• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Western Balkan Countries Assessment of Capacities for Low-carbon and Climate Resilient Development
 

Western Balkan Countries Assessment of Capacities for Low-carbon and Climate Resilient Development

on

  • 1,375 views

UNDP survey results, May 2011

UNDP survey results, May 2011

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,375
Views on SlideShare
1,374
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://unjobs.org 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Western Balkan Countries Assessment of Capacities for Low-carbon and Climate Resilient Development Western Balkan Countries Assessment of Capacities for Low-carbon and Climate Resilient Development Document Transcript

    • Results of the UNDP survey“Assessment of capacities for low-carbon and climate resilient development” Western Balkan countries FINAL DRAFT Prepared: May 2011 United Nations Development Programme, 1
    • Bratislava Regional CentreContentsBackground ................................................................................................................................................... 3Conclusions:.................................................................................................................................................. 4Results of the mapping survey: ..................................................................................................................... 9 Institutional capacity for climate change policy implementation ............................................................. 9 Participation in climate change negotiations: ........................................................................................... 9 National coordination mechanisms/National climate change committees .............................................. 10 Climate change departments/experts: ..................................................................................................... 12 Regional cooperation: ............................................................................................................................. 13 Legislation: ............................................................................................................................................. 14 Carbon emissions trading:....................................................................................................................... 16 Reporting, awareness and knowledge: .................................................................................................... 18 Adaptation:.............................................................................................................................................. 20 Low-carbon development: ...................................................................................................................... 22 Financial resources: ................................................................................................................................ 24 Monitoring and evaluation of climate change policy:............................................................................. 26 Summary of the survey results for UNMIC Kosovo .............................................................................. 27 Additional important things identified by the respondents: ................................................................ 32 2
    • BackgroundA survey “Assessment of capacities for low-carbon and climate resilient development” wasconducted in late April, early May 2011 in five Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia andHerzegovina, the FYR1 of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia). A less comprehensive one wasconducted for Kosovo2, as it is not a Party under UN Conventions, which results are presented inthis summary in a separate chapter.The main goal of the survey was to understand better capacity issues that Western Balkancountries face in responding to the new challenges of climate change, in particular as it relates toformulating comprehensive approaches to ensure sustainable human development usingemerging opportunities.The survey consisted of two parts – first, mapping the existing capacity of the countries and thesecond, an open assessment with evaluation questions, answers to which will help to understandbetter the context of that particular status3. The mapping was filled in with factual information,while the survey was targeting a wide range of representatives in each country/entity.The survey targeted representatives of the government, including ministries responsible fordevelopment, economy, finance, energy, agriculture, forestry, transport, and environment, aswell as relevant agencies and institutions, industry associations and nongovernmentalorganizations. The total number of respondents was 80. Almost half of the respondents comefrom governmental organizations, and the rest from academia, private companies andnongovernmental organizations. They come predominantly from environment (48.8%) andenergy (22.5%) sectors, but also 11% from areas connected with development and 20% othersectors of economy. In terms of position, the respondent majority are senior (56.3%) and 28.1%medium level, of which 54.3% are men (for UNMIC Kosovo 100% men). Bigger share of them(81.4%) are indirectly involved in climate change policy formulation and 18.6% directly, while58% are indirectly involved in implementation of the policy and 42% directly.The survey was conducted electronically, it was anonymous and results are presented in anaggregated format. Mapping is presented the way it was reported by each country’s respondent,however in some areas there is still some missing information.The results of the survey provide a basis for both host countries and donors to better address theemerging issues that these countries face in addressing low-carbon and climate resilientdevelopment, and point towards capacity gaps that may need to be addressed immediately orneed further in-depth analysis.1 Here and hereafter also referred to as Macedonia2 Here and hereafter referred in the context of the UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999)3 A scoring system was used where 4 = very much, 1 = not at all 3
    • Conclusions:Strengthening and enhancement of existing capacityAlthough there are some institutional capacities already in place to tackle the challenges ofclimate change, further improvements are deemed necessary according to the survey.Institutional capacity and stakeholder involvement in developing and implementing climatechange policies has been assessed as a very high priority by all the countries. The mappingshows that some institutional capacity are already in place in all the countries , such asestablished and operational National Focal Points and Designated National Authorities for CDMprojects approval; preparation of different reports; some strategic documents and legislation; andfunctioning regional cooperation. However, even these areas need further improvement anddevelopment as pointed out by all the respondents in the survey. For example, although theWestern Balkans countries have already made significant efforts in building institutionalcapacities for participation in the Kyoto Protocol, they still face numerous barriers that inhibiteffective implementation of climate change mitigation policies and large-scale engagement incurrent or future carbon trading mechanisms or internationally provided assistance. It is a factthat there are operational Designated National Authorities in all of the countries. At the sametime, there are almost no existing Clean Development Mechanism projects.The following conclusions were drawn from the survey. They are based on the informationprovided by respondents of this study.Broader participation in international climate change negotiationsOverall, more can be done to increase the number of negotiators, include more members withbetter representation from different sectors, as well to increase the capacity to cover varioustopics of the complex international climate change negotiations. Reaching a regional consensusand coordination on certain negotiation positions is assessed as important or very important by90% of respondents.All five countries are non Annex I (developing countries) to the UNFCCC and non Annex B (donot have legally binding mitigation commitments) to the Kyoto Protocol. All of them areundergoing a process of accession to the European Union. As such, there are significantsimilarities in their position in the climate change negotiation process, as well as opportunitiesfor regional cooperation.In all five countries the responsibilities for the implementation of international and nationalclimate change related policy lays with ministries responsible for the environmental policy.Some of the ministries with National Focal Points are responsible for spatial planning. However,it is not clear to what extent the part of the ministry responsible for “spatial planning” is engagedin climate change, or if an internal coordination mechanism exists. 4
