English/Hindi Legal GlossaryTranslated from English into Hindi by Darshan MundySuperior Court of California, County of Sac...
DisclaimerThe Superior Court of California, County of Sacramento ("Court"), has prepared thisLegal Glossary. The Court can...
English/Hindi Legal GlossaryTranslated from English into Hindi by Darshan MundySuperior Court of California, County of Sac...
----A-----     1. 1203.03 PC MOTION - Request to cancel, modify, change or terminate probation.     2.   1203.4 PC MOTION ...
21. ACCUSATION - A formal charge against a person.     22. ACCUSED - The person that is charged with a crime and has to go...
39. ADJUDICATE - When a judge hears and decides a case.     40. ADJUDICATION - The judges decision in a case or action.   ...
58. AFFIDAVIT - A written statement that someone swears to under oath in front of someone that is         legally authoriz...
79. ALLEGED FATHER – A man who may be the father of the child.     80. ALIAS - Known by another name; or means "also known...
99. APPELLATE - Having to do with appeals. An APPELLATE COURT can review a lower courts         (called a "TRIAL COURT" or...
117. ASSIGNMENT OF SUPPORT RIGHTS – When a person who gets public assistance agrees          to give the state any child s...
135. AUTOMATED VOICE RESPONSE SYSTEM (AVR) – Phone system that gives          information to people over the phone.     13...
1)             eksku                %   jí djus] lakks/ku djus] cnys vFkok lekIr djus ds fy, ;kfpdk     2)             ih-...
13)            ,sD;wt+                %   ¼1½ vla;fer vFkok vuqfpr iz;ksx ¼2½ fdlh dks kkjhfjd]                           ...
funksZ"k lkfcr djukA cjh dj nsuk] eqDr dj nsuk vFkok fdlh                                            nkf;Ro Hkkj vFkok vkj...
34)            ,sMSUMe                 %   tksM+h xbZ vFkok tksM+h tkus okyh dksbZ ckrA     35)            ,sfMDku        ...
fcuk lgk;rkFkZ vknskksa dk fuekZ.k vkSj mudks ykxw djrh gSA     44)            ,sMfefuLVªsfVo fjO;w   %   ljdkj ds fmikVZe...
fdlh ekrk ;k firk ds chp laca/k dks dkuwuh :i fn;k tkrk gSA     54)            ,sMkSfIVo ,sMehku    %   fdlh i{k }kjk dh x...
ldrk gSA     66)            ,sxzkosfVM vkjlu      %   tkucw> dj gkfu igqapkus vFkok <kaps dks u"V djus ds fufpr           ...
x;k gks ijUrq ftl ij vHkh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh u dh xbZ gksA     78)            ,syhxsku                %   og dFku vFkok nk...
eqdíes dk lkjA     90)            ,suqvy fjO;w                %   okf"kZd U;kf;d iqufoZpkjA     91)            ,suyeSaV   ...
x;k FkkA     101)           viSysV twfjlfMDku   %   vihyh; vnkyrksa dks fupyh vnkyr ds fu.kZ; ij iqufoZpkj dj             ...
ughaA     113)           vlkSYV fon MSMyh %        tc dksbZ O;fDr fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks fcuk mfpr dkj.k ds canwd           ...
pksV igqaph mlds [krjs dks lR; eku fy;kA     120)           ,sV bkq                 %   fdlh eqdíes esa og le; tc fkdk;r d...
dgk tkrk gSA     131)           vksfMV                     %   tc fjdkMZ vkSj [kkrksa dh ij[k ;g tkuus ds fy, dh tkrh gS f...
-------B------------     1.    BACKLOG – All the cases that haven’t been settled or decided in the time the law says they ...
17. BAR - All of the lawyers qualified to practice law. For example, a state bar includes all of the         lawyers quali...
37. BIFURCATION MOTION - A request to change the order in which issues are heard at trial.     38. BILL OF PARTICULARS - A...
58. BURGLARY - When someone unlawfully breaks into or enters a building or home, and they         intend to or do commit a...
1)             oSd yksx            %   os lHkh eqdíes ftudk fu.kZ; dkuwu }kjk uh;r le; esa fd;k tk                        ...
12)            csy fjO;w               %   vkjaHk esa fdlh nks"kh ds fy, fufpr dh xbZ tekur dh jkfk ds                    ...
22)            cSVjh] LikÅty             %   ifr vFkok ifr ds }kjk viuh iRuh vFkok ifr ds lkFk lgefr ds                   ...
33)            cSLV ,sohMSal        %   izkFkfed izek.k] miyC/k loksZÙke izek.kA mnkgj.k ds fy, ewy&i=k                   ...
eqdíesa esa vko;d xokgA     44)            cksuk&QkbZMh           %   oQknkj] Ny&diV vFkok /kks[ksckth jfgr okLrfodA     4...
dks izHkkfor djus ds fy, fn;k tkrk gSA     56)            czhQ            %   nksuksa i{kksa dh vksj ls vnkyr dks fn;k x;k...
----------C---------     1. CALENDAR - A list, in alphabetical order, of all the cases in each courtroom every day. "To   ...
23. CAUTIONARY INSTRUCTIONS – When the judge tells the jury to consider certain evidence         only for a specific purpo...
44. CHILD ABUSE - Hurting a child physically, sexually or emotionally.     45. CHILD ABDUCTION – The offense of taking awa...
62. CLAIM SPLITTING – When you split up a civil claim and file two lawsuits to stay below the         limit of how much mo...
80. COMMIT - To do something, like "to commit" a crime, or to put someone in a sheriffs custody.         Or to use a court...
98. COMPOSITE DRAWING - A picture of an alleged criminal created by a professional police         artist using verbal desc...
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English/Hindi
Legal Glossary
Translated from English into Hindi by Darshan Mundy
Superior Court of California, County of Sacramento
720 9th Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: (916) 874-6867  Fax: (916) 874-8229
www.saccourt.com

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विधिक शब्दावली

  1. 1. English/Hindi Legal GlossaryTranslated from English into Hindi by Darshan MundySuperior Court of California, County of Sacramento 720 9th Street Sacramento, CA 95814 Phone: (916) 874-6867 Fax: (916) 874-8229 www.saccourt.com 2007
  2. 2. DisclaimerThe Superior Court of California, County of Sacramento ("Court"), has prepared thisLegal Glossary. The Court cannot guarantee that the translations contained therein arecompletely accurate, although reasonable attempts were made to achieve this goal. Thisglossary is to be used for general reference purposes only, should be considered a "work-in-progress," and is not intended to provide legal advice. This glossary is not intended tobe used as a study guide for purposes of passing California court interpreter certificationexaminations, as some terminology might differ when used in specific context.Neither the Administrative Office of the Courts, nor the Superior Court of California,Sacramento County, nor any of its officials or employees assumes any legal liability orresponsibility for the accuracy of these translations. For more information or comments,please contact Ms. Elaine Flores, Administrative Services Officer II of the Court, at (916)874-8663 or via e-mail at florese@saccourt.com.
  3. 3. English/Hindi Legal GlossaryTranslated from English into Hindi by Darshan MundySuperior Court of California, County of Sacramento 720 9th Street Sacramento, CA 95814 Phone: (916) 874-6867 Fax: (916) 874-8229 www.saccourt.com 2007
  4. 4. ----A----- 1. 1203.03 PC MOTION - Request to cancel, modify, change or terminate probation. 2. 1203.4 PC MOTION - Request to take back guilty plea or set aside a guilty verdict, and dismiss the accusations or information. (Made after probation has either terminated or defendant was discharged from probation prior to termination.) 3. 170.6 PC MOTION - Request to disqualify the assigned judge from hearing a matter. 4. 995 PC MOTION - Request made by a defendant to dismiss a count of information. 5. ABANDONMENT - When a parent leaves a child without enough care, supervision, support, or parental contact for an excessive period of time. 6. ABATE - To put an end to; to cancel out. 7. ABATEMENT OF ACTION - A suit which has been set aside and ended. 8. ABDUCTION – The offense of taking away a wife, child, or ward, by deceitful persuasion, force, or violence. 9. ABROGATE - To repeal or cancel an old law using another law or constitutional power. 10. ABSTRACT - A summary of what a court or government agency does. In Traffic, document that is sent to the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to update driving record. 11. ABSTRACT OF JUDGMENT- Summary of the courts final decision. Can be used as a lien if you file it with the county recorder. 12. ABSTRACT OF RECORD - Short form of the case. 13. ABUSE – (1) immoderate or improper use; (2) to do physical, sexual, or psychological harm to someone. 14. ABUSE OF PROCESS - Misuse of the power of the court. 15. ACCESSORY - A person who helps someone else commit a crime, either before or after the crime. 16. ACCIDENT AND MISFORTUNE – An unintentional event; unforeseen event causing misfortune. 17. ACCOMPLICE - A person that helps someone else commit a crime. Can be on purpose or not. 18. ACCORD - A satisfaction agreed upon between the parties in a lawsuit, which prevents further actions after the claim. 19. ACCORD AND SATISFACTION - Agreement by the parties to settle a claim or dispute in which the parties typically agree to give or accept something. 20. ACCRUAL – The total amount of child support payments that are owed or that are late.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 1
