh cpkodÙkkZ }kjk fdlh jk"Vªh; chek daiuh ls yh xbZ og chekEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 195
  • 199. ikyhlh ftlesa chek djus okyh daiuh bl ckr dh lgefr ns fd ;fn cpkodÙkkZ iq:"k @ L=kh ml le; vnkyr esa ugha vkrk @ vkrh gS tc mls vkuk gks] rks og daiuh tekur dh jkfk dk Hkqxrku vnkyr dks djsxhA mls vDlj ^QkbZMSfyVh ckaM* dgk tkrk gSA 87) ljokbZojfki % la;qDr iV~Vsnkjh dk nwljk ukeA 88) lLiSaM % U;kf;d ltk dh dqN krks± dks fd vLFkkbZ vof/k ds fy, vkxs Mkyuk] mu ij jksd yxkuk vFkok nck dj j[kukA 89) lLVsu % dk;e j[kuk] iqf"V djuk] eatwj djukA 90) Loh;j % kiFk ysdj lR; ?kksf"kr djukAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 196
  • 200. ----T----- 1. TANGIBLE - Capable of being perceived, especially by the sense of touch. 2. TANGIBLE PERSONAL PROPERTY MEMORANDUM (TPPM) - A legal document referred to in a will and used to guide the distribution of personal property that you can move or touch. For example, furniture, computers, jewelry, and artwork. 3. TAXATION OF COSTS - The process of ascertaining and charging up the amount of costs in an action to which a party is legally entitled, or which are legally chargeable. Adjustment; fixing the amount. 4. TEMPORARY RELIEF - Any form of action by a court granting one of the parties an order to protect its interest pending further action by the court. 5. TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDER (TRO)- A court order that says a person must not do certain things that are likely to cause harm that cant be fixed. 6. TENANCY - An interest in real estate which passes to the tenant. 7. TESTAMENT - A will disposing of personal property. (See WILL.) 8. TESTAMENTARY CAPACITY - The legal ability to make a will. To write a will, a person has to be at least 18 years old; know what property he or she owns; and know who he or wants to give the property to. 9. TESTAMENTARY DISPOSITION - A disposition of property by way of gift, which is not to take effect unless the grantor does or until that event. 10. TESTAMENTARY GUARDIAN - A guardian appointed by the last will of a father for the person and real and personal estate of his child until the child reaches full age. 11. TESTAMENTARY TRUST - A trust created in a will. The trust does not exist until the person dies. 12. TESTAMENTARY TRUSTEE - A person appointed to carry out a trust created by a will. 13. TESTATE - One who has died leaving a will or one who has made a will. 14. TESTATOR - Male person who makes a will (female: testatrix). 15. TESTATRIX - Female person who makes a will (male: testator). 16. TESTIFY - To give evidence under oath as a witness in a court proceeding. 17. TESTIMONY - Oral evidence at a trial or deposition. 18. THEFT - The act of stealing or the taking of property without the owners consent. 19. THIRD-PARTY - A person, business, or government agency not actively involved in a legal proceeding, agreement, or transaction.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 197
  • 201. 20. THIRD-PARTY CLAIM - An action by the defendant that brings a third party into a lawsuit. 21. THREE STRIKES LAW – Law that subjects person convicted of felony who has two or more prior serious or violent felonies to a life term in prison. 22. TIME SERVED - A sentence given by the court to a convicted criminal equal to the amount of time that the criminal was incarcerated during the trial. 23. TIME WAIVER - When you give up the right to have a certain phase of the legal process take place within the normally specified amount of time. 24. TITLE - Ownership or evidence of ownership of land or other property. 25. TORT - When a person is hurt because someone did not do what he or she was supposed to do. The most common tort action is a suit for damages as a result of an automobile accident. See EX DELICTO. 26. TORTURE – To inflict intense pain to body or mind for purposes of punishment, or to extract a confession or information, or for sadistic pleasure. 27. TRANSACTIONAL MALPRACTICE – Professional misconduct, unreasonable lack of skill in professional duties, or illegal or immoral conduct in regards to an act of transacting or conducting any business. 28. TRANSCRIPT - A record of everything that is said in a hearing or trial. 