    • Enlarging departments/expert on climate changeTo ensure cross-sectoral impact of climate change interventions, there is a strong need to havespecific climate change departments in key ministries, in particular in environment, energy,agriculture and transport. Currently, dedicated departments for climate change mostly sit in theministries of environment with one or two experts in some other ministries or organizations.Without any doubt, institutional and human capacities are one of the most important factors forthe success of any policy, especially such an innovative one as low-carbon and climate resilientpolicy. In addition, more than 70% believe that if it is not possible to have a dedicateddepartment, at least some climate change experts on specific areas should be working in the keyministries.Establishment and improvement of coordination mechanisms on climate changeCoordination of development and implementation of climate change policies appears to be aweek point in all of the countries. There are no national climate change coordinationmechanisms established in the countries at the moment, and even if some national climatechange committees exist they are not functional. Nowadays, when climate change is not onlyenvironmental issue, but rather a development issue, the need to engage all the ministries andstakeholder is a must.The institutional arrangements for transitioning to low-emission and climate resilientdevelopment should first of all determine an institution or several institutions that would take theleadership and responsibility for coordinating the process and establish a mechanism for cross-sectoral cooperation and broader stakeholder participation. Majority of respondents assess asvery important to have a national coordination committee (NCC) (or similar) on climate change,while at the same time emphasizing that the NCC should have sufficient authority and resourcesto effectively coordinate climate change initiatives in the country and it should be inclusive.Using lessons learned from regional cooperationRegional cooperation in climate change has good history in the region. Regional cooperationhas been found as a key mechanism for successfully addressing climate change issues.However the performance of existing regional mechanisms/platforms in addressing climatechange policy and programming needs was rated rather low. Evidently, based on the goodlessons learned in this area more could be achieved.Regional cooperation brings enhanced opportunities for the countries to share knowledge andbest practices that would otherwise be generated through individual activities. Additionally,regional approaches are a proven cost-effective way of performing any activities and projects inthis region. All the similarities amongst the Western Balkan countries: political, economical,geographical as well as the ongoing regional activities imply that it is preferable to continuecooperation on a regional basis, including on issues related to climate change – on bothmitigation and adaptation. At the same time, this approach is in line with the strategic approach 5
    • of both the UNFCCC and the EC in supporting the region in responding to the climate changechallenge.Challenges to introduce climate change related legislationThe mapping shows that there is still a lack of comprehensive climate change legislation, andin some cases there are unclear connections between climate change policies and other energyand environmental priorities and policies, including EU accession issues. It is even veryimportant that all existing development, sectoral, adaptation strategies are cohesive.The respondents unanimously gave very high importance to the legislation of climate changepolicy implementation. At the same time, they assess the capacity of the governments tointroduce needed climate change legislations and policies as still not sufficient. Additionally, theextent to which climate change policies and laws are funded/resourced is assesses by themajority as relatively low. Same applies for the ability to engage relevant stakeholders (e.g.,private sector, communities, NGOs, etc.) in formulating climate change laws, policies andimplementation mechanisms; private sector preparedness to understand and implement climatechange laws; capacity of the government to ensure that climate change laws and policies areadequately understood at the local level.At the global level, the development of new international agreements on climate change is likelyto influence long-term decisions concerning national climate change policy in the WesternBalkans. On the other hand, preparation for accession to EU brings new environmental standardsand legislation to these countries. Alignment with the EU legislation in many cases supports theUNFCCC requirements, however, it should be taken into account that the Western Balkancountries are still non Annex I and non Annex B under the UNFCCC process.For these countries it is important to find a way of benefiting from the new global low-carbonand climate-resilient economy achieving economic growth, through defining and implementingthe right policies, such as investing in new technologies, making the right balance betweendifferent sectors’ development, green jobs creation and receiving financial, technology andcapacity building support from the post 2012 international climate change assistance structures.Low participation in carbon emissions tradingWhile the importance of the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol for theimplementation of climate change policy is assessed in general as high, the preparedness ofthe countries to take part in the negotiations on new market-based mechanisms is reported asrelatively low (more than 60%). As non Annex I Parties, the Western Balkan countries areeligible to participate in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Asaccession countries, they have to prepare to implement the EU ETS.Although all the countries have in place operational Designated National Authorities, it wasreported only for two CDM projects registered under UNFCCC from the whole region. 6
    • The proper implementation of the EU ETS requires a lot of capacity building for the government,as well as the private sector. However, the preparedness of the countries to take part in the EUETS is reported as relatively low (more than 70%). There is little awareness of the private sectoron the EU ETS requirements. Only Montenegro and Serbia reported for some preparatoryactivities to implement EU ETS.Strengthening reporting, awareness and knowledge:National expertise engaged in the preparation of the National Communication (NC) isassessed in general as sufficient; however, the sustainability of the government in preparationof the NC was rated as marginally sufficient. The countries are not well prepared to report on amore frequent basis.Having in place the mandatory and voluntary reports under the UN serves different purposes: (i)strengthens national expertise in different areas; (ii) increases the public awareness on variousissues; (iii) provides information necessary to formulate national policies and measures in thearea; (iv) informs donors about the achievements and the needs of the countries.It should be noted that reporting under UNFCCC post 2012 regime will become morecomprehensive and on a more frequent basis.The National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA) study, where in place, is not making asignificant difference in policy making according to the respondents.Although some training was provided to the countries in climate change area (reported mainlyin GHG emissions inventories and CDM), the need for more trainings in various climatechange areas is very big. Still, the need for more GHG inventory training is assessed as high,and the same applies for GHG projections, development of LEDS and NAMAs, carbon trading,implementation of climate change related legislation, access to climate change finance, etc.More actions on adaptation neededThe importance of adaptation strategy is unanimously rated very high. Although somecapacities and resources in the countries for implementation of the Adaptation Strategy/ActionPlan exist, in general they are assessed as relatively low. The regional cooperation wasidentified as very useful when developing and implementing the Adaptation Strategy/ActionPlan. More than 55% assessed the capacity to mobilize international funding to help implementthe national adaptation strategy and action plan as not adequate and other 30% as adequate.Time to transition to low-carbon developmentOne of the main problems with climate change policies is that governments and otherstakeholders do not realize that domestic GHG emission reduction measures could becapitalized through participation in the global efforts to reduce emissions and in emissionstrading mechanisms. This may lead to missed opportunities for substantial financial flows fromthe developed countries, improved efficiencies, new technologies, green jobs and better 7