  5. 5. 21. ACCUSATION - A formal charge against a person. 22. ACCUSED - The person that is charged with a crime and has to go to criminal court. (See DEFENDANT). 23. ACKNOWLEDGMENT - Saying, testifying, or assuring that something is true. 24. ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF SATISFACTION OF JUDGMENT – A court form that the person who wins the case must fill out, sign, and file with the court when the judgment is fully paid. If there are no liens, the back of the Notice of Entry of Judgment can be signed and filed with the court (See JUDGMENT CREDITOR, JUDGMENT.) 25. ACQUIT - To legally find the innocence of a person charged with a crime. To set free, release or discharge from an obligation, burden or accusation. To find a defendant not guilty in a criminal trial. 26. ACQUITTAL - When a judge or jury finds that the person on trial is not guilty. 27. ACTION - In court, when one person sues someone else to, defend or enforce a right, stop something bad from happening or fix something, or punish them for a crime. 28. ACTION IN PERSONAM - Proceeding against the person for the recovery of a specific object, usually an item of personal property such as an automobile. 29. ACTION IN REM - Proceeding "against the thing" as compared to personal actions (in personam). Usually a proceeding where property is involved. 30. ACTIVE STATUS – A case that is in court but is not settled or decided has active status. (See DISPOSITION, PENDING.) 31. ACTUAL LOSS – This is a showing that the plaintiff or injured party has undergone some loss of property or other thing of value by reason of fraud, forgery, or other illegal action. For the crime of forgery the existence of a specific intent to defraud is an essential element; however, there is no requirement of actual loss to complete the crime. 32. AD LITEM - Comes from Latin meaning for the "purposes of the lawsuit." For example, a guardian ad litem is a person appointed by the court to protect the interests of a minor or legally incompetent person in a lawsuit. 33. ADD-ON - Refers to an additional matter that is added to a specific calendar at a time after the initial preparation of the calendar. 34. ADDENDUM - A thing added or to be added. 35. ADDICTION – A person who has become emotionally dependent on the use of a drug and the effect is an irresistible need to continue its use and has developed a tolerance to the drug and requires larger stronger doses. 36. ADDITUR - The power of a trial court to increase the amount of an award of money to one party made by jury verdict, as a condition of denial of motion for new trial. The defendant must consent to the increased money award, the plaintiff need not consent. 37. ADHESION CONTRACTS – Contract where one party has no real choice as to its terms. 38. ADJOURNMENT - To put off a court hearing until another time or place.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 2
  6. 6. 39. ADJUDICATE - When a judge hears and decides a case. 40. ADJUDICATION - The judges decision in a case or action. 41. ADMIN PER SE - Latin meaning,“by itself, inherently.” Requires the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to automatically suspend or cancel the drivers license of a driver whose blood alcohol content measures more than .08%, or who refuses to take a test to measure his/her blood alcohol level. 42. ADMINISTER – (1) to manage; (2) taking a drug by injection, inhalation, ingestion, or any other means, to the body for that persons immediate needs. 43. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE – The way an executive government agency makes and enforces support orders without going to court. 44. ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW OR “AR” – A review of the welfare of a child in long-term foster care by a panel of people selected by the state Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS). The review is conducted at least once a year, in place of a 6-month placement hearing by the Court. The panel reviews a report from DHHS. The review is open to the parents of the child, parents’ attorney and child’s attorney. 45. ADMINISTRATOR - 1. Man who represents the estate of a person who dies without a will. 2. A court official. 46. ADMINISTRATRIX - Woman who represents the estate of a person who dies without a will. 47. ADMISSIBLE - Pertinent and proper to be considered in reaching a decision. 48. ADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE - Evidence that can be legally and properly be used in court. 49. ADMISSION - Saying that certain facts are true. But not saying you are guilty. (Compare with CONFESSION). 50. ADMONISH - To warn, advise, or scold. 51. ADMONITION - Advice or caution by the court to the jury respecting their duty or conduct as jurors, and the purpose for which evidence may be considered. 52. ADMONITION TO JURORS - What the judge says to the jury about what they must do and how they must behave, what evidence they can use to make their decision (called "admissible" evidence), and how they can use that evidence to make a decision. 53. ADOPTION - The way to make the relationship between a parent and child legal when they are not related by blood. 54. ADOPTIVE ADMISSION – Action by a party that communicates agreement with the statements of another person. 55. ADVERSARY SYSTEM - The system of trial practice in the United States and some other countries in which each of the opposing (or "adversary") parties has the opportunity to present and establish opposing positions before the court. 56. ADVERSE WITNESS – A person called to testify for the other side. 57. AFFIANT - A person who makes and signs an affidavit.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 3
  7. 7. 58. AFFIDAVIT - A written statement that someone swears to under oath in front of someone that is legally authorized, like a judge or notary public. 59. AFFIRMATION – When an appellate court says that the lower court’s decision was right. 60. AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSE - When a defendant or person responding to a civil case has a reason that would make him or her "not guilty" or not at fault and gives the court new evidence to prove that. The defense has to prove what it says (called BURDEN OF PROOF). The defense has to explain this defense in their ANSWER. 61. AFFIRMED - In appellate courts, it means that the decision of the trial court is correct. 62. AFTER ACQUIRED INTENT – When the defendant did not intend to commit a crime until after the crime had been committed. 63. AGENT - Someone who has authority to act for another. 64. AGENCY – One person acts for or represents another by authority. In Traffic, the department issuing the citation. 65. AGGRAVATION - Circumstances that may be considered as magnifying, or adding to, the degree of punishment. 66. AGGRAVATED ARSON – Aggravated Arson – Deliberately setting fire with specific intent to cause injury or damage structures where defendant has been previously convicted of arson, the damage exceeds $5m, or at least 5 residences were damaged. 67. AGGRAVATED BATTERY - Unlawful use of force against another such as using a dangerous weapon. 68. AGGRAVATED MAYHEM – Causing permanent disability or disfigurement with specific intent to cause the injury and with extreme indifference to well-being of other person. 69. AGGRAVATED TRESPASS – Unlawfully entering property of another with specific intent to carry out prior threat of serious bodily injury. 70. AGGRAVATING FACTORS - Any factors associated with the commission of a crime which increase the seriousness of the offense. 71. AGGREGATE TERM - The total length of imprisonment 72. AGREED STATEMENT OF FACTS - Statement of all important facts, which all the parties agree is true and correct, and which is submitted to a court for a decision. 73. AGREEMENT - When the people involved in a legal dispute agree about something. 74. AID AND ABET - to help or assist, in committing a crime. 75. AIDER AND ABETTOR – One who has criminal intent and assists another to commit a crime. 76. ALLEGE - To say, declare, or charge that something is truce even though it is not proved yet. 77. ALLEGED - Said to be true as described; a person who is accused, but has not yet been tried in court. 78. ALLEGATION - A statement or claim that is made and has not been proved to be true or false.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 4
  8. 8. 79. ALLEGED FATHER – A man who may be the father of the child. 80. ALIAS - Known by another name; or means "also known as" which A.K.A. is short for. 81. ALIBI - A defense claim that the accused was somewhere else at the time a crime was committed. 82. ALIMONY - Money the court orders you to pay to a spouse or ex-spouse. (See SPOUSAL SUPPORT). 83. ALLOCUTION - Defendants statement to try to reduce punishment. 84. ALTERATION, FORGERY BY – Adding, erasing, or changing a document with the specific intent to cause it to appear different from what it originally was intended to be to cheat another person. 85. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) - Methods of resolving disputes without official court proceedings. These methods include MEDIATION and ARBITRATION. 86. AMEND - To add to or change a claim that has been filed in court. 87. AMENDMENT - A change made by correction, addition, or deletion. 88. AMICUS CURIAE (A-MIKUS KURIE) - Someone that gives advice to the court about the law in a case, but is not part of the case. Comes from the Latin for "friend of the court." 89. ANNOTATION - A case summary or commentary on the law cases, statutes, and rules. 90. ANNUAL REVIEW - Yearly judicial review. 91. ANNULMENT – A legal action that says your marriage was never legally valid because of unsound mind, incest, bigamy, being too young to consent, fraud, force, or physical incapacity. 92. ANONYMOUS – When someones name is kept secret. 93. ANSWER - A statement that a defendant writes to answer a civil complaint and says what defense they will use. 94. ANTICIPATORY BREACH - When a person who is to perform as set forth in a contract, clearly indicates to the other party that he will not or cannot perform. 95. APPEAL - When someone that loses at least part of a case asks a higher court (called an "APPELLATE COURT") to review the decision and say if it is right. This is called "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." The person that appeals is called the "APPELLANT." The other person is called the "APPELLEE." 96. APPEARANCE - Going to court. Or a legal paper that says you will participate in the court process. 97. APPEARANCE PROGRESS REPORT (APR) – A court order for a report by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) on an issue requested by the court. 98. APPELLANT - Someone that APPEALS a courts decision. (Compare with APPELLEE.)English/Hindi Legal Glossary 5