29. TRANSFERRED INTENT – Doctrine under which original malice is transferred from one against whom it was entertained to person who actually suffers consequence of unlawful act. When one attempts to kill a certain person, but by mistake or inadvertence kills a different person, the crime, if any, so committed is the same as though the person originally intended to be killed, had been killed. 30. TRANSITORY - Actions that might have taken place anywhere. 31. TRAVERSE – In common law pleading, a denial. Where a defendant denies any material allegation of fact in the plaintiff’s declaration. 32. TRESPASSING - Unlawful interference with ones person, property and rights. 33. TRIAL - A court process in which the issues of fact and law are heard and decided according to legal procedures so a judicial officer or jury can make a decision. 34. TRIAL DE NOVO - A new trial or retrial held in an appellate court in which the whole case is heard as if no trial had been heard in the lower court or administrative agency. 35. TRIAL COURT - The first court to consider a case, generally the superior court. Compare APPELLATE COURT). 36. TRIAL, COURT (BENCH) - A trial where the jury is waived and the case is seen before the judge alone. 37. TRIAL, SPEEDY - The Sixth Amendment of the Constitution guarantees the accused to an immediate trial in accordance with prevailing rules, regulations and proceedings of law. 38. TRIAL STATUS/SETTING CONFERENCE - See PRETRIAL SENTENCE.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 198
  • 202. 39. TRIER OF FACT – Term includes the jury or the judge in a jury-waived trial, who have the obligation to make finding of fact rather than rulings of law. 40. TRO – See TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDER. 41. TROMBETTA MOTION - A motion to suppress evidence for failure to preserve the same. 42. TRUE BILL – The endorsement made by a grand jury on a bill of indictment when it finds sufficient evidence for trial on the charge alleged. 43. TRUE FINDING – The juvenile court equivalent of a guilty verdict. 44. TRUE TEST COPY – A copy of a court document given under the clerk’s seal, but not certified. 45. TRUST – A legal device used to manage real or personal property, established by one person (the GRANTOR or SETTLOR) for the benefit of another (the BENEFICIARY). A third person ( the TRUSTEE) or the grantor manages the trust. In Traffic – Trust is an account into which bail is posted to insure appearance or compliance until the case is settled. 46. TRUST AGREEMENT OR DECLARATION – The legal document that sets up a trust. 47. TRUSTEE – The person or institution that manages the property put in trust. 48. TURNCOAT WITNESS – A witness whose testimony was expected to be favorable, but who later becomes an adverse witness.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 199
  • 203. 1) VSathcy % vuqHko djus ;ksX;] foks"kdj LikZ }kjk 2) VSathcy ilZuy izkSiVhZ % fdlh olh;r ukesa ea mfYyf[kr og oS/kkfud nLrkost tks ml futh eSeksjaMe laifÙk ds caVokjs esa ekxZ nkZu djrk gS ftls vki fgyk ldrs gSa ;k Nw ldrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] QuhZpj] dEI;wVj] tsojkr rFkk dykd`fr;ka vkfnA 3) VSDksku vkWQ dkWLVl % fdlh dk;Zokgh esa mu [kpks± dh jkfk dks fu/kkZfjr djus vkSj olwy djus dh izfØ;k ftUgsa izkIr djus dk fdlh i{k dk oS/kkfud vf/kdkj gS vr% tks oS/kkfud :i ls olwy fd, tkus ;ksX; gSA lek;kstu djuk] fu/kkZfjr djukA 4) VSaizsjh fjyhQ % vxyh dk;Zokgh yafcr jgus rd vius fgrksa dh j{kk djus dk og vknsk tks vnkyrh dk;Zokgh ds fdlh :i esa vnkyr }kjk fdlh ,d i{k dks fn;k tkrk gSA 5) VSaÝsjh jSLVªsfuax vkMZj % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlesa fdlh i{k dks dqN ,sls dk;Z djus ls jksdk tkrk gS ftuls ,slh gkfu gks ldrh gS ftls fu/kkZfjr ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA 6) fVuSalh % tehu&tk;nkn esa og ykHk tks iV~Vsnkj dks igqaprk gSA 7) VSLVkeSaV % futh laifÙk dk fuiVkjk djus okyh olh;rA 8) VSLVkeSaVªh dSisflVh % olh;r djus dh oS/kkfud lkeF;ZA olh;r djus ds fy, fdlh O;fDr dh vk;q de ls de 18 o"kZ dh gksuh pkfg,] mls irk gksuk pkfg, fd og ml laifÙk dks fdls nsuk pkgrk gSA 9) VSLVkeSaVªh fMLiksthku % HksaV }kjk laifÙk dk fuiVkjk] tks rc rd izHYkkoh ugha gksrk tc fd nsus okyk mls HksaV esa u ns vFkok ,sls volj rdA 10) VSLVkeSaVªh xkfMZ;u % fdlh firk }kjk vius vafre olh;rukes }kjk vius cPps dh tehu tk;nkn ds fy, fdlh O;fDr dks rc rd ds fy, laj{kd fu;qDr fd;ktkuk tc rd mldk cPpk O;Ld ugha gks tkrkA 11) VSLVkeSaVªh VªLV % fdlh olh;rukes }kjk fufeZr VªLVA ,slk VªLV rc rd vfLrRo esa ugha vkrk tc rd fd ml O;fDr dh e`R;q ugha gks tkrhAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 200