    • environmental quality. For example, although there is international financial, technology andcapacity building support envisaged under UNFCCC for countries developing and implementingNationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions, so far only Macedonia submitted a list of such to theUNFCCC.The transition to low emission development path in both developed and developing economieshas been recognized internationally as an imperative to stabilizing GHG concentrations in linewith the 2-degree temperature increase scenario. However, there is still limited practicalexperience on designing and implementing comprehensive national low-emission developmentstrategies (LEDS), and no guidelines on the preparation of such strategies or of the nationallyappropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) have been developed and adopted in the UNFCCCprocess. At the same time, fast start financing committed by developed countries in Copenhagenis already supporting countries in developing and implementing LEDSs and NAMAs, as well anumber of countries have initiated and developed LEDS or NAMAs.The importance of low-emission development for the implementation of climate change policy isconsidered by the majority as very high. However, besides Macedonia, no other countrysubmitted NAMAs to Appendix 2 of the Copenhagen Accord. Macedonia, Montenegro andSerbia are undertaking steps towards development of LEDS/NAMAs with international support.At the same time, the capacity of the governments to define and submit NAMAs to UNFCCC isassessed by some 35% as good and by another 37% as not enough. Many of the respondents arenot aware of the political will to undertake ambitious NAMAs under post-2012 regime. The needfor international support of NAMAs is recognized by the majority of respondents.The capacity of the government to develop Low-emission development strategy (LEDS) isconsidered as low ( 60%) and sufficient (20%).Lack of financial resourcesThe shortage of sustainable financial resources for climate change activities poses a keybarrier for action. The lack of national financial resources, as well as inefficient use andcoordination of the existing international financial resources is almost unanimously agreed uponby all respondents. Although there is a wide range of funding institutions and on-going capacitybuilding initiatives, additional efforts are required to meet these countries’ needs.More to be done on monitoring and reportingThe capacity to establish an efficient Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systemis assessed as not sufficient. Although monitoring and evaluation of implementation of climatechange policies is considered important, the existing system for GHG inventory is evaluated asinsufficient together with the monitoring system for the implementation of the national climatechange policy. 8
    • Results of the mapping survey:Institutional capacity for climate change policy implementationInstitutional capacity is assessed as very high priority for all the countries by around 70% and 20% as high priority. Stakeholders’ involvement in implementation of climate change policy isconsidered high – approximately 95% of the answers.Participation in climate change negotiations:Mapping:All five countries are non Annex I (developing countries) to the UNFCCC and non Annex B (donot have legally binding mitigation commitments) to the Kyoto Protocol. All of them areundergoing a process of accession to the European Union. Thus implies similarities in theirpositions in the climate change negotiation process as well as opportunities for regionalcooperation. National Climate Change Focal Point Albania Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration Bosnia and Ministry for Physical Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology of Republika Srpska Herzegovina FYR of Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning Macedonia Montenegro The Ministry for Spatial Planning and Environment Serbia Ministry of Environment, Mining and Spatial PlanningIn all five countries the responsibilities for the implementation of international and nationalclimate change related policy lays with ministries which are responsible for the environmentalpolicy. It is not clear to what extent the part of the ministry responsible for “spatial planning” isengaged, or if an internal coordination mechanism exists. Delegation for climate change negotiations Albania Normally there is only one participant, the UNFCCC focal point, while in the COP/MOPs the delegation participating at the high-level segment is enlarged to 4-6 members representing the Prime Ministry, the Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Water Administration and the Ministry of Foreign Relations/diplomatic missions. The regional cooperation is secured through the set meetings of our Group during the negotiating talks. There is no prior coordination. Bosnia and B&H regularly participate during COP meetings, especially during last two years since Country Herzegovina has started preparation of the National communications to UNFCCC. However, there is no country negotiation team for international negotiations under UNFCCC. 9
    • FYR of Delegation that participates at CoP meetings usually includes representatives of other relevant Macedonia ministries/institutions beside the UNFCCC Focal Point and representatives from the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. The Minister of Environment and Physical Planning is almost always present at the high level segment of the CoP. In Copenhagen, the President of Macedonia was leading the delegation, and in Mexico, beside the Minister of Environment and Phisical Planning, the Minister of Health was part of the delegation for the high level segment of the meeting. Montenegro Depending on the occasion, in the occasion of COP meetings delegation consists of several government representatives (between 5 to 10 members), in other occasions i.e. other annual meetings, delegation consist of one to two members or country is not represented at all. Participation is heavily dependent on funds available. International negotiations under UNFCCC are coordinated by the sector for international relations within the Ministry, and made up of a team of 4 people in addition to the deputy minister in charge of the sector. Serbia Delegation usually consists of 10 people from different institutions, including Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic Hydrometeorological service, EU Integration Office, Electric power Industry Serbia, Ministry of Economy and Regional Development, NGO.Results of the survey:The influence of the National Focal Point on climate change to engage other institutions inpolicy making and implementation is assessed as good by half of the respondents.  40% assessed the number of the members of the delegation on the climate change negotiations as sufficient, the other 30% as non sufficient and the rest do not know;  The need to involve in the delegation other ministries and organizations, together with the ministry of environment is broadly recognized. The role of the energy, development and finance ministries is rated high, together with the need of involvement of the NGOs and civil society (see the figure);  The capacity to cover various topics under negotiations is relatively low. At the same time, around 1/3 of the respondents do not know what is the capacity of the negotiation team;  Regional consensus and coordination on certain negotiation positions is assessed as very important by 60% and as important by more than 30%.National coordination mechanisms/National climate change committeesThe institutional arrangements for transition to low-emission and climate resilient developmentshould first of all determine an institution/s that would take the leadership and responsibility for 10