  9. 9. 99. APPELLATE - Having to do with appeals. An APPELLATE COURT can review a lower courts (called a "TRIAL COURT" or "superior court." Decision. For example, California Court of Appeal review the decisions of the superior courts. 100. APPELLATE COURT - A court that can review how the law was used to decide a case in a lower court. 101. APPELLATE JURISDICTION - The appellate court has the right to review and change the lower court decision. 102. APPELLEE - A person that answers an appeal in higher court. 103. ARBITRATION - When a person that isnt involved in the case looks at the evidence, hears the arguments, and makes a decision. (Compare with MEDIATION.) 104. ARGUMENT - Remarks made by an attorney to a judge or jury on the facts of the case or on points of law. 105. ARMING CLAUSE - A conduct enhancement alleging that defendant or an accomplice was armed. 106. ARRAIGN - Process where the person who is accused is brought before the court to hear the criminal charge(s) against him or her and to plead guilty, not guilty or no contest. 107. ARRAIGNMENT - When a person that is accused of committing a crime is taken to court, told about the charges, and asked to plead "guilty" or "not guilty." 108. ARREARAGE – Child support that is overdue or unpaid. 109. ARREST - The legal capture of a person who is charged with a crime. 110. ARREST OF JUDGMENT - Postponing the result of a judgment already entered. 111. ARSON - The malicious burning of someones own house or of someone elses house, or of someones commercial or industrial property. 112. ASSAULT - When someone tries or threatens to hurt someone else. Can include violence, but is not battery. (See BATTERY.) 113. ASSAULT WITH A DEADLY WEAPON - When someone tries to hurt someone and there is threat to do bodily harm without justification by use of a weapon like a gun or a knife. 114. ASSESSMENT – Additional charges added to a case. 115. ASSIGNEE - A person or business that is put in the place of the original creditor, such as a collection agency. You can assign your JUDGMENT to another person or business. 116. ASSIGNMENT – Choosing someone to do something. Usually for: Cases - when the court uses a calendar to give (or "assign" cases to judges; Lawyers - when lawyers are chosen (or "appointed") to represent juveniles, conservatees or defendants; and Judges - when judges are sent (or "assigned") to different courts to fill in while other judges are on vacation, sick, etc., or to help with cases in a court.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 6
  10. 10. 117. ASSIGNMENT OF SUPPORT RIGHTS – When a person who gets public assistance agrees to give the state any child support they get in the future. The person gets money and other benefits from the state. So the state can use part of the child support to pay for the cost of that public assistance. 118. ASSIGNMENT ORDER – A court order (made after a MOTION that says a JUDGMENT DEBTOR must assign certain rights to the JUDGMENT CREDITOR. Useful for payments that the judgment debtor would usually get, like rent from tenants, wages from the federal government, sales commissions, royalties, a businesss accounts receivable, or installment payments on IOUs (also called "PROMISSORY NOTES" or JUDGMENTS). 119. ASSUMPTION OF RISK - A defense to a lawsuit for personal injury. The essence of the defense is that the plaintiff assumed the known risk of whatever dangerous condition caused the injury. 120. AT ISSUE - The time in a lawsuit when the complaining party has stated his or her claim and the other side has responded with a denial and the matter is ready to be tried. 121. AT ISSUE MEMORANDUM – A legal paper filed in a civil case that says the case is ready to go to trial. 122. ATTACHMENT - (1) Document attached to court papers to give more information; (2) A way to collect judgment: by getting a court order that says you can take a piece of property. 123. ATTACHMENT FOR DEFAULTER - A process by the court for the arrest of a person other than a defendant. (See ATTACHMENT, BENCH WARRANT.) 124. ATTEMPT - An effort to do an act or commit a crime. 125. ATTEST - To witness, to affirm to be true or genuine, to certify. 126. ATTESTATION – The act of witnessing something in writing, at the request of a party. 127. ATTORNEY - Someone that is qualified to represent clients in court and to give them legal advice. (See COUNSEL). 128. ATTORNEY OF RECORD - The lawyer whose name is listed in a case record as representing someone in the case. 129. ATTORNEY-AT-LAW - An advocate, counsel, or official agent employed in preparing, managing, and trying cases in the courts. 130. ATTORNEY-IN-FACT - A private person (who is not necessarily a lawyer) authorized by someone to act in his or her place, either for some particular purpose, or for the transaction of business in general. This authority is given in writing, called a power of attorney. 131. AUDIT – When records or accounts are looked at to check that they are right and complete. 132. AUTHENTICATE - To give authority or legal authenticity to a statute, record, or other written document. 133. AUTO TAMPERING - The manipulation of an automobile and its parts for a specific purpose. 134. AUTOMATED ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT OF INTERSTATE CASES (AEI) – Part of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) that lets states fins, put a lien on, and take property from people in a different state who owe money.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 7
  11. 11. 135. AUTOMATED VOICE RESPONSE SYSTEM (AVR) – Phone system that gives information to people over the phone. 136. AVERAGE ADULT PERSON – A hypothetical person who is used as an example of the entire community. This hypothetical person represents the interests of all, including persons religious and irreligious; persons of all nationalities, all adult ages and all economic, educational and social standings; persons with normal, healthy, average contemporary.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 8
  12. 12. 1) eksku % jí djus] lakks/ku djus] cnys vFkok lekIr djus ds fy, ;kfpdk 2) ih-lh-eksku % nks"k Lohdkj djus dh nyhy dks okfil ysus] nks"kh djkj nsus ds fu.kZ; dks fujDr djus rFkk vkjksiksa vFkok lwpuk dks [kkfjt djus ds fy, ;kfpdkA ;g ;kfpdk ;k rks ij[k vk/khu vo/kh ds lekIr gksus ij vFkok tc ,slh vo/kh lekIr gksus ls iwoZ izfroknh dks cjh dj fn, tkus ij dh tkrh gSA 3) ch-lh-eksku % fdlh tt dks fdlh ekeys dh lquokbZ djus ds v;ksX; Bgjkus ds fy, ;kfpdkA 4) ih-lh- eksku % fdlh izfroknh }kjk fdlh vkjksi dks [kkfjt djus ds fy, ;kfpdk 5) vcUMueSaV % tc dksbZ ekrk ;k firk vius cPps dks yEcs le; ds fy, i;kZIr ns[kHkky fujh{k.k] lgkjs vFkok ekrk&firk ls laca/k ds fcuk NksM+ nsA 6) vcsV % vUr djuk] lekIr djuk 7) vcsVeSaV vkQ ,sDku % og eqdíek ftls fujLr dj fn;k x;k gS vkSj tks lekIr gks x;k gSA 8) ,sDMDku % fdlh dh ifRu] cPps vFkok laj{k.k esa jgus okys cPps dks cgyk&Qqlyk dj] cy&iz;ksx vFkok fgalk }kjk Hkxk ys tkus dk vijk/k 9) ,sczksxsV % fdlh dkuwu vFkok lafo/kkfud kfDr ds iz;ksx }kjk fdlh iqjkus dkuwu dks jí djuk 10) ,sClVªSDV % fdlh vnkyr vFkok ljdkjh ,tsalh dh dk;Zokgh dk lkjA ;krk;kr esa] og nLrkost tks MªkbZfoax fjdkMZ dks iwjk djus ds fy, eksVj Oghdyt+ foHkkx dks Hkstk tkrk gSA 11) ,sClVªSDV vkQ tteSaV % vnkyr ds vafre fu.kZ; dk lkjA bldk iz;ksx dhnu ds rkSj ij fd;k tk ldrk gS] ;fn vki mls dkÅaVh fjdkMZj ds ikl nk;j djsa rks 12) ,sClVªSDVj vkQ fjdkMZ % eqdíes dk laf{kIr :iEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 9
  13. 13. 13) ,sD;wt+ % ¼1½ vla;fer vFkok vuqfpr iz;ksx ¼2½ fdlh dks kkjhfjd] ;kSu&laca/kh vFkok ekufld gkfu igqapkuk 14) ,sD;wt vkQ izkSlsl % vnkyr ds vf/kdkjksa dk nq"iz;ksx 15) ,sDlSljh % og O;fDr tks fdlh nwljs O;fDr dh vijk/k djus ls igys vFkok ckn esa lgk;rk djrk gSA 16) ,sDlhMS.V ,s.M fel % dksbZ & xSj bjknru ?kVuk] nqHkkZX;iw.kZ vizR;kfkr ?kVuk Qkjpwu 17) vDEIykbZl % og O;fDr tks fdlh nwljs dh vijk/k djus esa lgk;rk djrk gSA blesa mldk LokFkZ gks Hkh ldrk gS] ;k ugha Hkh 18) ,sdkSMZ % fdlh eqdíes esa nksuksa i{kksa ds chp fdlhckr ij lgefr] tks nkos ds ckn ds fookn dks jksdrk gSA 19) ,sdkSMZ ,s.M % i{kksa }kjk nkos vFkok eqdíes dks fuiVkus ds fy, nh xbZ og lgefr lSfVlQSDku ftlesa os dqN nsus vFkok Lohdkj djus ds fy, lger gksrs gSaA 21) ,sD;wtsku % fdlh O;fDr ds fo:) vkSipkfjd nks"kkjksi.k 22) ,sD;wTM % og O;fDr ftlds fo:) fdlh vijk/k dk nks"k yxk;k x;k gks vkSj ftls vijk/k laca/kh vnkyr esa tkuk iM+sA 23) ,sDukSyteSaV % fdlh ckr dks dguk] izekf.kr djuk vFkok mlds ckjs eas fookl fnykuk 24) ,sDukysteSaV vkQ % vnkyr dk og QkeZ tks eqdíek thrus okys dks fu.kZ; dh iwjh Qhl lSfVlQSDku vkQ pqdkus ds ckn Hkj dj vius gLrk{kj lfgr vnkyr dks nsuk gksrk tteSaV gSA ;fn gLrk{kj djus ds fy, dksbZ LFkku u nkkZ, x, gksa rks fu.kZ; dh izfof"V ds uksfVl ds fiNyh vksj gLrk{kj fd, tk ldrs gSaA ns[kks] tteSaV ØSfMVj] tteSaV 25) ,sfDoV % ftl O;fDr ij vijk/k dk nks"k yxk;k x;k gks mls dkuwuh rkSj ijEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 10