  • 204. 12) VSLVkeSaVªh VªLVh % fdlh olh;rukes }kjk fufeZr VªLV ds lapkyu ds fy, fu;qDr fd;k x;k dksbZ O;fDrA 13) VSLVsV % og O;fDr tks olh;r djds ejk gks vFkok og ftlus olh;r dh gksA 14) VSLVsVj % olh;r djus okyk iq:"kA ¼olh;r djus okyh L=kh VSLVsfVªDl dgykrh gS½A 15) VSLVsfVªDl % olh;r djus okyh L=khA 16) VSLVhQkbZ % fdlh eqdíes esa kiFk ysdj izR;{knkhZ ds :i esa xokgh nsukA 17) VSLVheuh % fdlh lquokbZ ds nkSjku ekSf[kd xokgh nsukA 18) FkS¶V % pksjh dk d`R; vFkok ekfyd dh lgefr ds fcuk mldh laifÙk dks ys tkukA 19) FkMZ&ikVhZ % dksbZ O;fDr] O;kikj vFkok ljdkjh laLFkk tks fdlh eqdíes] le>kSrs vFkok ysu&nsu esa lfØ; :i ls kkfey u gksA 20) FkMZ&ikVhZ Dyse % cpkodÙkkZ dh og dk;Zokgh tks fdlh rhljs i{k dks eqdíes esa [khaprh gSA 21) Fkzh&LVªkbZdl ykW % og dkuwu ftlesa fdlh nq"deZ ds ,sls vijk/kh] tks igys Hkh gks ;k nks ls vf/kd ckj xaHkhj vFkok fgald nq"deks± ds fy, ltk ik pqdk gS] ds fy, thou Hkj tsy tkus dh ltk dk izko/kku gSA 22) VkbZe&loZM % fdlh vnkyr }kjk nks"kh Bgjk, vijk/kh dks mrus le; dh ltk lqukuk ftruk le; mlus eqdíes dh lquokbZ ds nkSjku dSn esa fcrk;k gksA 23) VkbZe&osoj % tc vki lk/kkj.kr% fufpr vof/k ds vanj dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku fdlh foks"k volj dks izkIr djus dk vf/kdkj xaok nsrs gSaA 24) VkbZVy % Hkwfe vFkok fdlh vU; laifÙk dk LokfeRo vFkok LokfeRo dk izek.kAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 201
  • 205. 25) VkVZ % tc dksbZ O;fDr blfy, ?kk;y gks tkrk gS D;ksafd frdlh us og ugha fd;k ftls djus dh mlls vis{kk FkhA VkVZ dk;Zokgh dk lcls vke mnkgj.k fdlh okgu ls nq?kZVuk ds QyLo:i gjtkus dk nkok gSA ns[kks] ,sDl MhfdDVksA 26) VkSjpj % ltk nsus LohdkjksfDr izkIr djus vFkok lwpuk izkIr djus vFkok fo"k; Hkksx dk vkuan izkIr djus ds mn~ns; ls vR;ar kkjhfjd vFkok ekufld d"V igqapkukA 27) Vªkat+SDkuy eSyizSfDVl % O;kolkf;d nqO;Zogkj] O;kolkf;d mRrjnkf;Ro esa fuiq.krk dh vuqfpr deh] vFkok fdlh O;kikj ds lapkyu vFkok ysu&nsu ds laca/k esa vuSfrd vFkok voS/k O;ogkjA 28) VªkalfØIV % fdlh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh vFkok lquokbZ ds nkSjku tks dqN dgk tkrk gS ml lc dk fjdkMZA 29) VªkalQMZ bUVSaV % og fl)kar ftlds vuqlkj izkFkfed nqHkkZouk dks ml O;fDr ls] ftlds fo:) bldk vkjksi yxk;k x;k Fkk] fdlh ,sls O;fDr dh vksj ifjofrZr dj fn;k tkrk gS] tks okLro esa fdlh voS/k dk;Zokgh dk fkdkj gksA tc dksbZ fdlh dh gR;k djus dk iz;kl djrk gS] ijUrq xyrh ;k vlko/kkuh ls fdlh vU; dks ekj nsrk gS rks ogha vijk/kh curk gS tks ml O;fDr dh gR;k djus ij curk ftls og igys ekjuk pkgrk FkkA 30) VªkathVjh % og dk;Zokgh tks dgha Hkh ?kfVr gqbZ gksA 31) VªSolZ % lk/kkj.k dkuwuh lquokbZ esa bldk vFkZ vLohd`fr gSA tc dksbZ cpkodÙkkZ ;kfpdkdÙkkZ ds c;ku esa yxk, x, fdlh rF; laca/kh xaHkhj vkjksi dks vLohdkj djrk gSA 32) VªSlikflax % fdlh dh dk;k] laifÙk vFkok vf/kdkjksa esa voS/k n[ky&vankth djukA 33) Vªk;y % og vnkyrh dk;Zokgh ftlesa oS/kkfud izfØ;kvksa ds vuqlkj dkuwuh rFkk rF;ksa laca/kh eqíksa dh lquokbZ o mudk fu.kZ; fd;k tkrk gSEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 202
  • 206. rkfd dksbZ U;kf;d vf/kdkjh vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My mu ij QSlyk ns ldsA 34) Vªk;y Mh uksoks % vihyh; vnkyr esa iwjs eqdíes dh u, fljs ls lquokbZ vFkok nksckjk lquokbZ tSls fd fupyh vnkyr vFkok ljdkjh laLFkk }kjk bldh dksbZ lquokbZ u dh xbZ gksA 35) Vªk;y dksVZ % fdlh eqdíes ij loZizFke fopkj djus okyh vnkyr] lk/kkj.kr% ofj"B vnkyrA 36) Vªk;y] dksVZ ¼cSap½ % og lquokbZ ftlesa fu.kkZ;d e.My dh mifLFkfr dks lekIr dj dsoy tt ds }kjk gh lquokbZ dh tkrh gSA 37) Vªk;y] LihMh % lafo/kku dk NBk lakks/ku vkjksih dks orZeku fu;eksa vkSj oS/kkfud izfØ;kvksa ds vuqlkj rqjar lquokbZ dh xkjaVh nsrk gSA 38) Vªk;y LVsVl @ lSfVax % ns[kks izh&Vªk;y lSaVSalA dkUÝSal 39) Vªk;j vkWQ QSDV % bl okD;kak esa fdlh twjh&jfgr lquokbZ esa twjh vFkok tt kkfey gksrs gSa tks oS/kkfud fu.kZ;ksa dh vis{kk rF;ksa dh lPpkbZ fufpr djus ds fy, mÙkjnk;h gksrs gSaA 40) Vªks % ns[kks] VSaizsjh jSLVªsfuax vkMZjA 41) VªkSEcSVk eksku % ml xokgh dks nckus ds fy, ;kfpdk ftls lqjf{kr j[kus esa ;kfpdkdÙkkZ vlQy jgk gksA 42) fVª;w fcy % yxk, x, vkjksi ds laca/k esa lquokbZ ds fy, i;kZIr lcwrksa dk irk yxkus ds ckn iw.kZ fu.kkZ;d e.My }kjk nks"kh Bgjk, tkus ds dkuwu dh iqf"V djukA 43) fVª;w QkabZfMax % cky&vijk/kksa ls lacaf/kr vnkyr dk nks"kiw.kZ fu.kZ; dk lerqY;A 44) fVª;w VSLV dkWih % fdlh vnkyrh nLrkost dh og udy ftl ij DydZ dh eqgj yxh gks] ij tks izekf.kr u gksA 45) VªLV % fdlh ,d O;fDr }kjk cukbZ xbZ okLrfod vFkok futh laifÙk dkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 203