    • coordinating the process and establish a mechanism for cross-sectoral cooperation and broaderstakeholder participation.The most appropriate institutional design depends on national circumstances of particularcountries. It is important that key agencies involved in national development planning participatein the process. Moreover, some legal arrangements for a national coordinating body should bemade. It is possible either to use institutions that existed prior to low carbon and climate resilientgrowth plans or to create a new one that includes inter-ministerial representation.Mapping: National coordination mechanism – National CC CommitteeAlbania No. Not on a sustainable basis. There is the National Steering Committee facilitated under the UNDP Climate Change Programme and on a projects basis, headed by the Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Water Administration with representatives from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energy; Ministry of Public Works and Transport; Ministry of Finance; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Agriculture; Ministry of Interior; Ministry of Tourism; Ministry of EU Integration; INSTAT; Academy of Sciences and three relevant NGOs. A project to facilitate the establishment of a Network at a high level is under implementation; The project for the preparation of the Third national Communication of Albania to UNFCCC (which is at the stage of self assessment) will contribute to the process as well.Bosnia and For implementation of its obligations, BiH has established the Climate Change Committee at theHerzegovina State level, (with 32 members) and, subsequently, in 2007, the Sub-committee for Climate Change (with 10 members). The latter comes under the National Steering Committee for Environment and Sustainable Development. These two bodies include representatives of the State, two entities and Brčko District, and are responsible for reaching common positions on relevant proposals before their submission for official adoption/endorsement. However, those bodies, according available data are inactive.FYR of The National Climate Change Committee was established in 2000 and it cosists of representativesMacedonia of all relevant Ministries (Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Transport and Communication, Ministry of Foreign Affairs), academia, private sector and NGOs. The current Chair of the CC Committee is from the Macedonian Academy of Arts and Science.Montenegro Currently there is no national Committee on Climate Change, but we are intensively thinking about modalities of establishment of such body. There are some obstacles which get in the way of establishment of this body, mainly the influence of financial crisis that resulted in rationalization or cutting down of already established committees in the Government, and of course halting the creation of new ones.Serbia Working group for the process of negotiation under UNFCCC has been established in 2009, and it consists of the representatives from different institution including Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic Hydrometereological Service, EU Integration Office , Ministry of Economy and Regional Development, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture, Trade, Forestry and Water ManagementResults of the survey: 11
    •  More than 65% assess as very important to have a national coordination committee (NCC) (or similar) on climate change and 25.7% as important;  63% responded that it is very important and 25% important that the NCC should have sufficient authority and resources to effectively coordinate climate change initiatives in the country;  More than two thirds of the answers show that it is important to include all relevant ministries and stakeholders to be represented in the NCC.Climate change departments/experts:Institutional and human capacity has the highest importance for the success of any policy, especially of aninnovative one such as low-carbon and climate resilient policy.Mapping: Climate change departments/expertsAlbania Climate change departments exist in ministries of: environment and other organizations. Climate change experts: agriculture/forestry, energy, and health. Between 1 and 2.Bosnia and Climate change departments exist in ministries of: environment; other organizations/institutions;Herzegovina some experts in environment and other organizations.FYR of According to the structure of the post in the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, thereMacedonia should be a Climate Change department but currently there is only a CC State Advisor who is also the UNFCCC Focal Point. The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy have CC Focal Points, and the Ministry of Economy has an Energy Department dealing with energy efficiency and renawables. Climate change experts exist in all relevant institutions.Montenegro Climate change departments exist in ministries of: environment. Climate change experts: environment, energy, transport, health, and other organizations/institutions - between 1 and 2.Serbia Climate change departments exist in ministries of: environment (climate change division, 5 employees), energy (Department for Sustainable Development and Climate Change) , foreign affairs; additionally there are climate change experts in environment, economy/finance, agriculture/forestry, energy, transportation, health, foreign affairs, and other organizations/institutions – between 1 and 2. 12
    • Results of the survey:  The need to have specified climate change departments in key ministries is strong, in particular in: environment, energy, agriculture and transport.  The need to have climate change department in ministries dealing with development appears relevant.  More than 70% believe that if it is not possible to have a department at least some climate change experts on specific areas should be working in the key ministries.Regional cooperation:Regional cooperation brings enhanced opportunities for the countries to share knowledge andbest practices, which would otherwise be generated through individual activities. Additionally,regional approaches are a proven cost-effective way of performing any activities and projects inthis region. All the similarities amongst the Western Balkan countries: political, economical,geographical as well as the ongoing regional activities imply that it is preferable to continuecooperation on a regional basis, including on issues related to climate change – on bothmitigation and adaptation. At the same, time this approach is in line with the strategic approachof both the UNFCCC and the EC in supporting the region in responding to the climate changechallenge.Mapping: Regional cooperationAlbania There is no other regional coordination besides the ones on RENA and Western Balkan Investment Coordination Platform (WBICP).Bosnia and Belgrade Climate Change Initiative (which supports the implementation of the South-Herzegovina East European Climate Change Framework Action Plan for Adaptation and has established the Subregional Virtual Climate Change Centre hosted by Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia); Energy Community of the SEE Region (which aims to improve the environmental situation via support for energy efficiency and renewable energy); Regional Cooperation Council (which supports regional cooperation in six key areas, including energy, and is based in Sarajevo)FYR of Energy Community, RENA, Mediterranean Initiative for Climate Change leaded by Greece,Macedonia Regional Cooperation Council, South East European Climate Change Framework Action Plan for Adaptation. 13
    • Montenegro South East European Climate Change Framework Action Plan for Adaptation – SEE/CCFAP-A; Regional Forum on Climate Change with Montenegro as a host country; Belgrade initiativeSerbia Serbia actively participates in RENA, as well as in Regional Forum for Climate Change that has been established in 2009Results of the survey: More than 71% of respondents replied that regional cooperation is very important and about 25% that it is important for addressing climate change issues. The performance of existing regional mechanisms/ platforms in addressing climate change policy and programming needs was rated above 12% as good, above 28% as satisfactory and about 30% as not very good and around 13% not satisfactory.Legislation:At the global level the development of new international agreements on climate change is likelyto influence long-term decisions concerning national climate change policy in the WesternBalkans. On the other hand preparation for accession to EU brings to the countries newenvironmental standards and legislation. Approximation of the EU legislation in many casessupports the UNFCCC requirements, however, it should be taken into account that the WesternBalkan countries are still non Annex I and non Annex B under the UNFCCC process.For the WB countries it is important to find a way of benefiting from the new global low carbonand climate resilient economy achieving economic growth, through defining and implementingthe right policy, such as: investing in new technologies, making right balance between differentsectors’ development, green jobs creation. It is equally important to receive financial, technologyand capacity building support from the post 2012 international climate change assistancestructures.What is even more important is that all existing development, sectoral, adaptation strategies arecohesive. Unless policy makers integrate mitigation, adaptation and development strategies theywill miss efficiency savings and may pursue strategies that solve one problem but aggravateothers. Low-emission and climate resilient development strategy, in the context of sustainabledevelopment, should be the leading if not the only development strategy in the countries.Mapping: Main StrategiesAlbania National level: Sustainable Development Strategy; Sectoral strategies on Environmental Protection; on Energy; on Road Safety; Health & Adaptation (under preparation); Strategy on national Protection for Disasters (under preparation); Policy paper and its related Action plan on Carbon 14