  14. 14. funksZ"k lkfcr djukA cjh dj nsuk] eqDr dj nsuk vFkok fdlh nkf;Ro Hkkj vFkok vkjksi ls eqDr dj nsukA vkijkf/kd eqdíes dh lquokbZ esa fdlh izfroknh dks funksZ"k ikukA 26) ,sfDoV~Vy % tc dksbZ tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My ;g ik;s fd ftl O;fDr ds fo:) eqdíek pyk;k tk jgk gS og funksZ"k gSA 27) ,sDku % vnkyr esa] tc dksbZ O;fDr nwljs O;fDr ds fo:) cpko ds fy, vFkok viuk vf/kdkj ykxw djokus ds fy,] fdlh cqjh ?kVuk dks jksdus ds fy, fdlh dk;Z dks fu;af=kr djus ds fy, vFkok mls fdlh vijk/k dh ltk fnyokus ds fy, mlds fo:) eqdíek nk;j djrk gSA 28) ,sDku bu ijlksue % fdlh O;fDr ds fo:) fdlh foks"k oLrq] vDlj fdlh futh laifÙk dh oLrq tSls fd dksbZ okgu vkfn] dh cjkenxh ds fy, eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh 29) ,sDku bu jSe % O;fDrxr dk;Zokgh dh rqyuk esa ^ml oLrq* ds fo:) dk;ZokghA vDlj og eqdíek ftlesa laifÙk dk laca/k gksA 30) ,sfDVo LVsVl % og eqdíek tks vnkyr esa gS] ijUrq ftldk fu.kZ; ugha gqvk gS] mls ,fDVo LVsVl dgk tkrk gSA ns[kks] fMLiksthku] iSfMaxA 31) ,sDpqvy ykSl % fdlh oknh vFkok ihfM+r i{k dks /kks[kk/kM+h] tkylkth vFkok fdlh vU; voS/k dk;Zokgh ds dkj.k igqaph laifÙk gkfu vFkok fdlh vU; ewY;oku oLrq dh gkfuA tkylkth ds vijk/k ds fy, /kks[kk/kM+h ds rRo dk gksuk vko;d gSA ijUrq vijk/k dh dk;Zokgh ds iw.kZ cukus ds fy, okLrfod gkfu dk gksuk vko;d ugha gSA 32) ,sM fyV~Vl % ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk ls vk;k gS] ftldk vFkZ gS Þdkuwuh eqdíes ds mn~ns; lsAß mnkgj.k ds fy, ,sM fyV~Vl laj{kd og O;fDr gS ftls vnkyr }kjk fdlh vO;Ld vFkok dkuwuh :i ls v{ke O;fDr ds fgrksa dh j{kk ds fy, fu;qDr fd;k tkrk gSA 33) ,sM vkWu % dSysaMj dh izkajfHkd rS;kjh ds ckn fdlh le; fdlh vfrfjDr fo"k; dks kkfey djukAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 11
  15. 15. 34) ,sMSUMe % tksM+h xbZ vFkok tksM+h tkus okyh dksbZ ckrA 35) ,sfMDku % fdlh O;fDr dk HkkoukRed rkSj ij fdlh uks dh nok ds iz;ksx ij fuHkZj djuk ftlds izHkko ds dkj.k og blds fujarj iz;ksx dh vko;drk vuqHko gS vkSj ftlds izfr mlesa lgu kfDr fodflr gks xbZ gks vkSj ftldh vkSj vf/kd vkSj rst ek=kk dh mls t:jr eglwl gksA 36) ,sMhVj % ubZ lquokbZ dh ;kfpdk dks jí djus dh krZ ds :i esa fu.kkZ;d e.My ds fu.kZ; }kjk /ku laca/kh vokMZ dh jkfk dks c<+kus dk Vªk;y dksVZ dk vf/kdkjA bl o`f) ds fy, izfroknh dh lgefr vko;d gS tcfd oknh dh lgefr vko;d ugha gSA 37) ,sfMlu dkUVªSDVl % og le>kSrk ftlesa fdlh ,d i{k ds ikl bldh krks± ds izfr dksbZ okLrfod fodYi ugha gksrkA 38) ,sMtkSuZeSaV % vnkyrh lquokbZ dks fdlh vU; frfFk vFkok LFkku rd vkxs Mkyuk 39) ,sMtwMhdsV % tc dksbZ tt fdlh eqdíes dh lquokbZ djrk gS vkSj mldk fu.kZ; djrk gSA 40) ,sMtwMhdsku % fdlh eqdíes vFkok lquokbZ esa tt dk fu.kZ; 41) ,sMfeu ij ls % ykrhuh vFkZ ^Lo;a ds }kjk* vUrfuZfgrA blds vuqlkj eksVj Oghdy foHkkx }kjk fdlh ,sls pkyd dks MªkbZfoax ykbZlSal Lor% jí dj fn;k tkrk gS ftlds jDr esa vYdksgy dh ek=kk 08 izfrkr ls vf/kd gks vFkok tks iq:"k @ L=kh pkyd vius jDr esa vYdksgu dh tkap djokus ls badkj djrk gksA 42) ,sMfefuLVj % ¼1½ izca/k djuk] ¼2½ Vhds }kjk Lokl }kjk] ;kSuh ekxZ ls vFkok fdlh vU; fof/k ls ml O;fDr ds fy, rRdky vko;d ukhyh nok dk lsou 43) ,sMfefuLVªsfVo izkslhtj % ftl fo/kh }kjk ljdkj dh dksbZ dk;Zdkjh ,stsalh vnkyr esa x,English/Hindi Legal Glossary 12
  16. 16. fcuk lgk;rkFkZ vknskksa dk fuekZ.k vkSj mudks ykxw djrh gSA 44) ,sMfefuLVªsfVo fjO;w % ljdkj ds fmikVZeSaV vkQ gSYFk ,.M g;weu lfoZlst+ ds }kjk pqus x, yksxksa ds iSuy }kjk fdlh cPps ds yEch vo/kh ds fy, /keZ ds ekrk&firk dh ns[kHkky esa mlds dY;k.k ij iqufoZpkjA ;g iqufoZpkj 6 eghus ckn iqufoZpkj dh vis{kk o"kZ esa ,d ckj fd;k tkrk gSA ;g iSuy Mh-,p-,p-,l- dh fjiksVZ ij iqufoZpkj djrk gSA ;g iqufoZpkj cPps ds ekrk&firk] muds odhy rFkk cPps ds odhy ds lkeus gksrk gSA 45) ,sMfefuLVªsVj % 1- fcuk olh;r fd, ^e`rd dh tk;nkndk izfrfuf/kRo djus okyk O;fDr] 2- vnkyr dksbZ vf/kdkjh 46) ,sMfefuLVªSfDl % 1- fcuk olhu;r fd, e`rd dh tk;nkn dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okyh L=kh 47) ,sMfelhcy % fdlh fu.kZ; ij igqapus ds fy, mi;qZDr ,oa fopkj djus ;ksX; 48) ,sMfelhcy ,sihMSal % os izek.ktks dkuwuh vkSj mi;qZDr <ax ls vnkyr esa iz;ksx fd, tk ldrs gSaA 49) ,sMehku % fdlh rF;ksa dh lR;rk ds ckjs esa dFkuA ijUrq Lo;a dks nks"kh u dgukA 50) ,sMeksfuk % psrkouh nsuk] ijkekZ nsuk vFkok MkaVuk 51) ,sMeksuhku % vnkyr ds }kjk fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dks fu.kkZ;dksa ds :i esa muds dÙkZO;ksa rFkk ml mís; ds ckjs esa ijkekZ vFkok psrkouh ftlds fy, izek.kksa ij fopkj fd;k tkuk gSA 52) ,sMeksuhku Vw twjjl % tt }kjk fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lnL;ksa dks ;g lykg fd mUgsa D;k djuk pkfg, vkSj dSlk O;ogkj djuk pkfg,] os vius fu.kZ; ij igqapus ds fy, fdu izek.kksa dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSa vkSj os mu izek.kksa dk iz;ksx fdl izdkj dj ldrs gSaA 53) ,sMkSiku % og fof/k ftlds }kjk [kwuh fjrk u gksus ij Hkh fdlh cPps vkSjEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 13
  17. 17. fdlh ekrk ;k firk ds chp laca/k dks dkuwuh :i fn;k tkrk gSA 54) ,sMkSfIVo ,sMehku % fdlh i{k }kjk dh xbZ og dk;Zokgh tks fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds dFkuksa ls lgefr izdV djrh gSA 55) ,sMojljh flLVe % la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk vkSj dqN vU; nskksa esa eqdíes dh lquokbZ dh izFkk ftlds vUrxZr nksuksa i{kkssa esa ls dksbZ i{k dks nwljs i{k ds izfr vnkyr esa izfrdwy fLFkfr;ka isk o fl) djus dk volj feyrk gSA 56) ,sMolZ foVuSl % og O;fDr ftls fojks/kh i{k ds fy, Xokg ds rkSj ij cqyk;k x;k gksA 57) ,sQh,S.V % og O;fDr tks fdlh kiFk&i=k ij gLrk{kj djrk gSA 58) ,sQhMsfoV % fdlh O;fDr }kjk fdlh tt vFkok uksVjh ifCyd tSls dkuwuh :i ls vf/kd`r O;fDr ds le{k kiFk ysdj fn;k x;k fyf[kr c;ku 59) ,sQjesku % vihyh; vnkyr dk og dFku ftlesa ;g dgk x;k gks fd fupyh vnkyd dk fu.kZ; Bhd gSA 60) ,sQjesfVo fMQSal % tc dksbZ izfroknh vFkok O;fDr }kjk nhokuh eqdíeksa esa fn;k x;k og mÙkj tks mls funksZk lkfcr dj ldrk gS vkSj vnkyr dks ,slk djus ds fy, ,d u;k vk/kkj iznku djrk gSA cpko i{k dks vius dFku dks lR; izekf.kr djuk iM+rk gSA cpko i{k dks vius mÙkj esa vius cpko dks Li"V djuk iM+rk gSA 61) vQeZM % vihyh; vnkyrksa esa bldk vFkZ gS fd Vªk;y dksVZ dk fu.kZ; Bhd gSA 62) vk¶Vj ,sDok;MZ bUVSaV % vijk/k fd, tkus rd cpkodÙkkZ ds eu esa vijk/k djus dk bjknk u gksuk 63) ,tsaV % og O;fDr ftls fdlh vU; ds fy, dk;Z djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksA 64) ,tsalh % fdlh O;fDr ds }kjk vf/kd`r :i ls fdlh nwljs ds fy, dk;Z djukA ;krk;kr esa izkalkRed i=k tkjh djus okyk foHkkx 65) ,sxzkosku % os ifjfLFkfr;ka ftUgsa ltk dh ek=kk esa o`f) djus ds dkj.k ekuk tkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 14
  18. 18. ldrk gSA 66) ,sxzkosfVM vkjlu % tkucw> dj gkfu igqapkus vFkok <kaps dks u"V djus ds fufpr bjkns ls yxkbZ xbZ vkx tgka izfroknh dks vkxtuh ds fy, ltk nh tk pqdh gks vkSj tgka uqdlku 50 yk[k Mkyj vFkok de ls de 5 fuokl LFkkuksa dks u"V fd;k x;k gksA 67) ,sxzksosVsM cSVjh % fdlh ds fo:) voS/k cy iz;ksx tSls [krjukd gfFk;kj dk iz;ksx 68) ,sxzksosVsM esgSe % fdlh ds fgrksa ds izfr iw.kZ mnklhurk ds lkFk pksV igqapkus ds foks"k bjkns ls mls LFkkbZ :i ls v;ksX; cukuk ;k kkjhfjd :i ls fod`r djukA 69) ,sxzksosVsM VªSL;kl % xaHkhj kkjhfjd pksV igqapkus ds ckjs esa igys ls nh xbZ /kedh dks dk;kZfUor djus ds foks"k bjkns ls fdlh dh laifÙk esa voS/k izosk 70) ,sxzfofVax QSDVlZ % fdlh vkijkf/kd d`R; ls lacaf/kr os lHkh dkj.k tks ml vijk/k dh xaHkhjrk dks vkSj c<+krs gSaA 71) ,sxzhxsV VeZ % tsy tkus dh ltk dh dqy vo/khA 72) ,sxzhM LVsVeSaV vkQ % lHkh egRoiw.kZ rF;ksa ds ckjs esa fn;k x;k og C;ku ftldh lR;rk QSDVl vkSj vkSfpR; ij lHkh i{k lger gksa rFkk tks eqdíes ds fu.kZ; ds fy, vnkyr esa fn;k tkrk gSA 73) ,sxzheSaV % tc fdlh dkuwuh >xM+s ls lacaf/kr lHkh yksx fdlh ckr ij lger gksaA 74) ,M ,s.M vcSV % fdlh vijk/k dks djus esa lgk;rk nsukA 75) ,Mj ,s.M vcSV~Vj % vkijkff/kd bjkns okyk og O;fDr tks vijk/kdjus esa fdlh nwljs dh lgk;rk djrk gSA 76) vySTt % izekf.kr gksus ls iwoZ gh fdlh ckr ij lgefr ds ckjs esa dFku vFkok nks"kkjksi.kA 77) vySTM % rFkk dfFkr :i ls lR;] og O;fDr ftl ij dksbZ vkjksi yxk;kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 15
  19. 19. x;k gks ijUrq ftl ij vHkh eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh u dh xbZ gksA 78) ,syhxsku % og dFku vFkok nkok tks vHkh lR; vFkok >wBk izekf.kr u gqvk gks 79) vySTM Qknj % og iq:"k tks fdlh cPps dk laHkkfor firk gks ldrk gSA 80) ,fY;kl % fdlh O;fDr dk nwljk izfl) uke vFkok ftldk vFkZ gS ^ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA* 81) ,sfych % cpko&i{k dk ;g nkok fd vijk/k ?kfVr gksus ds le; vkjksih O;fDr fdlh vkSj LFkku ij FkkA 82) ,yheuh % og /ku tks vnkyr ds vknskkuqlkj fdlh ifr ;k iRuh }kjk viuh iRuh ;k ifr ;k iwoZ iRuh ;k ifr dks nsuk gksrk gSA ns[kks] ÞLikÅty liksVZßA 83) ,syksD;wku % izfroknh }kjk ltk de djokus ds iz;kl ls fn;k x;k c;kuA 84) vkyVªsku] QkstZjh ckbZ % fdlh vU; O;fDr dks Bxus ds fy, fdlh nLrkost esa bl foks"k gjkns ls dqN tksM+uk] feVkuk ;k gVkuk rkfd mldk Lo:i igys tSlk fn[kkbZ u nsA 85) vkYVjusfVo fMlI;wV % ljdkjh vnkyrksa dh dk;Zokgh ds fcuk >xM+ksa ds fuiVkjs dh fof/k;ka jStksD;wku % 86) veS.M % vnkyr esa nk;j fd, x, nkos esa dqN lfEefyr djuk vFkok mlesa dqN ifjorZu djukA 87) veS.MeSaV % lakks/ku] la;kstu vFkok foyksiu }kjk fd;k x;k ifjorZuA 88) ,sehdl D;wfj;s % fdlh eqdíes esa vnkyr dks ijekkZ nsus okyk dksbZ ,slk O;fDr tks eqdíes ds fdlh i{k ls lacaf/kr u gksA ;g kCn ykrhuh Hkk"kk dk gS ftldk vFkZ gS] Þvnkyr dk fe=kßA 89) ,séksVsku % vnkyrksa ds QSlyksa] dkuwuksa vkSj fu;eksa ij fVIi.kh vFkok fdlhEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 16
  20. 20. eqdíes dk lkjA 90) ,suqvy fjO;w % okf"kZd U;kf;d iqufoZpkjA 91) ,suyeSaV % og dkuwuh dk;Zokgh ftlds dFkukuqlkj vkidk fookg fnekxh [kjkch] dkSVqfEcd O;fHkpkj] fookg ds le; vYik;q] /kks[kk/kM+h] cy iz;ksx] vFkok kkjhfjd vleFkZrk ds dkj.k dkuwuh :i ls dHkh Hkh oS/k ugha FkkA 92) ,suksuhel % tc fdlh ds uke dks xqIr j[kk tkrk gSA 93) vkUloj % izfroknh dk og fyf[kr c;ku tks og nhokuh fkdk;r ds mÙkj esa nsrk gS rFkk ftlesa mlds }kjk iz;ksx fd, tkus okys cpko ds fy, rdZ fn, tkrs gSaA 94) ,saVhflisVjh czhp % tc fdlh le>kSrs }kjk ck/; dksbZ O;fDr nwljs i{k dks ;g Li"V ladsr ns nsrk gS fd og le>kSrs ds vuqlkj dk;Z ugha djsxk @ dj ldrk gSA 95) vihy % tc dksbZ ,slk O;fDr tks vkafkd :i ls gh eqdíek gkj tkrk gS] Åijh vnkyr ls fupyh vnkyr ij iquZfopkj dj blds vkSfpR; ds ckjs esa mldh jk; ekaxrk gSA vihy djokus okys O;fDr dks viSySaV rFkk ftlds fo:) vihy dh xbZ gks mls viSysV dgk tkrk gSA 96) vih;jSal % vnkyr esa mifLFkfr @ vFkok og dkuwuh nLrkost ftlesa ;g mYys[k gksrk gS fd vki vnkyr dh izfØ;k esa Hkkx ysaxsA 97) vih;jSal izksxzSl fjiksVZ % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk fMikVZeSaV vkQ gSYFk ,s.M g;weu lfoZlst ls vnkyr }kjk vkosnu fd, x;s fo"k; ds ckjs esa fjiksVZ ekaxh tkrh gSA 98) viSySaV % og O;fDr tks fdlh vnkyr ds fu.kZ; ds fo:) vihy djrk gSAv 99) viSysV % vihyksa ls lacaf/krA dksbZ Hkh vihyh; vnkyr fdlh fupyh vnkyr esa eqdíes dk fu.kZ; djrs le; dkuwu dk iz;ksx fdl izdkj fd;kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 17