  • 207. mlds vFkok fdlh vU; ds ykHk ds fy, izca/k djus ds fy, iz;ksx dh tkus okyh izfØ;kA dksbZ rhljk O;fDr vFkok xzkaVj ml VªLV dk izca/k pykrk gSA O;kikj esa VªLV ,d [kkrk gS ftlesa eqdíes ds QSlys rd mifLFkfr rFkk vuqikyu lqfufpr djus ds fy, tekur dh jkfk tek djkbZ tkrh gSA 46) VªLV ,sxzheSaV vkSj % fdlh VªLV dh LFkkiuk djus okyk oS/kkfud nLrkostA fMDysjsku 47) VªLVh % VªLV dh laifÙk dk izca/k djus okyk dksbZ O;fDr ;k laLFkkA 48) VuZdksV foVuSl % og xokg ftlls vius i{k esa xokgh dh vkkk gks ijUrq tks ckn esa fojks/kh xokg cu tk,AEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 204
  • 208. -----U------- 1. UNCONSCIONABILITY – An absence of meaningful choice on the part of one of the parties to a contract, and contract terms which are unreasonably favorable to the other party. 2. UNCONSTITUTIONAL - That which is contrary to or in conflict with the federal or state constitutions. 3. UNDERCOVER - A person participating in a secret investigation in order to acquire information about the crime without the other party realizing their identity. 4. UNDERTAKING - A promise given during legal proceedings by a party or his attorney, usually as a condition of getting some concession from the court or third party. 5. UNDUE INFLUENCE - When someone pressures the person making a will (called testator) to include or leave out people or things from his or her will. This can be a reason to challenge a will. 6. UNDER THE INFLUENCE – Any abnormal mental or physical condition which is the result of indulging in any degree in intoxicating liquors, and which tends to deprive one of that clearness of intellect and control of himself which he would otherwise possess. 7. UNEMPLOYMENT - State or condition of not being employed. 8. UNILATERAL - One-sided, or having a relation to only one of two or more persons or things. 9. UNJUST ENRICHMENT, DOCTRINE OF - The principle that one person should not be permitted to unjustly enrich himself at the expense of another, but should be required to make restitution for the property or benefit received. 10. UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY – At common law, the meeting together of three or more persons, to the disturbance of the public peace, and with the intention of forcible and violent execution of some unlawful private enterprise. 11. UNLAWFUL DETAINER - The eviction papers (Summons and Complaint) that a landlord gives a tenant. 12. UNRUH CIVIL RIGHTS ACT – This law provides protection from discrimination by all business establishments in California, including housing and public accommodations, because of age, ancestry, color, disability, national origin, race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation. 13. UNSECURED - In bankruptcy proceedings, for the purposes of filing a claim, a claim is unsecured if there is no collateral, or to the extent the value of collateral is less than the amount of the debt. 14. USURY- Charging a higher interest rate or higher fees than the law allows. 15. UTTER -- To use or to attempt to use a check, draft, or order to either (1) assert that it is genuine, or (2) represent to another person that it is genuine.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 205