    • Financing; Law on Environmental Protection; Law on Forests and Forest services; The preparation of the EU Tables of Concordance and the implementation of the reporting duties according to the EU questionnaire related to the monitoring of the approximation to the EU Climate Change Acquis - a Project under implementation. Local Level: Mati River basin Management Plan; Torism & Agrotourism Development Strategy of the Lezha Region; Forestry Development Strategy of the Lezha Region.Bosnia and National level: No strategy, policy or action plan specific to climate change issues (except INC)Herzegovina exists at the State or entity levels. There are sectoral strategies that are developed recently and which addressed climate changes issues in proper way (e.g. Forestry Strategy for RS) but also there are some sectoral strategies that has been developed recently which does not addressed climate changes issues at all (e.g. water management strategy in FBIH). Additionally, there are other strategic documents, mainly in energy sector which consider climate changes issues only through implementation of the energy efficiency activities and using of renewables and did not recognize them as a treaty (e.g. changes in water quantities and consequence for hydro power plants) - Decision on establishment of DNA is approved by Council of Ministers, goal is that DNA would be fully operational during 2011 Local Level: EU Convenient of Mayors as most important driver for addressing climate changes on local level; - By signing EU Covenant of Mayors local communities are obliged to create adequate administrative structures and prepare baseline emission inventory and develop Sustainable Energy Action Plan - SEAP - City of Banja Luka and City of Sarajevo has finished this process - 10 other local communities are in the process of joining EU Covenant of Mayors and preparation of its SEAPsFYR of The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning (MoEPP) develop a proposal for EU ETS andMacedonia MRV for the Norwegian bi-lateral support; also UNDP CO in collaboration with the MoEPP developed a proposal on MRV and ETS for the Bulgarian CC Fast Start Funding and the proposal was approved. The Ministry is also planning to submit a proposal for the IPA 2012 programming.Montenegro National level: National Spatial Plan of the Republic of Montenegro until 2020, 2006; National Strategy of Sustainable Development of Montenegro, 2007 ; National Environmental Policy, 2008; National Forestry Policy, 2008; Agriculture and Rural Development Strategy - July 2006; UNFCCC First National Communication – October 2010; Energy policy of Montenegro by 2030 (adopted in March 2011); Energy Development Strategy of Montenegro by 2025 (2007); Action Plan for implementation of the Energy Development Strategy for the period 2008-2012 (2008); Strategy for Small Hydro Power Plants Development in Montenegro (2006); Energy Efficiency Strategy (2005); Action Plan for implementation of the Energy Efficiency Strategy for the period 2008-2012 (2007); First National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for 2010 - 2012 (2010); Energy Efficiency and Energy Strategy, Tourism Strategy...Serbia National level: Initial national Communication; National Strategy for incorporation of the Republic of Serbia into Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol for waste management, agriculture and forestry sectors; National Environmental Protection Programme; National Sustainable Development Strategz (NSDS) and Action Plan for the implementation of the NSDS for the period 2009-2017; Serbian energy Development strategy by 2015; Forestry development strategy; Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development; National Strategy for Biodiversity 15
    • Survey results: The importance of the legislation for the implementation of climate change policy is rated 76.1% as very high, and 23.9% as high.  The capacity of the governments to introduce needed climate change legislations and policies is assessed as still not sufficient with about 30% good, 42% relatively low, 13% low, and 7.2% very good;  The extent to which climate change policies and laws are sufficiently funded/resourced is assesses by about 70% as relatively low and low all together;  67% reported for poor engagement of relevant stakeholders (e.g., private sector, communities, NGOs, etc.) in formulating climate change laws, policies and implementation mechanisms;  The private sector preparedness to understand and implement climate change laws is assessed by about 32% as low and about 43% as very low;  About 50% considers as low and 20% as very low the capacity of the government to ensure that climate change laws and policies are adequately understood at the local level;  With 21% assessing as good, and 40% as not very good, and about 30% as low the capacity of the local government units/agencies to introduce local policies/ordinances that would support national climate change legislations/policies.Carbon emissions trading:As non Annex I Parties, the Western Balkan countries are eligible to participate in the CleanDevelopment Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. As accession countries they have to prepare toimplement the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS).Mapping: Participation in CDMAlbania Designated National Authority (DNA) for approval of CDM projects is operational, one (1) CDM project registered.Bosnia and Decision on establishment of the DNA is approved and it is expected that DNA would be fully 16
    • Herzegovina operational in 2011.FYR of DNA functional; One CDM project registered.MacedoniaMontenegro DNA functional; no CDM projects registered.Serbia DNA functional; no CDM projects registered.As candidate countries for membership in the EU, the five countries should prepare for theeffective implementation of the EU ETS, from the moment of accession. The EU ETS is themajor tool for CO2 reduction and all other carbon trading mechanisms should be implemented inline with it, e.g. avoiding double counting of emission reductions. The proper implementation ofthe EU ETS requires a lot of capacity building for the government as well as the private sector. Participation in EU ETSAlbania n.a.Bosnia and No plans.HerzegovinaFYR of The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning (MoEPP) develop a proposal for EU ETSMacedonia and MRV for the Norwegian bi-lateral support; also UNDP CO in collaboration with the MoEPP developed a proposal on MRV and ETS for the Bulgarian CC Fast Start Funding and the proposal was approved. The Ministry is also planning to submit a proposal for the IPA 2012 programming.Montenegro According to National Plan for Integration transposition of ETS and non-ETS directives into national legislation in 2014.Serbia At the moment, there are certain activities related to capacity building of all relevant stakeholders including representatives of energy and industry sector, in order to introduce them key elements and main requirements of EUETS and to prepare them for the future implementation (one seminar on EU ETS was held in March in Belgrade and the second seminar will be organized in May 2011).Survey results: The importance of the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol for the implementation of climate change policy is assessed as high. 17