  21. 21. x;k FkkA 101) viSysV twfjlfMDku % vihyh; vnkyrksa dks fupyh vnkyr ds fu.kZ; ij iqufoZpkj dj mls cnyus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gksrk gSA 102) vihyh % Åijh vnkyr esa vihy dk mÙkj nsus okyk O;fDrA 103) vkchZVªsku % tc dksbZ ,slk O;fDr tks eqdíes ls lacaf/kr u gks] lcwrksa ij n`f"V Mkyrk gS] nyhyksa dks lqurk gS vkSj eqdís dk fu.kZ; djrk gSA 104) vkjX;weSaV % eqdíes ls lacaf/kr rF;ksa ds ckjs esa vFkok dkuwuh eqíksa ds ckjs eas fdlh odhy }kjk tt vFkok fu.kkZ;d e.My dks fn, x, rdZA 105) vkfeZx Dykt % ;g vkjksi fd izfroknh vFkok mldk lkFk gfFk;kj can FkkA 106) vjsu % og izfØ;k ftlds }kjk fdlh vkjksih iq:"k @ L=kh dks vnkyr ds le{k yk;k tkrk gS rkfd og vius fo:) yxk, x, vkijkf/kd nks"kksa dks lqudj viuk nks"k Lohdkj] vLohdkj djs vFkok dksbZ izfrfØ;k u nsA 107) vjsueSaV % tc fdlh vijk/k djus ds vkjksih O;fDr dks vnkyr esa ys tkdj mlds fo:) yxk, x, vkjksi lquk, tkrs gSa vkSj mls nks"k Lohdkj vFkok vLohdkj djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSA 108) ,fj;st+ % cPpksa dks nh tkus okyh lgk;rk jkfk tks cdk;k gks vFkok ftldk Hkqxrku u fd;k x;k gksA 109) vjsLV % fdlh ,sls O;fDrdh dkuwuh fxj¶rkjh ftl ij fdlh vijk/k dks djus dk vkjksi gksA 110) vjSjLV vkQ tteSaV % iwoZfyf[kr fu.kZ; ds ifj.kke dks LFkfxr djukA 111) vklZu % fdlh ds }kjk viuh vFkok fdlh nwljs ds ?kj] vFkok O;kolkf;d vfkok vkS|ksfxd laifÙk dks nqHkkZouk ls tykukA 112) vlkSYV % tc dksbZ O;fDr fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks pksV igqapkrk gS ;k pksV igqapkus dk iz;kl djrk gSA blesa fgalk gks ldrh gS] kkjhfjd fgalkEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 18
  22. 22. ughaA 113) vlkSYV fon MSMyh % tc dksbZ O;fDr fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks fcuk mfpr dkj.k ds canwd oSiu vFkok pkdw ds iz;ksx ls kkjhfjd pksV igqapkus dk iz;kl djrk gS vFkok ,slk djus dh /kedh nsrk gSA 114) vlSLeSaV % fdlh eqdíes esa yxk, x, vfrfjDr vkjksiA 115) vlkbZuh % og O;fDr vFkok O;olk; ftls izkFkfed ysunkj ds LFkku ij j[k fn;k tk,] tSls fd dksbZ olwyh djus okyh ,tsalhA vki vius fu.kZ; dks fdlh vU; O;fDr ;k O;olk; ij ykxw dj ldrs gSaA 116) vlkbZueSaV % fdlh dk;Z dks djus ds fy, fdlh O;fDr dk pqukoA vDlj] tc dksbZ vnkyr ttksa vFkok odhyksa dks eqdíes lkSaius ds fy, fdlh dSysaMj dk iz;ksx djrh gS vFkok tc cPpksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djus ds fy, odhyksa dk pquko ;k fu;qfDr dh tkrh gS vkSj NqV~Vh ij x, chekj ttksa ds LFkku ij kjn ds fy, nwljs ttksa dks Hkstus dh izfØ;kA 117) vlkbZueSaV vkQ liksVZ % tc dksbZ ,slk O;fDr ftls ljdkjh lgk;rk izkIr gks ljdkj dks jkbZVl cPpksa ds fy, lgk;rkFkZ Hkfo"; esa nh tkus okyh jkfk nsus ds fy, lgefr nsA og O;fDr ljdkj ls /ku o vU; ykHk izkIr djrk gSA blfy, ljdkj cPpksa ds fy, lgk;rkFkZ jkfk dk dqN Hkkx ml ljdkjh lgk;rk ds [kpZ ds fy, iz;ksx dj ldrh gSA 118) vlkbZueSaV vkMZj % ;kfpdk ds ckn fn;k x;k vnkyr dkog vknsk ftlesa tteSaV MSVj dks dgk tkrk gS fd og dqN vf/kdkj tteSaV ØSfMVj ds lkFk vo; ckaVsA ;g vknsk mu Hkqxrkuksa ds fy, ykHknk;d gS ftUgsa tteSaV MSVj vDlj izkIr djrk gS] tSls fdjk,nkjksa ls fdjk;k] la?kh; ljdkj izksfeljh uksfVl vFkok tteSaVl ds Hkqxrku dh fdrksa dh jkfkA 119) vt+Eiku vkQ fjLd % O;fDrxr gkfu ds fy, eqdíes ds izfr cpko dk vk/kkjA bl cpko dk lkj ;g gS fd oknh us ftl Hkh [krjukd ifjfLFkfr ds dkj.kEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 19
  23. 23. pksV igqaph mlds [krjs dks lR; eku fy;kA 120) ,sV bkq % fdlh eqdíes esa og le; tc fkdk;r djus okys i{k us viuk nkos dks nk;j dj fn;k gks vkSj nwljs i{k us vius mÙkj esa bls Lohdkj djus ls badkj dj fn;k gks vkSj og eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ds fy, rS;kj gksA 121) ,sV bkq eSeksjaMe % fdlh nhokuh eqdíes esa nk;j fd;k x;k og dkuwuh nLrkost+ ftlesa dgk x;k gksrk gS fd eqdíek lquokbZ ds fy, rS;kj gSA 122) vVSpeSaV % ¼1½ vnkyrh nLrkostksa ds lkFk vfrfjDr lwpukFkZ uRFkh dkxtkr ¼2½ fu.kZ; dks ykxw djomus dh ,d fof/k] vnkyr ds vknsk ls fdlh laifÙk ds dqN Hkkx dks xzg.k djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr djukA 123) vVSpeSaV Qkj % izfroknh dks NksM+ fdlh vU; O;fDr dks fxj¶rkj djus dh vnkyrh fMQkYVj izfØ;kA ns[kks] vVSpeSaV cSap okj.V 124) vVSaIV % fdlh dk;Z vFkok vijk/k djus dk iz;klA 125) vVSLV % xokgh nsuk] lR; vFkok vlyh ?kksf"kr djuk] izekf.kr djukA 126) vVSLVsku % fdlh i{k ds vkosnu ij fdlh ckr dks fyf[kr :i esa izekf.kr djus dh dk;ZokghA 127) vVkSuhZ % og O;fDr tks vnkyr esa eqofDdyksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djs vkSj mUgsa dkuwuh lykg nsus dh ;ksX;rk j[krk gksA 128) vVkuhZ vkQ fjdkMZ % og odhy ftlds uke dk mYys[k fdlh eqdíes esa fdlh eqofDdy ds izfrfuf/k ds :i esa fd;k x;k gksA 129) vVkuhZ&,sVyk % vnkyrksa eas eqdíeksa dh rS;kjh] izca/k ,oa ftjg ds fy, ftl odhy vFkok ljdkjh vf/kdkjh dh lsok yh tkrh gSA 130) vVkuhZ&bu&QSDV % og dksbZ Hkh lekU; O;fDr ¼t:jh ugha fd og odhy gks½ ftls fdlh ds }kjk viuk izfrfuf/kRo djus dk vf/kdkj fn;k x;k gks] pkgs fdlh foks"k mís; ds fy, vFkok lk/kkj.k ysu&nsu ds fy,A ;g vf/kdkj fyf[kr :i esa fn;k tkrk gS ftls ikoj vkQ vVkuhZEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 20
  24. 24. dgk tkrk gSA 131) vksfMV % tc fjdkMZ vkSj [kkrksa dh ij[k ;g tkuus ds fy, dh tkrh gS fd os Bhd rFkk iw.kZ gSaA 132) vkSFkSaVhdsV % fdlh dkuwu] fjdkMZ vFkok fdlh vU; fyf[kr nLrkost dks vf/kdkj vFkok dkuwuh oS|rk iznku djukA 133) vkSVks VSaifjax % fdlh okgu rFkk blds dtiqt+ks± dh fdlh foks"k mís; ls O;oLFkk djukA 134) vkSVksesVsM % ilZuy fjlikSalhfcfyVh ,s.M odZ vikSpqZfuVh jhdfUlfy;sku ,sDV dh ,sMfefuLVªsfVo ,su og Hkkx tks jkT;ksa dks nwljs jkT;ksa esa jgus okys mu yksxksa dh laifÙk QkslZeSaV vkWQ baVjLVsV dks yh;u }kjk xzg.k djus dk vf/kdkj iznku djrk gS tks /ku dslst+ laca/kh nsunkj gSA 135) vkSVksesVsM oks;l % og Qksu&iz.kkyh tks VsyhQksu ds ek/;e ls yksxksa dks lwpuk iznku fjLikSal flLVe djrh gSA 136) ,sojst+ ,sMYV ilZu % og dkYifud O;fDr ftls laiw.kZ leqnk; ds mnkgj.k :i esa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;g dkYifud O;fDr /kkfeZd rFkk /keZ dks u ekuus okys lHkh yksxksa ds fgrksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gS] lHkh jk"Vªh;rkvksa] lHkh O;Ldksa rFkk lHkh vkfFkZd] kS{kf.kd rFkk lkekftd izfr"Bkvksa okys O;fDr;ksa] lk/kkj.k O;fDr;ksa] LoLFk O;fDr;ksa rFkk ledkyhu vkSlr O;ogkj] Hkkoukvksa rFkk ;kSu laca/kh :fp;ksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 21
  25. 25. -------B------------ 1. BACKLOG – All the cases that haven’t been settled or decided in the time the law says they should be. 2. BAD FAITH – Generally implies actual or constructive fraud, or a design to mislead or deceive another. 3. BAIL - A security deposit (usually money) given to release a defendant or witness from custody and to make sure that they go to court when theyre supposed to. 4. BAIL BOND - A legal paper that you buy from a bondsman and give to the court instead of bail. The defendant signs it and is let go. But if they dont come to court when theyre supposed to, they must pay the amount of money on the bail bond. 5. BAIL BONDSMAN - Person who is responsible for paying the bond for the defendants release from jail. 6. BAIL EXONERATION – When you get your bail back. Or when a bail bondsman or insurance ("surety") company isn’t responsible for your bail anymore. 7. BAIL FORFEITURE - A court order to let the court keep the bail deposit because the defendant didnt go to court when they were supposed to. 8. BAILIFF - Person who is in charge of security in the court. Bailiffs are picked by sheriffs. 9. BAILMENTS – A delivery of goods from one person to another in trust for purpose of carrying out agreed upon services. 10. BAIL NOTICE – A legal paper from the court that says the court will make a WARRANT for arrest unless the defendant goes to court or pays bail. 11. BAIL RECEIPT – A written statement that the court gives a defendant that says bail was paid. 12. BAIL REVIEW - A hearing established to re-evaluate the bail amount that was originally set for the accused. 13. BALLARD MOTION - A motion for psychiatric examination of prosecutor’s witnesses (victims). 14. BANK LEVY – Way to enforce a decision against someone who owes money. The money is taken from their checking or savings account at a bank, savings and loan, or credit union. 15. BANKRUPT - The state or condition of a person who is unable to pay his or her debts when they are due. 16. BANKRUPTCY - The legal way for a business or person to get help when they cant pay the money they owe. In bankruptcy court, they can get rid of debts by paying part of what they owe. There are special bankruptcy judges at these hearings.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 22