  • 209. 1) vudkSafk;ksusfyVh % le>kSrs esa kkfey fdlh ,d i{k ds ikl lkFkZd p;u dh vuqifLFkfr] rFkk le>kSrs dh krks± dk vuqfpr :i ls nwljs i{k esa gksukA 2) vu dkaLVhV~;wkuy % og tks fdlh jkT; vFkok la?k ds lafo/kku ds fo:) vFkok izfrdwy gksA 3) vUMjdoj % og O;fDr tks fdlh vijk/k ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr djus ds fy, xqIr tkap iM+rky esa Hkkx ys jgk gks vkSj nwljs i{k dks mldh igpku dk irk u py ldsA 4) v.MjVsfdax % vnkyr vFkok fdlh rhljs i{k ls dksbZ fj;k;r ysus dh krZ ds :i esa fdlh i{k ;k mlds odhy ds }kjk dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ds nkSjku fn;k x;k fyf[kr opuA 5) vufM~;w bUQ;wSal % tc dksbZ O;fDr fdlh olh;r djus okys ¼VSLVsVj½ ij viuh olhu;r esa ls dqN O;fDr;ksa ds uke vFkok oLrqvksa ds uke fudkyus ds fy, ncko Mkyrk gSA olh;r dks pqukSrh nsus ds fy, ;g ,d vk/kkj gks ldrk gSA 6) v.Mj nk buQY;wSal % vlk/kkj.k ekufld vFkok kkjhfjd voLFkk tks fdlh Hkh ek=kk esa ukhys is; inkFkks± ds lsou dk ifj.kke gksrk gS vkSj tks fdlh dks foosd dk Kku vkSj Lo;a ij fu;a=k.k ls oafpr djus dh vksj ys tkrk gS ftls og vftZr dj ldrk FkkA 7) vu ,saIykS,eSaV % csjkstxkj gksus dh voLFkk 8) ;wuhysVjy % ,d rjQk] vFkok nks ;k nks ls vf/kd esa ls fdlh ,d O;fDr vFkok oLrq ds lkFk laca/k gksukA 9) vutLV ,sufjpeSaV % og fl)kar ftlds vuqlkj fdlh O;fDr dks vuqfpr rjhds ls nwljs MkWfDVªu dh dher ij /kuh cuus dh vkKk ugha gksuh pkfg, cfYd mls yh xbZ laifÙk ;k ykHk dks okfil djus ds fy, dgk tkuk pkfg,A 10) vuykWQqy vlSacyh % lk/kkj.k dkrwu ftlds vuqlkj fdlh voS/k futh dk;Z dks tcju vkSj fgald rjhds ls djus ds bjkns ls rhu ;k rhu ls vf/kd yksxksaEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 206
  • 210. dk lewg tks lkoZtfud kkafr dks Hkax dj ldrk gSA 11) vuykWQqy fMVsuj % fdlh edku&ekfyd }kjk fdjk,nkj dks edku [kkyh djus ds fy, fn, tkus okys dkxtkr ¼lEeu o fkdk;r½ 12) vu:y flfoy jkbZVl % bl dkuwu esa vk;q] oak] jax] vleFkZrk] jk"Vªh; ewy] uLy] /keZ] ,sDV fyax vFkok ;kSu&vuqdwyu ds vk/kkj ij fuokl rFkk lkoZtfud jgus ds LFkkuksa lfgr dh tkudkfj;ka lHkh O;kikfjd laLFkkvksa }kjk HksnHkko ls lqj{kk dk izko/kku gSA 13) vuflD;ksMZ % nhokyk fudkyus laca/kh eqdíes esa nkok nk;j djus ds mn~ns; ls og dksbZ nkok vlqjf{kr gS ;fn dksbZ lkekarj tekur ugha gS vFkok lkekarj tekur dh jkfk _.k dh jkfk ls de gSA 14) ;wt+jh % dkuwu }kjk fu/kkZfjr Qhl vFkok C;kt nj ls vf/kd Qhl ;k C;kt nj yxkukA 15) vVj % fdlh pSd] Mªk¶V vFkok vknsk dks ¼1½ ;g trkus ds fy, ;g vlyh ;k ¼2½fdlh vU; dks crkus ds fy, fd ;g vlyh gS iz;ksx djuk vFkok iz;ksx dk iz;kl djukAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 207
  • 211. -----V------ 1. VACATE – To render an act void; to set aside. 2. VAGRANCY – The state or manner of living by wandering from place to place without a home, job, or means of support. 3. VANDALISM – Willful or malicious acts that are intended to damage or destroy public or private property. 4. VEHICULAR HOMICIDE – Caused by the illegal operation of a motor vehicle. Both intentional conduct and negligence maybe the basis for such charge though statutes vary from state to state as to the elements of the crime. 5. VENIRE - Describes the whole group of people called for jury duty from which the jurors are selected. Latin meaning "to come." 6. VENUE – The court where you can file your action. 7. VERDICT – A jurys or a judges final decision. 8. VERIFICATION - An oral or written statement, usually made under oath, saying that something is true. 9. VEXATIOUS LITIGANT - A person shown to repeatedly file legal actions that have little or no merit. 10. VICARIOUS RESPONSIBILITY – Acting or serving in place of someone or something else. 11. VICTIM – A person who is the object of a crime or civil wrongdoing. 12. VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENT – A statement during sentencing which informs the judge of the impact of the crime on the victim or the victim’s family. 13. VIOLATION – A breach of a right, duty, or law. 14. VIOLATION OF PROBATION - A new allegation against a defendant for non-compliance with a previous probation condition related to a criminal sentence. 15. VISITATION – Times when the parent who does not have custody is with the children and is responsible for them. 16. VOIR DIRE - The process of questioning potential jurors to choose the people who will decide a case. Latin meaning "to speak the truth." 17. VOLUNTARY ARRAIGNMENT LETTER – A notice sent by the District Attorney to a defendant indicating date, time and department for appearance in court on newly filed charges for which there is no signed promise to appear. 18. VOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER – Committed voluntarily during a heated moment; for example, during a sudden quarrel, two persons fight, and one of them kills the other.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 208
  • 212. 19. VOLUNTARY UNDERTAKINGS – An act unconstrained by interference; spontaneous; or of oneself.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 209