    • The DNA’s capacity to perform its functions effectively to ensure adequate implementation ofCDM policy in the country is relatively low. Similar is the rating of the private sector capacity toimplement CDM projects. The preparedness of the countries to take part in the negotiations onnew market-based mechanisms is relatively low; more than 50% assessed it as such, witharound 25% answering “I do not know”. The preparedness of the countries to take part in the EU ETS is reported as relatively low, more than 70% assessed it as such. Little awareness of the private sector on the EU ETS requirements is expressed – around 60%, with only 13% rating it as relatively good.Reporting, awareness and knowledge:Having in place the mandatory and voluntary reports under the UN serves different purposes:  Strengthens national expertise in different areas;  Increases the public awareness on various issues;  Provides information, necessary to formulate national policies and measures in the area;  Informs donors about the achievements and the needs of the countries.It should be noted that reporting under UNFCCC post 2012 regime will become morecomprehensive and on more frequent basis.Mapping: Reports status National Communication National Human Technology National Capacity (NC) Development Needs Self Assessment Report (HDR) Assessment (NCSA) (TNA)Albania Submitted Second NC, General Human Published Completed. starting stock taking for the Development Report March 2004. Third NC. - 1998; National Human There are plans Development to Report-2010: develop/update Capacity the TNA Development and through UNDP. Integration with the European UnionBosnia and First NC submitted, about Published in 2007. No plans for Inception phase.Herzegovina to start Second NC. TNA.FYR of Submitted the SNC, Published in 2004. TNA prepared Completed.Macedonia starting stock taking for the in 2004. The Ministry would 18
    • TNC. like to update the TNA through UNEP.Montenegro First NC submitted, about Published in 2005. TNA is No. to start Second NC. underway, office for sustainable development is coordinating the assessmentSerbia First NC adopted by the Published 2005. No plans to No. Government and submitted develop TNA. to the UNFCCC Secretariat in November 2010.Survey results: Reporting, awareness and knowledge has been assessed as highly important for the implementation of climate change policy by almost all.  National expertise engaged in the preparation of the National Communication (NC) is assessed in general as sufficient with around 30% highly sufficient and 45% sufficient;  The sustainability of the government in preparation of the NC was rated as marginally sufficient;  The countries are not very well prepared to report more frequently (as it was decided under the Cancun Agreements).The climate change issues were assessed as not fully addressed in the Human Development Reports(HDR) of each country by 35% of the respondents, at the same time about half answered with “I do not 19
    • know”. The answers show that the HDR findings and recommendations were not used broadly to shapenational climate change policies and legislations, and more than 50% are not aware of this4.The National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA) study, where in place, is not making a significantdifference in policy making, where more than 60% answered with “I do not know”.The importance of climate change related websites is assessed as very high almost by all (74.3% veryhigh, 21.4% high). Few websites related to climate change were reported as existing. However theirefficiency to reach different stakeholders was not assessed as good.Although some training was provided to the countries in climatechange areas (reported mainly in GHG emissions inventories andCDM), the need for more trainings is very big. Moreover, the needfor more GHG inventory training is assessed as high, and the sameapplies for GHG projections, development of LEDS and NAMAs,carbon trading, implementation of climate change relatedlegislation, access to climate change finance, etc.Adaptation:Adaptation policy and measures should be assessed in a development context. Capacity todevelop an adaptation strategy, including disaster risk management and capacity to implement itare equally important.Mapping: Adaptation strategy/plan Disaster Risk Reduction strategyAlbania There is the Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan for The National Strategy for Disaster Risk the Drini cascade area, part of the Second National Management is under preparation; Communication of Albania to UNFCCC; There is still as a draft version the Health and Climate Change Plans are under preparation for the Adaption Strategy and Action plan; A report on flood management control in possible adaptation measures for the energy sector in Drini/Buna basins; Albania; A report/action plan for the adaptation measures for the agriculture sector in Albania is under preparation; There are three adaptation plans developed for three communes within the Lezha Region; The4 It should be noted that in most countries the last Human Development Report was prepared several years ago,hence, reflection of climate change doesn’t necessarily indicate current situation in the country. 20
    • Action Plan for the adaption to climate change of the Lezha Region is under preparation; There are plans to develop an action plan for adaptation for the area to be considered under the Vulnerability&Adaptation chapter of the Third National Communication of Albania to UNFCCC (the area not yet fixed: there are two options considered (The Vjosa River Basin and the Albanian Coastal Area).Bosnia and The detailed list of potential primary and secondary Currently, government together withHerzegovina adaptation measures is proposed in the INC for UNDP is preparing Disaster risk particular sectors (land, coastal areas, water assessment which would consider management, agriculture and cattle breeding, forestry, climate changes. Plan is to prepare mining and energy, tourism, economy and trade, National Strategy for Disaster Risk infrastructure, health and social status, education and Reduction in years to come. socio-economic development). These measures, which include legislation, capacity-building, organizational and technical measures, and economic instruments, are presented at a rather general level without setting priorities or a time frame. It would be necessary to further develop sectoral strategies on adaptation, but for now there are no plans for this action.FYR of Adaptation Strategy/Plan is part of the Second National The outline of a National Disaster RiskMacedonia Communication and it will be upgraded during the Reduction Strategy will be prepared development of the Third National Communication that with support from UNDP as part of the will start in the second half of 2011. regional project on DRR There is a National Strategy for Adaptation of the There is a National Platform on Health Sector and an Action Plan, and the similar Disaster Risk Reduction strategy is under preparation for the agriculture sector.Montenegro There is no current consideration for development of There is some recent development in National Strategy or Action Plan for Adaptation area of National Strategy for Disaster Risk Redaction but with limited consideration of climate change.Serbia Initial National Communication contains short term adaptation measures for hydrology and water resources, forestry, biodiversity and natural ecosystems, agriculture and health. In addition, INC indicates priority need for development national Adaptation Plan of Actions (NAPA) 21
    • Results of the survey: The importance of adaptation strategy is unanimously expressed as very high.  Although some capacity and resources in the countries for implementation of the Adaptation Strategy/Action Plan exist in general it is assessed as relatively low.  The regional cooperation was identified as very useful when developing and implementing Adaptation Strategy/Action Plan.  More than 50% assessed the capacity to mobilize international funding to help implement the national adaptation strategy and action plan as not adequate and other 30% as adequate.Ecosystem-based adaptation is assessed by about 40% as very important and about 34% asimportant. The role of ecosystems in absorption and storing of carbon is shown by more than70% as high.Workshops, demonstration projects, publications are found by the majority as important instrengthening scientific capacities of countries in preservation of carbon pools at ecosystems.Low-carbon development:The transition to low emission development path in both developed and developing economieshas been recognized internationally as an imperative to stabilizing GHG concentrations in linewith the 2 degree temperature increase scenario. However there is still limited practicalexperience on designing and implementing comprehensive national low emission developmentstrategies (LEDS) or nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and no guidelines onthe preparation of such strategies or NAMAs have been developed and adopted in the UNFCCCprocess. At the same time fast start financing committed by developed countries in Copenhagenis already in place to support countries in developing and implementing LEDSs and NAMAs. Anumber of countries globally and in the region have initiated and developed LEDS or NAMAs.To answer the needs of the countries from EE&CIS, UNDP initiated a regional project“Supporting countries transition to low-emission development” in April 2010. The projectassists the countries to develop capacity to formulate, mobilize finance and implement Low-emissions Development Strategies or Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. Guidelines onhow to develop LEDS and NAMAs was published in English and Russian languages(http://europeandcis.undp.org/home/publications).Mapping: Low-emission development strategies / Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions 22