  26. 26. 17. BAR - All of the lawyers qualified to practice law. For example, a state bar includes all of the lawyers qualified to practice law in that state. 18. BAR EXAMINATION - A state examination that is taken in order to be admitted and licensed to practice law. 19. BASE TERM - A term of imprisonment selected by the court according to the Determinate Sentencing Law. 20. BATTERED CHILD SYNDROME (B.C.S.) - Physical condition of a child where external or internal injuries result from acts committed by a parent or custodian. 21. BATTERY - Illegal beating or physical violence or control of a person without their permission. (Compare with ASSAULT.) 22. BATTERY, SPOUSAL - An offensive touching or use of force on a spouse without the spouses consent. See BATTERY. 23. BEAGLE MOTION - A request to exclude any reference of the defendant’s prior conviction to the jury. 24. BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLAN – Plan made by a local educational agency (LEA) as part of an individualized education program (IEP), to change the behavior of students who harm themselves, assault others, or are destructive. 25. BENCH - (1) the desk where a judge sits in court; (2) Judges in general, or a specific judge. 26. BENCH CONFERENCE - A meeting either on or off the record at the judges bench between the judge, counsel, and sometimes the defendant, out of the hearing of the jury. 27. BENCH TRIAL - Trial without a jury. The judge decides the case. 28. BENCH WARRANT - An order given by the judge (or "bench") to arrest a person who didnt do what the court ordered. For example, didnt go to court when they were supposed to. (See WARRANT, WRIT). 29. BENEFICIARY - Someone who gets something from a trust. 30. BENEFIT OF THE BARGAIN RULE – Rule which provides that a person may recover the difference between the actual value of the property and the value that was represented. 31. BEQUEATH - To leave someone something in a will. 32. BEQUESTS - What you leave someone in a will. 33. BEST EVIDENCE - Primary proof; the best proof available. For example, an original letter is “best evidence,” and a photocopy is “secondary evidence.” 34. BEYOND A REASONABLE DOUBT - The burden of proof in a criminal case requiring that the jury be convinced that every element of a crime has been proven by the prosecution. 35. BIAS - A pre-conceived opinion or a predisposition to decide a cause or an issue a certain way. 36. BIFURCATE - To try issues separately, such as guilt and criminal responsibility in a criminal proceeding or liability and damages in a civil action.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 23
  27. 27. 37. BIFURCATION MOTION - A request to change the order in which issues are heard at trial. 38. BILL OF PARTICULARS - A statement of the details of the charge made against the defendant. 39. BIND – To make yourself or someone else legally responsible for something. 40. BIND OVER - A judges decision before a trial that says there is enough evidence for a trial. 41. BLOOD-ALCOHOL CONTENT (BAC) - The measurement in grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. 42. BLOOD TEST – Testing someone’s blood sample to: (1) see how much of a certain chemical is in the blood, (2) see who is the parent of a child. 43. BODY ATTACHMENT - A written order issued by a court directing a peace officer to take custody of someone and bring them before the court: 1) A witness who fails to comply with a subpoena, 2) a party who fails to comply with a court order in a civil action, or 3) a material witness in a criminal case. 44. BONA FIDE – Sincere, real without fraud or deceit. Comes from the Latin "in good faith." 45. BOND - A certificate or evidence of a debt. 46. BOOK (BOOKING) - What the police do when they arrest someone. Includes taking fingerprints, photographs, and writing down personal information about the person. 47. BOOKING NUMBER - The number assigned to the criminal record that corresponds to the persons arrest. 48. BOOKMAKING - Collecting the bets of others or making odds on future gambling events. 49. BRADY MOTION - A motion made by defense when they believe the District Attorney has not turned over exculpatory and material evidence. 50. BRANDISHING A WEAPON - Showing a weapon to another person, typically the police or the victim. 51. BREACH - The breaking or violating of a law, right, obligation, or duty either by doing an act or failing to do an act. 52. BREACH OF PEACE – Every person who unlawfully fights in a public place or willfully and maliciously disturbs another person by loud and unreasonable noise, or in a public place, says offensive words to one or more persons which are likely to start an immediate violent reaction. 53. BREAKING AND ENTERING - Going into someones house at night with intent to commit a felony. 54. BREATHALYZER TEST - Testing someones breath to see how much alcohol is in their blood. 55. BRIBE - A gift, not necessarily of monetary value, given to influence the conduct of the receiver. 56. BRIEF - A written statement that each side gives the court to say why the court should decide that they are right. 57. BURDEN OF PROOF - When one person in the case has to prove more than the other person.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 24
  28. 28. 58. BURGLARY - When someone unlawfully breaks into or enters a building or home, and they intend to or do commit a theft or other serious crime. 59. BYSTANDERS - A chance onlooker; one who has no concern with the business being conducted.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 25
  29. 29. 1) oSd yksx % os lHkh eqdíes ftudk fu.kZ; dkuwu }kjk uh;r le; esa fd;k tk pqdfk gSA 2) cSM QsFk % lk/kkj.kr% bl dk vFkZ gS okLrfod vFkok jpukRed /kks[kk/kM+h vFkok fdlh dks xqejkg ;k /kks[kk nsus dh ;kstukA 3) csy % fdlh izfroknh vFkok dks fgjklr ls NqM+kus ds fy, vkSj vnkyr esa mldh iskh dks ;dhuh cukus ds fy, nh tkus okyh tekur dh jkfk 4) cSd ckSaM % og dkuwuh nLrkost tks vki fdlh LVSEi&isij cspus okys ls [kjhn dj tekur dh jkfk ds cnys vnkyr esa nsrs gSaA izfroknh bl ij gLrk{kj dj bls lkSai nsrk gSA ;fn os iskh ij vnkyr esa mifLFkr ugha gksrs rks mudks csy&ckSaM ij fy[kh jkfk dk Hkqxrku djuk iM+rk gSA 5) csy ckSaMleSu % og O;fDr tks tsy ls izfroknh dks NqM+kus ds fy, tekur dh jkfk dk Hkqxrku djus ds fy, mÙkjnk;h gksA 6) csy ,sXt+ksujsku % tc tekur dh jkfk okfil fey tkrh gSA vFkok tc tekur nsus okyk ;k chek daiuh dh tekur dh t:jr lekIr gks tkrh gSA 7) csy QkSjQhpj % vnkyr dk og vknsk ftlds }kjk tekur dh jkfk dks vnkyr }kjk tCr dj fy, tkus dks dgk tkrk gS D;ksafd izfroknh iskh ds le; vnkyr esa mifLFkr ugha gksrkA 8) cfyQ % og O;fDr tks vnkyr esa tekur dh jkfk j[kus dk vf/kdkjh gksrk gSA budk pquko ftys ds eq[; vf/kdkjh ds }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA 9) csyeSaVl % lger lsokvksa ds fØ;kUo;u ds fy, fdlh ,d O;fDr ls lkeku dk fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds ikl vekur esa j[kus ds fy, HkstukA 10) csy uksfVl % vnkyr }kjk tkjh og dkuwuh nLrkost ftlesa dgk tkrk gS fd ;fn izfroknh vnkyr esa mifLFkr u gqvk ;k mlus tekur dh jkfk tek u djkbZ rks vnkyr mldh fxj¶rkjh ds fy, okjaV tkjh dj nsxhA 11) csy fjlhIV % og fyf[kr C;ku ftlesa dgk tkrk gS fd izfroknh us tekur Hkj nh gSAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 26
  30. 30. 12) csy fjO;w % vkjaHk esa fdlh nks"kh ds fy, fufpr dh xbZ tekur dh jkfk ds iquZewY;kadu ds fy, vnkyr }kjk lquokbZA 13) cSykMZ eksku % vfHk;kstd ds xokgksa ¼ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa½ ds euksjksx laca/kh ijh{k.k ds fy, nk;j dh xbZ ;kfpdkA 14) cSad ySoh % fdlh dtZnkj ds fo:) fu.kZ; ykxw djus dh ,d fof/kA mlds }kjk nh tkus okyh jkfkA cSad esa mlds pSfdax ;k cpr [kkrs ls] cpr rFkk dtZ dh jkfk vFkok ØSfMV ;wfu;u ls ys dj dh tkrh gSA 15) cSadjIV % fdlh iq:"k @ L=kh dh og voLFkk tc og fu;r le; ij viuk dtZ okfil djus esa vleFkZ gksrs gSaA 16) cSadjIVlh % fdlh O;kikj vFkok O;fDr ds fy, tc os viuk dtZ okfil u dj ik;sa lgk;rk izkIr djus dk dkuwuh <axA nhokyk fudkyus laca/kh vnkyr esa] os vius dtZ dk vkafkd Hkqxrku djds vius dtks± ls NqVdkjk ik ldrs gSaA ,sls eqdíeksa dh lquokbZ ds fy, foks"k cSadjIVlh tt gksrs gSaA 17) ckj % os lHkh odhy tks dkuwu esa izSfDVl djus dh kS{kf.kd ;ksX;rk j[krs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy, fdlh jkT; dh ckj esa ml jkT; esa dkuwu esa izSfDVl djus dh kS{kf.kd ;ksX;rk j[kus okys lHkh odhy kkfey gksrs gSaA 18) ckj ,sXt+kehusku % jkT; }kjk vk;ksftr og ijh{kk tks dkuwu esa izSfDVl djus ds fy, ykbZlSal tkjh djus ds fy, yh tkrh gSA 19) csl VeZ % fMVjehusaV lSVSaflx ykW ds vuqlkj vnkyr }kjk pquh xbZ tsy dh ltk dh vo/khA 20) cSVMZ pkbZYM flUMªkse % fdlh cPps dh og kkjhfjd voLFkk tc mlds ekrk&firk vFkok laj{kd ds d`R;ksa ds dkj.k vkarfjd ;k ckgjh ?kko gks x, gksaA 21) cSVjh % mudh vuqefr ds fcuk yksxksa ds lkFk voS/k ekj&dqVkbZ vFkok kkjhfjd fgalkAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 27
  31. 31. 22) cSVjh] LikÅty % ifr vFkok ifr ds }kjk viuh iRuh vFkok ifr ds lkFk lgefr ds fcuk vkijkf/kd lalxZ vFkok cy iz;ksxA 23) chxy eksku % fu.kkZ;d e.My ds le{k izfroknh dks iwoZdky esa feyh ltk ds mYys[k dks kkfey u djus ds fy, ;kfpdkA 24) fogsfo;j bUVjoSaku % O;fDrxr fk{kk dk;ZØe ds vax ds :i esa mu fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds O;ogkj iySu dks cnyus ds fy, fdlh LFkkfud kS{kf.kd ,tsalh }kjk cukbZ xbZ ;kstuk] tks viuk uqdlku djrs gSa] nwljksa ds lkFk fgalk djrs gSa ;k tks foukkdkjh gSaA 25) cSap % ¼1½ vnkyr dk og LFkku tgka tt cSBrk gS] ¼2½ vke vFkok dksbZ foks"k ttA 26) cSap dkUÝSal % tt ds cSBus ds LFkku ij tt] odhy rFkk dHkh&dHkh izfroknh ds chp ehfVax tks fjdkMZ esa vk Hkh ldrh gS ;k ugha Hkh] vkSj tks fu.kkZ;d e.My dh vuqifLFkfr esa gksrh gSA 27) cSap Vªk;y % fcuk fu.kkZ;d e.My ds lquokbZ @ tt dh eqdíeksa dk fu.kZ; djrk gSA 28) cSp okjaV % tt }kjk ^cSap* dks fn;k x;k og vknsk ftlesa fdlh ,sls O;fDr dks fxj¶rkj djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gS ftlus vnkyr ds vknskkuqlkj dk;Z u fd;k gksA mnkgj.k ds fy,] iskh ds le; vnkyr esa mifLFkr u gqvk gksA 29) cSuhQhfk;jh % og O;fDr tks fdlh VªLV ls dqN izkIr djrk gksA 30) cSuhfQV vkQ nk % og fu;e ftlesa izko/kku gS fd dksbZ O;fDr viuh laifÙk ds ckjxsu :y okLrfod ewY; vkSj ?kksf"kr ewY; ds chp vUrj dh olwyh dj ldrk gSA 31) fcfDohFk % olh;rukes esa fdlh ds uke dqN NksM+ tkukA 32) fcDoSLVl % olh;r esa fdlh ds uke tks dqN vki NksM+rs gSaAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 28