  • 213. 1) oSdsV % fdlh dk;Zokgh dks voS/k Bgjkuk] fujLr djukA 2) oSjkjSalh % cs?kj] csjkstxkj vFkok xqtkjs ds fy, vkenu ds vHkko esa txg&txg ?kwedj thou fcrkus dk <ax ;k voLFkk 3) oSUMsfyT+e % futh vFkok ljdkjh laifÙk dks rksM+us&QksM+us vFkok u"V djus ds bjkns ls tku&cw> dj fd, tkus okys nqHkkZoukiw.kZ dk;ZA 4) Oghdqyj gksehlkbZM % eksVj xkM+h ds voS/k lapkyu ds dkj.k gqbZ gR;kA ,sls vkjksi ds fy, bjknru O;ogkj vkSj ykijokgh nksuksa gh vk/kkj cu ldrs gSaA ;|fi vijk/k ds rRoksa ds laca/k esa fHké&fHké jkT;ksa ds dkuwu fHké&fHké gSaA 5) fouk;j % mu yksxksa ds iwjs lewg dk o.kZu djrk gS ftUgsa twjh M~;wVh ds fy, cqyk;k x;k gks vkSj ftuesa ls fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dk pquko fd;k tkrk gSA ykrhuh Hkk"kk esa bldk vFkZ gS] ÞvkKkß 6) oSU;w % og vnkyr tgka vki viuk eqdíek nk;j dj ldrs gSaA 7) ojfMDV % twjh vFkok tt dk vafre fu.kZ; 8) oSjhfQdsku % ,d ekSf[kd vFkok fyf[kr c;ku tks vDlj kiFk ysdj fn;k tkrk gS vkSj ftlesa dgk tkrk gS fd veqd lR; gSA 9) cSDlsfk;k fyfVeSaV % og O;fDr tks ckj&ckj eqdíes nk;j djus ds fy, tkuk tkrk gS ftuesa cgqr de ;k tjk Hkh lPpkbZ ugha gksrh gSA 10) okbZdsfj;l % fdlh vU; O;fDr vFkok oLrq ds LFkku ij dk;Zjr ;k lsokjrA fjlikalhfcfyVh 11) fofDVl % og O;fDr tks fdlh vijk/k vFkok fdlh nhokuh nq"deZ ds fkdkjgksaA 12) fofdVE bEiSDV LVsVeSaV % ltk nsrs le; fn;k x;k og C;ku tks tt dks lwfpr djrk gS fd ihfM+r rFkk mlds ifjokj ij vijk/k dk D;k izHkko iM+k gSA 13) ok;ksysku % fdlh vf/kdkj] dÙkZO; vFkok dkuwu dk mYya?ku 14) ok;ksysku vkWQ % fdlh cpkodÙkkZ ds fo:) igys fd, x, vijk/k ls lacaf/kr ltkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 210
  • 214. izkscsku ls fujh{k.k v/khu fjgkbZ dh fdlh krZ dk ikyu u djus ds dkj.k u;k vkjksiA 15) foft+Vsku % os volj tc ekrk&firk esa ls dksbZ ,d tks fgjklr eas ugha gksrk vkSj tks cPpksa ds ikl jgrk gS] og cPpksa ds izfr ftEesnkj gSA 16) oks;j&Mk;j % fdlh eqdíes dk fu.kZ; djus ds fy, yksxksa dk pquus ds fy, fu.kkZ;d e.My ds laHkkfor lnL;ksa ls izu&mÙkj djus dh izfØ;kA 17) oksySaVjh vsueSaV ySVj % ftys ds ljdkjh odhy }kjk cpkodÙkkZ dks Hkstk x;k og uksfVl ftlesa mlds fo:) nk;j fd, x, u, vkjksiksa esa mifLFkr gksus ds fy, rkjh[k le; rFkk foHkkx ds ckjs esa lwfpr fd;k tkrk gS ftlds fy, mifLFkrh dk dksbZ fyf[kr opu u gksA 18) oksysVjh eSulyksVj % xeZtkskh esa LosPNk ls dh xbZ gR;k] mnkgj.k ds fy, vpkud >xM+s esa ,d O;fDr nwljs dh gR;k dj nsrk gSA 19) oksyaVjh v.MjVsfdaXl % n[ky }kjk vckf/kr] rkRdkfyd vFkok LosfPNr dk;ZEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 211
  • 215. -----W------ 1. WAIVE (RIGHTS) – To give up a legal right voluntarily, intentionally, and with full knowledge of the consequences. 2. WAIVER AND ESTOPPEL – Voluntary surrender of some known right, benefit, or advantage. 3. WAIVER OF IMMUNITY – A means authorized by statute by which a witness, before testifying or producing evidence, may relinquish the right to refuse to testify against himself or herself, making it possible for his or her testimony to be used against him or her in future proceedings. 4. WARD - A minor who is under the care and control of the court instead of the parents. 5. WARD OF THE COURT – A person under the age of 18 when he/she violates a criminal law or ordinance. The minor is under the care and supervision of the court. 6. WARRANT – A court order telling an officer to do something. 7. WARRANT, ARREST – Commands a peace officer to arrest and bring before the court the person accused of an offense for purpose of commencing legal action. 8. WARRANT, SEARCH – A written order directing a law enforcement officer to conduct a search of a specified place and to seize any evidence directly related to the criminal offense. 9. WEAPON – An instrument used or designed to be used to threaten, injure or kill someone. 10. WEAPON, CONCEALED – A weapon that is carried by a person, but that is not visible by ordinary observation. 11. WEAPON, DEADLY – A weapon, device, instrument, material or substance, whether animate or inanimate, which if used as it is used or intended to be used is known to be capable of producing death or serious bodily injury. 12. WEIGHT OF THE EVIDENCE – The persuasiveness of certain evidence when compared with other evidence that is presented. 13. WHEELER MOTION - A motion to dismiss a jury panel due to the prosecution’s exclusion of a particular class of people (i.e. black jurors, women, etc.). 