    • Albania NAMAs not specified under UNFCCC. The country plans to develop NAMAs as part of the Third National Communication of Albania to UNFCCC.Bosnia and NAMAs not specified under Copenhagen Accord. There are not prepared NAMAs, but as part ofHerzegovina the Initial National Communication to UNFCCC there are proposed mitigation measures by different sectors. Namely, measures are proposed for the energy sector (increase in energy efficiency, introduction of renewables, reduction of methane emissions), district heating sector (improvement in infrastructure and regulation, support for cogeneration), building sector (new standards, recovery of existing buildings, new technologies), industrial processes (energy efficiency, introduction of renewables), transport (better inspection of vehicles, support for public transport, railways and water transport), agriculture (biogas production, better agricultural practice), forestry (better forest management) and waste management (reduction of waste generation, support for recycling and re-use, an emphasis on collection and usage of methane from regional landfills). Specific attention is paid to renewable energy sources. The highest emission reduction potential has been assessed for hydropower (560,000 – 2.5 million tons of CO2 per year), energy efficiency measures (180,000 – 240,000 tons of CO2 per year) and co-combustion of biomass in power stations (more than 150,000 tons of CO2 per year).FYR of Range of NAMAs submitted (Electric power sector; Industrial energy transformations and heatingMacedonia sector; Transport; Waste Sector; Agriculture and forestry, amongst others: harmonization with the EU legislation, Introduction and development of mitigation technologies Strengthening the national and local capacities for carbon financing, Education for application of mitigation measures, Implementation of the strategic documents). The WB and SIDA allocated about 2 mil USD (Trust fund established) to support development of Green development plan.Montenegro At a later stage NAMAs to be submitted to the UNFCCC (once the First National Communication ready. At this stage LEDS is not being developed. A twinning EC project the national development plan is underway, but the contract/TOR did not include the low emissions component to the plan. In contest of our international commitments to UNFCCC and Copenhagen Accord and Cancun Agreement as well in contest of EU accession process, our plan is to conduct consultation on national level and consultation with our international partners in order to design and submit appropriate NAMAs.Serbia At a later stage NAMAs to be submitted to the UNFCCC (once the First National Communication ready. "Capacity Development project on nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) in the Republic of Serbia" started in January 2011, funded by the Government of Japan. Main objective is capacity building for the preparation of mitigation related measures and activities.Survey results: The importance of low-emission development for the implementation of climate change policy is considered by the majority as very high.The capacity to define and submit Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) to UNFCCCis assessed by some 27% as good by other 35% as not enough. About 47% of the respondents are not 23
    • aware of the political will to undertake ambitious NAMAs under the post-2012 regime; about 6%consider the will as high, 14.7% as relatively high, 23.5% as relatively low and 8.8% as low. The need forinternational support of NAMAs is exceeding 65%.The capacity of the government to develop Low-emission development strategy (LEDS) is consideredlow by about 55% and sufficient by 22%.The expertise possessed by the countries in the specific areas needed for LEDS development is assessedas follows: Strategic planning - high Macroeconomic analysis - high Development of GHG inventories - high GHG projections - good Prioritization of mitigation options- relatively good Regulatory approach/legislation - good Regulatory approach/ standards - good Regulatory approach/ fossil fuel subsidy removal – relatively week Regulatory approach/ tax reform - relatively week Regulatory approach/directing tax revenue to support low-carbon economy - relatively week Sectoral measures for emission reduction – relatively good Mobilizing investments for transition to low-carbon economy domestically – week Mobilizing investments for transition to low-carbon economy internationally - week Social dimensions of LED, such as poverty, green jobs, health, education and culture - relatively week Consideration of gender issues while developing and implementing climate change policy is still not enough Monitoring, reporting, adjustment – relatively lowFinancial resources:At COP 15 in Copenhagen (2009) and COP 16 in Cancun (2010), there was a broad agreementthat an effective response to climate change will require new financing on a massive scale up toand beyond 2012. It was also agreed that developing countries will require substantial additionalassistance to meet the challenges they face.For the Western Balkan countries the accession to the EU presents a challenge to meet therelevant climate change requirement, but at the same time it is an opportunity in terms offinancing sources.However, there is a need of a certain level of capacity in order to have an access to existingfinancing and to prepare for the future financial assistance. For example, in order to receivecarbon finance from CDM projects certain structures and procedures should be in place, forreceiving international support for implementing NAMAs, a country should have developedthose NAMAs and respectively the needed structures for their implementation. 24
    • Mapping: Financial sourcesAlbania n.a. national, private funding. EU funds: There is no special focus on climate change within the EU Delegation in Albania. The EPA 12-2nd programming is under preparation in cooperation with the Ministry of Integration: A formal request from the MoE on possible funds for climate change activities is to be considered. RENA project UNFCCC: Adaptation Fund: no application yet. GEF/UNDP: Identification and implementation of adaptation measures in the Drini-Mati river deltas; Market transformation for solar water heating in Albania; Enabling Albania to prepare its Third National Communication to UNFCCC. German Gov/WHO: Protecting health from climate change in Albania. World Bank: Impacts of climate change in energy and agriculture; Vulnerability of European and Central Asian countries to climate change; Natural resources/reforestation-aforestation CDM project; Disaster risk mitigation and adaptation. Italian Ministry for Environment, Land and Sea: Assistance for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.Bosnia and The environmental funds in both entities are operational, and among other things they shouldHerzegovina financially support climate change activities. However, funds that are on disposal are limited (in Republika Srpska for 2011 it is about 1.1 million Euros). They are supporting different environmental protection projects including projects on climate changes mitigation. Also, support is provided for preparation of strategic documents and legislation. According its Statutes, Funds could co finance programmes and projects implemented by international financial institutions and organizations. Private funding exists in the area of renewables (small hydro and biomass) and energy efficiency. EU funds: IPA funds. UNFCCC funds: GEF. Project on Energy Efficiency in Public Building is submitted to GEF Secretary; USAID - Energy Efficiency; GTZ - Energy Efficiency; EU - Energy Efficiency; UNDP - Support for establishment of BiH’s DNA; National Communications to UNFCCC (INC and SNC); Preparation of the Sustainable Energy Action Plans (SEAPs); Support in reform of the existing national (entity) environmental protection funds; Energy Efficiency.FYR of There is no environmental fund in the country. The state is partially co-financing some of theMacedonia investments in EE and renewable, as well as some of the local governments. Most of the projects are financed by donor funding – UNDP/GEF, WB, Norway, Swedish SIDA, Swiss Cooperation Agency, kfW, GTI (former GTZ), Italy, Austrian Development Agency, REC, etc.Montenegro There is no national funding for climate change activities, no private funding. UNFCCC: Adaptation Fund, project concept is being prepared. The Special Climate Change Fund. Green Fund- yet to be established. EU/IPA, GEF, UNDP, UNEP, UNIDO, World Bank, GIZ, REC, Government to Government donors: Italy, Norway, Netherland.Serbia EU funds: IPA, TAIEX; UNFCCC: GEF; Bilateral donors: Government of Japan - Capacity Development project on National Appropriate Mitigation Actions; Government of Norway - development of National Strategy for incorporation of the Republic of Serbia into Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol; Government of Spain - Feasibility Study "Efficient ways for GHG emissions reduction under the post-Kyoto framework"; Government of Italy - different activities related to climate change 25