  32. 32. 33) cSLV ,sohMSal % izkFkfed izek.k] miyC/k loksZÙke izek.kA mnkgj.k ds fy, ewy&i=k lokZsÙke izek.k gS tcfd mldh QksVks&dkih f}rh;&Js.kh dk izek.k gSA 34) fc;kSaM , jhtuscy % fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíesa esa ;g krZ fd fu.kkZ;d e.My bl ckr ls MkÅV larq"V gks fd vijk/k dk izR;sd rRo vfHk;kstu i{k }kjk fl) fd;k x;k gSA 35) fc;kl % fdlh ?kVuk vFkok eqís dk fdlh iwoZ&fu/kkZfjr <ax ls fu.kZ; djus ds fy, cukbZ xbZ iwoZ&/kkj.kkA 36) ckbZQjdsV % eqíksa dk vyx&vyx fu.kZ; djuk] tSls fdlh vkijkf/kd eqdíesa esa nks"k rFkk vkijkf/kd ftEesnkjh vFkok fdlh nhokuh eqdíes esa nsunkjh rFkk gtkZus dh jkfkA 37) ckbZQjdsku eksku % lquokbZ ds nkSjku eqíksa ds Øe esa ifjorZu ds fy, ;kfpdkA 38) fcy vkQ iVhZdqjt+ % izfroknh ds fo:) yxk, x, vkjksi ds fooj.k dh lwphA 39) ckbZUM % Lo;a vFkok fdlh nwljs dks dkuwuh :i ls mÙkjnk;h cukukA 40) ckbZUM vksoj % eqdíes dh dk;Zokgh ls igys tt dk fu.kZ; fd dk;Zokgh ds fy, i;kZIr izek.k gSA 41) CyM&vYdksgy % 100 feyhyhVj jDr esa vYdksgy dh xzkeksa esa ek=kk vFkok 210 Loklksa esa vYdksgy dh xzkeksa esa ek=kkA 42) CyM&VSLV % ;g tkuus ds fy, fd ¼1½ fdlh ds jDr esa fdlh foks"k dSehdy dh fdruh ek=kk fo|eku gS] ¼2½ fdlh cPps dk firk vFkok ekrk dkSu gS] fdlh O;fDr ds jDr ds uewus dh tkap djukA 43) ckWMh vVSpeSaV % vnkyr }kjk tkjh og fyf[kr vknsk ftlesa kkafr dk;e j[kus okys vf/kdkjh dks funsZk fn;k tkrk gS fd og fdlh O;fDr dks fxj¶rkj dj vnkyr ds le{k isk djsA ¼1½ ml xokg dks tks vnkyr esa mifLFkr u gqvk gks] ¼2½ ml i{k dks ftlus fdlh nhokuh eqdíesa esa fn, x, vknsk dk ikyu u fd;k gks] vFkok ¼3½ fdlh vkijkf/kdEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 29
  33. 33. eqdíesa esa vko;d xokgA 44) cksuk&QkbZMh % oQknkj] Ny&diV vFkok /kks[ksckth jfgr okLrfodA 45) ckSaM % fdlh dtZ dk izek.k&i=k vFkok izek.kA 46) cqd ¼cqfdax½ % fdlh dh fxj¶rkjh ds le; iqfyl }kjk dh tkus okyh dk;ZokghA blesa vaxwBs dk fukku ysuk] QksVks ysuk] vkSj O;fDr ds ckjs esa O;fDrxr lwpuk dk mYys[k djuk kkfey gksrk gSA 47) cqfdax uEcj % fdlh O;fDr dh fxj¶rkjh ls lacaf/kr vkijkf/kd fjdkMZ dks fn;k x;k uEcjA 48) cqd ekfd±x % nwljksa dh krZ dh jkfk;ksa dks ,d=k djuk vFkok Hkfo"; esa gksus okyh tq, dh izfr;ksfxrkvksa ij nko yxkukA 49) czSMh eksku % cpko i{k }kjk nk;j dh xbZ ;kfpdk tc mUgsa Hkjkslk gks fd ljdkjh odhy nks"kh dks nks"k eqDr djus ds fy, rS;kj ugha gqvk gS vkSj mUgsa vko;d lcwrksa ij fookl gksA 50) czkafMfkax , oSiu % fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks gfFk;kj fn[kkuk] foks"kdj iqfyl vFkok ihfM+r dksA 51) czhp % fdlh dkuwu vf/kdkj vFkok dÙkZO; dk mYya?ku] fdlh dk;Zokgh }kjk vFkok fdlh dk;Z dks u djus ijA 52) czhp vkQ ihl % og izR;sd O;fDr tks voS/k <ax ls lkoZtfud LFkku ij >xM+k djrk gS vFkok tku cw> dj nqHkkZouk fdlh lkoZtfud LFkku ij fdlh ,d vFkok vusd O;fDr;ksa dks viekutud kCn dgrk gS] ftlds dkj.k rRdky fgald izfrfØ;k vkjaHk gks ldrh gSA 53) czsfdax ,s.M ,safVªx % jkr ds le; fdlh ds ?kj esa tkdj nq"deZ djukA 54) czSFk ykbZt+j VSLV % fdlh ds jDr esa vYdksgy dh ek=kk tkuus ds fy, mlds Loklksa dh tkapA 55) czkbZo % og rksgQk] t:jh ugha fd og dherh gks] tks ysus okys ds O;ogkjEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 30
  34. 34. dks izHkkfor djus ds fy, fn;k tkrk gSA 56) czhQ % nksuksa i{kksa dh vksj ls vnkyr dks fn;k x;k fyf[kr C;ku ftlds vk/kkj os vnkyr }kjk lgh Bgjk;s tkus dh vkkk djrs gSaA 57) cMZu vkQ izwQ % tc eqdíeksa esa kkfey fdlh O;fDr dks nwljs ls vf/kd izekf.kr djuk iM+rk gSA 58) cxZyjh % tc dksbZ voS/k :i ls fdlh ds Hkou vFkok ?kj dk rkyk rksM+ dj ?kql tkrk gS vk"Sj pksjh djus dk iz;kl vFkok pksjh dj ysrk gS vFkok dksbZ vU; xaHkhj vijk/k djrk gSA 59) ckbZLVS.MlZ % vdLekr izR;{knkhZ] og O;fDr ftldk ?kVuk ls dksbZ laca/k u gksAEnglish/Hindi Legal Glossary 31
  35. 35. ----------C--------- 1. CALENDAR - A list, in alphabetical order, of all the cases in each courtroom every day. "To calendar" something means to give a day, time, and courtroom to a case. 2. CALIFORNIA RULES OF COURT – The rules for practices and procedures in California’s state courts. 3. CALJIC – California Jury Instructions, Criminal. 4. CALLING THE DOCKET - The public calling of the docket or list of causes at the beginning of court, for setting a time for trial or entering orders. 5. CAPACITY - The person with the ability to perform under his or her will. 6. CAPITAL CASE - A criminal case where the defendant can get the death penalty. 7. CAPITAL CRIME - A crime punishable by death. 8. CAPITAL OFFENSE – A crime that you can get the death penalty for committing. 9. CAPITAL PUNISHMENT - Punishment by death. (See DEATH PENALTY.) 10. CAPTION - What is written at the top of all papers (called "pleadings") given to the court. It says things like case name, court, and case number. 11. CARJACKING – Taking a motor vehicle that belongs to someone else against his will, by means of force or fear. 12. CASE - A lawsuit. Or a complaint filed in criminal, traffic, or civil court. 13. CASE FILE – The folder that has official court papers for a case. 14. CASEFLOW MANAGEMENT – How a case is managed from the first paper filed to the final decision. 15. CASE ID – Identification number given to case by the court. 16. CASE LAW - Law made by earlier decisions in similar cases. 17. CASELOAD – The number of cases a judge has in a specific time. 18. CASE NUMBER - The number that identifies a case. This number is on all papers filed in the case. Also called "case ID." Also called DOCKET NUMBER. 19. CAUSATION - The act which causes something else to happen. 20. CAUSE - A lawsuit, litigation, or action. 21. CAUSE OF ACTION - The charges that make up the case or lawsuit. (See COUNTS). 22. CAUSTIC CHEMICALS – Corrosive acid or flammable substance.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 32
  36. 36. 23. CAUTIONARY INSTRUCTIONS – When the judge tells the jury to consider certain evidence only for a specific purpose. 24. CAVEAT - A warning; a note of caution. 25. CAVEAT EMPTOR - A theory that says you buy things at your own risk. Comes from the Latin for "let the buyer beware." 26. CEASE AND DESIST ORDER - An order of an administrative agency or court prohibiting a person or business from doing something. 27. CERTIFICATE OF PROBABLE CAUSE - An order signed by the court granting a defendant the right to appeal from a plea of guilty. 28. CERTIFICATION - A judges order to move a criminal case to another court in a different county. 29. CERTIFIED - Saying that something is true or an exact reproduction. 30. CERTIFIED COPY - An official copy of a paper from a case file that is marked as being true, complete, and a real copy of the original legal case. 31. CERTIORI - Appeal to U.S. Supreme Court. 32. CHAIN OF CUSTODY - A method to track the whereabouts of evidence from the moment it is received in custody until it is offered in court. 33. CHALLENGE - Someones right to object to or fight something in a legal case. 34. CHALLENGE FOR CAUSE - Reasons that a lawyer gives for removing a juror or judge from a case. (Compare with PEREMPTORY CHALLENGE.) 35. CHALLENGE TO THE ARRAY - Questioning the qualifications of an entire jury panel, usually on the ground of partiality or some fault in the process of summoning the panel. 36. CHAMBERS - A judges private office. 37. CHANGE OF VENUE - When a civil or criminal case is moved from one court jurisdiction to another. (See VENUE). 38. CHARACTER EVIDENCE - Evidence pertaining to whether a criminal defendant is a good or bad person. 39. CHARGE - In criminal law, each thing the defendant is accused of. (See COUNT). 40. CHARGE TO THE JURY - The judges instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial. 41. CHARGING DOCUMENT - A written accusation saying a defendant has committed an offense. Includes a citation, an indictment, information, and statement of charges. 42. CHATTEL – A piece of personal property. 43. CHIEF JUDGE - Presiding or Administrative Judge in a court.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 33
  37. 37. 44. CHILD ABUSE - Hurting a child physically, sexually or emotionally. 45. CHILD ABDUCTION – The offense of taking away a child by deceit and persuasion, or by violence. 46. CHILD MOLESTATION - Any form of indecent or sexual activity on, involving, or surrounding a child under the age of 18. 47. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY - Any obscene material that depicts a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or personally simulating sexual conduct. 48. CHILD PROCUREMENT - Intentionally giving, transporting, providing, or making available or offering to give, transport, provide, or make available a child under the age of 16 for the purpose of any lewd or lascivious act. Also causing, inducing, or persuading a child under the age of 16 to engage in any lewd or lascivious act with another person. 49. CHILD SUPPORT - Money paid by a parent to help support a child or children. 50. CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CSE) AGENCY - Agency that exists in every state to find parents that don’t have custody. (called "noncustodial parents," or "NCPs"). Or to find a person assumed to be the father of the child (“Putative father” or "PF"). Also, makes, enforces, and changes child support. Collects and gives out child support money. 51. CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE - All evidence that is indirect. Testimony not based on actual personal knowledge or observation of the facts in dispute. 52. CITATION - A COURT ORDER or SUMMONS that tells a defendant what the charges are. Also tells the defendant to go to court and/or post bail. 53. CITED – When a defendant is not in custody, but has signed a ticket promising to go to court on a certain day. 54. CIVIL ACTION - Noncriminal case in which one private individual or business sues another to protect, enforce private or civil rights. 55. CIVIL CASE - A lawsuit to get property back, to force someone to complete a contract, or to protect someones civil rights. 56. CIVIL JURISDICTION – A court’s right or power to hear noncriminal civil cases. 57. CIVIL PROCEDURE - The rules and process by which a civil case is tried and appealed, including the preparations for trial, the rules of evidence and trial conduct, and the procedure for pursuing appeals. 58. CIVIL PROCESS – Court papers that tell the people in a civil case that it has started. Or papers that try to force the court to reach a judgment. 59. CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLATIONS – Violations of the personal, natural rights guaranteed and protected by the Constitution. 60. CLAIM - The statement of a right to money or property. 61. CLAIM OF EXEMPTION – A court paper filed by the JUDGMENT DEBTOR that lists each piece of property that the judgment debtor claims is an exempt asset under certain provisions of the law and, therefore, can’t be taken to pay the JUDGMENT.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 34