14. WILL – A legal paper that says what a person wants to happen to his or her personal property after the person dies. A will can be changed or cancelled at any time before a person dies. (See TESTAMENT.) 15. WILLFUL – A “willful” act is one done intentionally, as distinguished from an act done carelessly or inadvertently. 16. WITH PREJUDICE – Applied to orders of judgment dismissing a case, meaning that the plaintiff is forever barred from bringing a lawsuit on the same claim or cause. 17. WITHOUT PREJUDICE – When rights or privileges are not waived or lost. If your case is dismissed without prejudice it means that there can be a new case about the same thing.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 212
  • 216. 18. WITNESS – 1. A person called testify about what he or she saw, heard, or knows. 2. To sign your name to a document for the purpose of authenticity. 19. WITNESS STAND – The space in the courtroom occupied by a witness while testifying. 20. WITNESS, DEFENSE – A non-hostile witness that is called by the defense counsel to assist in proving the defense’s case. 21. WITNESS, EXPERT – Qualified by knowledge, skill, experience, training or education to provide a scientific, technical or specialized opinion of the subject about which he or she is to testify. That knowledge must not be generally possessed by the average person. 22. WITNESS, HOSTILE – An uncooperative witness. 23. WITNESS, MATERIAL – A witness who can give testimony relating to a particular matter that very few others, if any, can give. 24. WITNESS, PROSECUTION – The person whose complaint begins a criminal prosecution and whose testimony is mainly relied on to secure a conviction at the trial. 25. WOBBLER - A felony which provides either a county jail sentence or a state prison commitment and which can be held to answer as a felony or a misdemeanor. 26. WORK FURLOUGH – A correctional program which allows inmates, primarily one’s being readied for discharge, to leave the institution for the purpose of continuing regular employment during the daytime but reporting back on nights and weekends. 27. WORK PROJECT – Program allowing sentenced person the option of performing labor instead of jail time. 28. WRAP AROUND SERVICES – Specialized and intensive social and health services for families with children concurrently residing in a group home or at risk of entering a group home, designed to reduce the level of foster care or facilitate the placement of a child with his/her parent instead of foster care. 29. WRIT - A court order that says certain action must be taken. 30. WRIT OF EXECUTION - A court order that tells the sheriff to enforce a judgment. 31. WRIT OF MANDATE - A petition used to compel the court, officer, or agency to perform a duty required by law or to compel a court to assume jurisdiction and exercise its discretion after its refusal to act.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 213
  • 217. 1) oso ¼jkbZVl½ % ifj.kke dh tkudkjh rFkk tku&cw> dj LosPNk ls fdlh dkuwuh vf/kdkj dk ifjR;kxA 2) osoj ,s.M ,sLVksIiy % fdlh izR;{k vf/kdkj] fgr vFkok ykHk dks LosPNk ls NksM+ nsukA 3) osoj vkWQ bE;wfuVh % dkuwu }kjk vf/kd`r og lk/ku ftlds }kjk dksbZ izR;{knkhZ iq:"k @ L=kh viuh xokgh nsus ;k lcwr isk djus ls igys vius fo:) xokgh nsus ds vf/kdkjdks R;kx ldrk gS tks xokgh Hkfo"; dh dk;Zokgh esa mlds fo:) iz;ksx dh tk ldrh gksA 4) okMZ % og ckyd tks vius ekrk&firk dh vis{kk vnkyr dh ns[kHkky vkSj fu;a=k.k esa gksA 5) okMZ vkWQ nk dksVZ % fdlh vkijkf/kd dkuwu vFkok v/;knsk ds mYya?ku ds le; ftl O;fDr dh vk;q 18 o"kZ ls de gksA og ckyd vnkyr dh ns[kjs[k esa jgrk gSA 6) okjaV % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlesa fdlh vf/kdkjh dks dksbZ dk;Z djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 7) okjaV] vjSLV % kkafr dk;e j[kus okys vf/kdkjh dks fn;k x;k vknsk ftlesa fdlh ,sls O;fDr dks] ftl ij vijk/k djus dk vkjksi gks] fxj¶rkj dj vnkyr ds le{k ykus ds fy, dgk tkrk gS rkfd ml ij dkuwuh dk;Zokgh dh tk ldsA 8) okjaV lpZ % fdlh dkuwu ykxw djus okys vf/kdkjh dks tkjh fd;k x;k vknsk ftlesa mls fdlh foks"k LFkku dh rykkh ysus vkSj ogka ls vijk/k ls lacaf/kr dksbZ izek.k vius dCts esa ysus dks dgk tkrk gSA 9) cSiu % og ;a=k ftldk iz;ksx] vFkok ftlds iz;ksx dh ;kstuk] fdlh dks Mjkus] ?kk;y djus vFkok gR;k djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 10) oSiu dUlhYM % fdlh O;fDr }kjk ys tk;k tk jgk gfFk;kj ijUrq tks lk/kkj.k n`f"V ls fn[kkbZ ugha iM+rkA 11) oSiu] MSMyh % og gfFk;kj] ;a=k] inkFkZ vFkok oLrq pkgs ltho vFkok futhZo ftldk iz;ksx blds iz;ksx fd, tkus dh fof/k ds vuqlkj djus ijEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 214
  • 218. vFkok bjkns vuqlkj iz;ksx djus ij ?kkrd gfFk;kj ds :i esa tkuk tkrk gS vFkok xaHkhj kkjhfjd ?kko igqapk ldrk gSA 12) OgsV vkWQ nk ,sohMSal % isk fd, x, fdlh vU; izek.k dh rqyuk esa vf/kd fooluh; izek.kA 13) Oghyj eksku % og ;kfpdk ftlesa fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dh uke&lwph dks jí djus dh izkFkZuk dh xbZ gks D;ksafd vfHk;kstu i{k us mlesa fdlh foks"k oxZ ds O;fDr;ksa ds uke kkfey u fd, gksaA ¼mnkgj.k ds fy, dkys yksx] efgyk,a vkfn½ 14) foy % og dkuwuh nLrkost tks crkrk gS fd viuh e`R;q ds ckn dksbZ O;fDr viuh futh laifÙk ds izfr D;k ?kfVr gksuk pkgrk gSA fdlh Hkh olh;r djus okys O;fDr }kjk viuh e`R;q ls igys fdlh Hkh le; cnyk ;k jí fd;k tkldrk gSA 15) fu"Qqy % tku&cw> dj fd;k x;k d`R; bjknru fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ;g ykijokgh vFkok vlko/kkuh ls fd, x, d`R; ls fHké gksrk gSA 16) fon izSiqfMl % ;g fdlh eqdíes dks [kkfjt djus ds fu.kZ; ds vknsk ds izfr ykxw fd;k tkrk gS ftldk vFkZ gS fd mlh eqís ;k vk/kkj ij eqdíek ykus ij oknh ij lnk ds fy, ikcanh gSA 17) fonkÅV izStqfMl % tc vf/kdkjksa vkSj foks"kkf/kdkjksa dks utjvankt ugha fd;k tkrkA ;fn vkidk eqdíek fcuk iwokZxzg ds [kkfjt dj fn;k tkrk gS rks bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd mlh fo"k; ij ,d u;k eqdík gks ldrk gSA 18) foVuSl % ¼1½ og iq:"k @ L=kh ftls ;g lR;kfir djus ds fy, cqyk;k tkrk gS fd mlus D;k ns[kk] lquk ;k og D;k tkurk @ tkurh gSA ¼2½ fdlh nLrkost ds vlyh gksus dh tkudkjh ds mn~ns; ls ml ij vius uke ds gLrk{kj djus ds fy, cqyk;k x;k O;fDrA 19) foVuSl LVSaM % vnkyr Hkou ds vanj og dejk tgka xokgh nsrs le; dksbZ xokg [kM+k gksrk gSA 20) foVuSl] fMQSal % cpkodÙkkZ ds odhy }kjk cqyk;k x;k og xokg tks oSj&iw.kZ u gks rkfd cpko ds rdZ izekf.kr fd, tk ldsaAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 215
  • 219. 21) foVuSl] ,DliVZ % og iq:"k @ L=kh tks vius Kku] fuiq.krk] vuqHko] izfk{k.k vFkok fk{kk ds vk/kkj ij ml fo"k; ds ckjs esa fufpr rduhdh vFkok fofk"V jk; ns lds ftlds ckjs esa mls xokgh nsuh gksA og Kku izR;sd lk/kkj.k O;fDr ds ikl ugha gksuk pkfg,A 22) foVuSl] gksLVkbZy % dksbZ vlg;ksxh xokgA 23) foVuSl] eSVhjh;y % og xokg tks fdlh fo"k; ds ckjs esa ,slh xokgh ns ldrk gS tks dksbZ vkSj xokg] ;fn dksbZ gks ugha ns ldrk gSA 24) foVuSl] izkSlhD;wku % og O;fDr ftldh fkdk;r ij vkijkf/kd eqdíek kq: gksrk gS vkSj eq[; :i ls ftldh xokgh ij nks"k lkfcr djus ds fy, Hkjkslk fd;k tkrk gSA 25) cksCyj % og nq"deZ ftlds dkj.k ftys dh tsy vFkok izkar dh tsy esa Hkstk tk ldrk gS vkSj ftls vijk/k dh laKk nh tk ldrh gSA 26) odZ Qjyks % og lq/kkjd dk;ZØe tks dSfn;ksa] izkFkfed rkSj ij fjgkbZ ds fy, rS;kj] dks fnu ds le; fu;fer :i ls dke&/ka/kk djus vkSj jkr dks rFkk lIrkg ds var esa okfil vk tkus dh vkKk nsrk gSA 27) odZ izkstSDV % og dk;ZØe tks laKk izkIr O;fDr dks tsy esa le; fcrkus dh ctk, etnwjh djus dh vkKk nsrk gSA 28) jSi ,sjkÅaM lfoZlst+ % mu ifjokjksa ds fy, fofk"V rFkk foLr`r lkekftd rFkk LokLF; lsok,a tks vius cPpksa ds lkFk lkewfgd ?kjksa esa jg jgs gksa vFkok ftUgsa lkewfgd ?kj esa tkus dk [krjk gks ftudk fuekZ.k /keZ ds ekrk&firk }kjk ns[kHkky ds Lrj dks de djus vkSj cPps dks mlds ekrk&firk dh ns[kHkky esa Hkstus dks vklku cukus ds fy, fd;k x;k gksA 29) fjV % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlesa dksbZ foks"k dk;Zokgh djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 30) fjV vkWQ ,sDlhD;wku % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk ftys ds eq[; vf/kdkjh dks vnkyr ds fdlh fu.kZ; dks ykxw djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 216
  • 220. 31) fjV vkQ eSUMsV % og ;kfpdk ftlds }kjk fdlh vnkyr] vf/kdkjh vkSj ,tsalh ddks vko;d dkuwuh dk;Zokgh djus ds fy, ck/; djus ds fy, vFkok vnkyr }kjk dk;Zokgh djus ls badkj djus ds ckn vnkyr dks vf/kdkj {ks=k xzg.k djus vkSj viuh LosPNk dk iz;ksx djus ds fy, ck/; fd;k tkrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 217

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