  38. 38. 62. CLAIM SPLITTING – When you split up a civil claim and file two lawsuits to stay below the limit of how much money you can ask for. Not allowed in most cases. 63. CLASS ACTION - A lawsuit brought by one or more persons on behalf of a larger group. 64. CLEAR AND CONVINCING EVIDENCE - Standard of proof commonly used in civil lawsuits and in regulatory agency cases. It governs the amount of proof that must be offered in order for the plaintiff to win the case. 65. CLEMENCY OR EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY - Act of grace or mercy by the president or governor to ease the consequences of a criminal act, accusation, or conviction. It may take the form of commutation or pardon. 66. CLERICAL ERROR - An unintentional mistake, in writing, which may be made by clerk, counsel, or court. (See NUNC PRO TUNC.) 67. CLERK - Officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, judgments, etc., issues process, and keeps records of court proceedings. 68. CLERK’S TRANSCRIPT - Those pleadings, minute orders, affidavits, written opinions of the Court, trial exhibits, etc., designated by the attorneys which have been filed during the course of the litigation process are put together with the appeal documents and collectively form the Clerk’s Transcript. 69. CLOSING ARGUMENT - Counsels final statement to the judge/and or jury after all parties have concluded their presentation of evidence. 70. CODE - The law created by statutes. For example, the California Code of Civil Procedure, California Civil Code, California Vehicle Code, California Penal Code, and California Health and Safety Code. 71. CODE OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY - The rules of conduct that govern the legal profession. The Code contains general ethical guidelines and specific rules written by the American Bar Association. 72. CO-DEFENDANT - In a criminal case, an individual charged with involvement in the same crime as another. 73. CODICIL (kodi-sil) - A legal paper that adds to or changes a will. 74. COERCION – Compulsion; constraint; compelling by force or arms or threat. 75. COHABITANT – One who lives with another. 76. COLLATERAL - 1. Property that is pledged as security against a debt. 2. A person belonging to the same ancestry (a relation), but not in a direct line of descent. 77. COLLATERAL ATTACK - An attack on a judgment other than a direct appeal to a higher court. 78. COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL OR DEVICE – Capable of blowing up; apt to catch fire; inflammable. 79. COMMISSIONER - A person chosen by the court and given the power to hear and make decisions in certain kinds of legal matters.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 35
  39. 39. 80. COMMIT - To do something, like "to commit" a crime, or to put someone in a sheriffs custody. Or to use a court order to send a person to jail. 81. COMMITMENT - 1. The action of sending a person to a prison or mental institution. 2. The order directing an officer to take a person to a prison or mental institution. 82. COMMITMENT ORDER - A court order that says a person must be kept in custody, usually in a jail or mental institution. 83. COMMON BARRATRY (also called BARRETRY) – Making a habit of starting fights or lawsuits. Starting lawsuits without a good reason. 84. COMMON CARRIER – Required by law to carry passengers or freight without refusal if the fare is paid; in contrast to a private or contract carrier. 85. COMMON LAW - Laws that come from court decisions and not from statutes ("codes") or constitutions. 86. COMMUNITY OBLIGATIONS – Debts that a husband and wife owe together. In most cases, that includes anything that you still owe on any debts either of you had during the time you were living together as husband and wife. For example, if you bought furniture on credit while you were married and living together, the unpaid balance is a part of your community obligations. 87. COMMUNITY PROPERTY - Everything that a husband and wife own together. In most cases that includes: (1) Money or benefits like pensions and stock options that you now have which either of your earned during the time you were living together as husband and wife; and (2) Anything either of you bought with money earned during that period. 88. COMMUNITY SERVICE - Work performed as punishment for a crime. It may also be performed instead of a fine, or as a condition of probation. 89. COMMUTATION - The reduction of a sentence, such as from death to life imprisonment. 90. COMPARATIVE FAULT – Percentage of fault which is assigned to any one party. 91. COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE - A legal doctrine by which acts of the opposing parties are compared to determine the liability of each party to the other for negligent acts. 92. COMPENSATORY DAMAGES – Money that one person must pay another to cover the cost of a wrong or injury. (See DAMAGES). 93. COMPETENCE ORDER – An order from a superior court that says that a defendant is mentally able to go to trial. Tells the trial court to go ahead with the criminal case. 94. COMPETENCY - The ability for a person to understand and communicate, especially with regard to standing trial and assisting counsel in his or her defense. 95. COMPLAINANT - Person who wants to start a court case against another person. In a civil case, the complainant is the PLAINTIFF. In a criminal case, the complainant is the state. 96. COMPLAINT - The legal document that usually begins a civil lawsuit and is also used to start a criminal case. Says what the plaintiff thinks the defendant did and asks the court for help. Also called the "initial pleading" or "petition." 97. COMPLY - To act in accordance with, to accept, to obey.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 36
  40. 40. 98. COMPOSITE DRAWING - A picture of an alleged criminal created by a professional police artist using verbal descriptions given by the victim or a witness. 99. CONCEALMENT – Withholding of something which one knows and which one, in duty, is bound to reveal. 100. CONCILIATION - A form of alternative dispute resolution in which the parties bring their dispute to a neutral third party, who helps lower tensions, improve communications, and explore possible solutions. Similar to mediation, but it may be less formal. 101. CONCURRENT JURISDICTION - The territory of two or more courts, that are each authorized to deal with the same subject matter. 102. CONCURRENT PLANNING – Refers to the legal requirement in dependency cases that reunification services be provided at the same time an alternative plan is developed (e.g., adoption , guardianship) if needed. 103. CONCURRENT SENTENCES - Sentences you can serve at the same time. For example, if you have concurrent sentences of 10 years and 5 years, you must serve a total of 10 years. (Compare with CONCURRENT SENTENCES). 104. CONCURRING CAUSES – Acting contemporaneously and together causing injury, which would not have resulted in absence of either. 105. CONDEMNATION - The legal process by which the government takes private land for public use, paying the owners a fair price. (See EMINENT DOMAIN.) 106. CONDITIONS – Certain things that someone has to do, or not do, to be released. 107. CONDITIONAL RELEASE - Freedom from custody which regulates the activities and associations of the defendant. If a defendant fails to meet the conditions, the release is cancelled. 108. CONDUCT ENHANCEMENTS - A kind of punishment-enhancing allegation (such as the arming clause of Penal Code section 12022) that relates to the nature of the offense at the time the crime was committed. 109. CONFESSION - When someone admits out loud or in writing that they committed a certain kind of crime. (Compare with ADMISSION). 110. CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT - The act of a debtor in a written statement that permits judgment to be entered against him by his creditor, without legal proceedings. 111. CONFIDENTIAL - A file or record that is not available for public viewing. Authorized viewing allowed only in statute and/or court policy. Files and records are identified and receive special handling. 112. CONFIDENTIAL RECORD – Information in a court case that is not available to the public. 113. CONFIDENTIALITY – Treated as private and not for publication. 114. CONFISCATE - To seize or take private property for public use (the police took the weapon). 115. CONFLICT OF INTEREST - When you have two different interests at the same time. For example, a lawyer who represents two sides at the same time cant be fair.English/Hindi Legal Glossary 37

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