    • Survey results: All respondents consider mobilization of climate change resources as important, of which 69.7% very important and 28.8% important.National resources are considered as insufficient by the majority. At the same time, the existing availableresources are not used efficiently and 75% believe that more national funds are needed to meet thecountries needs. Respondents consider that there are not enough tools to leverage private financing forclimate change, the opinion on Public Private Partnership applicability in the countries is divided intotwo, and there is a strong need to introduce policy and regulatory frameworks that would allow greaterprivate sector participation in climate change funding/investments.Most respondents are of the opinion that EU funds related toclimate are not very well used (55%). Almost all respondentsrecognize the that there is a need for more capacity building inorder to be able to use EU funds efficiently and that EU funds arenot sufficient to meet the country’s needs in the area of climatechange.The majority of the respondents think that their country does not benefit enough from existing UNFCCCfunds and that the government does not have sufficient capacity to prepare projects under relevant parts ofthe UNFCCC funds.On the question to what extent are there active donors in your country in the field of climate change and ifdonors’ support is sufficient of the majority of the answers is in the lower range.Monitoring and evaluation of climate change policy:Monitoring and Reporting is necessary for the implementation for domestic mitigation measures and isrequired for obtaining international support for NAMAs. This requires detailed quantitative andqualitative evidence, thus a monitoring and reporting system should be in place in the countries. 26
    • Mapping: Monitoring and evaluation of the climate change policy/ NAMAsAlbania Stock-taking exercise for the preparation of the National Communications. No concrete plans for domestic MRV.Bosnia and No.HerzegovinaFYR of The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning (MoEPP) develop a proposal for EU ETS andMacedonia MRV for the Norwegian bi-lateral support; also UNDP CO in collaboration with the MoEPP developed a proposal on MRV and ETS for the Bulgarian CC Fast Start Funding and the proposal was approved. The Ministry is also planning to submit a proposal for the IPA 2012 programming.Montenegro No system in place currently because there is no CC strategies, plans or policies the Agency for Environmental Protection is mandated with monitoring on a status of environment ,covering among others climate change- its mandate for this year is to begin the process of developing environmental indicators (not sustainable development, but just environment). Since this issue has not been regulated on international level, we will wait for further decisions and guidance on final form and content of MRV. Our plan is to enhance our domestic capacities for MRV mainly through improvement of capacities of competent authority located in Environmental Protection Agency. In this area we will need substantive support from our partners.Serbia One of the main purposes of the Capacity development project on NAMA will be enhancement of general understanding on NAMAs and measurement, reporting and verification (MRV).Survey results: Monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the climate change policy is considered of a very high importance.The existing system for GHG inventory, as well as the monitoring system for the implementation of thenational climate change policy are evaluated as not sufficient. The capacity in the country to establish anefficient MRV system is not sufficient either.Summary of the survey results for KosovoAs Kosovo is not a Party to the UNFCCC and other UN Conventions, the survey was lesscomprehensive and includes only relevant topics. That is why the results are not included in thesurvey for the above five countries. However, the specific results are very much comparable tothe ones described above and the similar conclusions could be drawn in regard to the capacitystatus and needs towards the low-carbon and climate resilient development. 27
    • The summary of the mapping and survey results are presented below. Kosovo MappingCC Departments Do not exist in any of the ministriesCC experts Available in ministries of: environment, economy/finance, agriculture/forestry, energy, transport, health, foreign affairs, as well as other organizations. Number – between 1-2Regional RENA, ENVSECcooperationRelevant strategies Adopted Laws: 1. Law on environmental protection 2. Law on forests of Kosovo 3. Law onand laws energy 4. Law on air protection 5. Law on nature conservation 6. Law on waste 7. Law on integrated pollution prevention and control 8. Law on air protection from pollution. Draft laws expected to be adopted in 2011: 1. Draft law on energy efficiency Administrative orders: 1. Administrative order for issuing the ecological (environmental) permit 2. Administrative order on cadastre (inventory) of emissions in the environment 3. Administrative order about the norms and the limits for emissions in the air from stationary sources 4. Administrative order for administering the wastes in public areas Strategies: 1. Kosovo Energy Strategy 2009 – 2018 – adopted 2. Strategy of Air and Action Plan for Air Quality 3. Kosovo Environmental Strategy and Action Plan 2011 – 2015 under preparationPlans to implement No, there are currently no plans to implement EU ETS.EU ETSHDR At present UNDP Kosovo is preparing the HDR together with the Ministry for Economic DevelopmentCC Websites There are no web sites on climate changeProvided trainings A training on Capacity Development Clean Development Mechanism and on Energy Efficiency. 1) EU Climate and Energy Package 2) Renewable energy and Carbon Capture and Storage (RENA) 3) Adaptation to the Impacts Climate Change for Reducing the Risks in South Eastern Europe (Venice-Viu).Plans to develop A Concept Note on LEDS was prepared (together with the above). Pending on fundraising.National Strategy or With the support of UNDP Kosovo in coordination with BRC.Adaptation PlanDevelopment of A Concept Note on Climate Resilient Development (including the National Strategy andLEDS Action Plans for Adaptation) and DRR was prepared. Both are pending on fundraising. With the support of UNDP Kosovo in coordination with BRC.National funds for No, there are no funds dedicated for the climate change activities.CCPrivate funding for NoCC activitiesActive donors in the UNDP Project for GHG Inventory - is the only project that is under preparation.countryMonitoring No, there is not any mechanism in place to monitor and evaluate the climate change policymechanism for theimplementation ofthe strategies andplans Survey resultsType of institution  57.1% governmental structure; 28.6% Other (industry); 14.3% NGO.presentedSectors represented  50% environment; and 12.5% each from development, agriculture, energy, forestry, and transport.Level of the position  42.9% senior; 57.1% medium.Involvement in CC  14.3% direct and 85.7% indirect.policy decision 28
    • makingInvolvement in CC  28.6% direct and 71.4% indirect.policyimplementationGender  100% male.Nationalcoordination  Importance of NCC: 85.7% very high; 14.3 high;committee (NCC)  Authorities and resources of the NCC: 85.7% very important; 14.3% important  The NCC shall be established immediatelyInclusion ofrepresentatives of  71.7% very important; 14.3% important; 14.3% not importantother organization inNCCImportance to  Environment: 100% very important;establish CC  Economy/finance: 50% very important, 33.3%departments important;  Development: 83.3% very important;  Agriculture 66.7% very important and 16.7% important;  Forestry: 50% very important and 25.0% important;  Energy: 71.4% very important and 28.6% important;  Transport: 66.7% very important and 33.3%;  Health: 57.1% very important;  Foreign affairs: 25% very important and 25% important.If not a CC 42.9% very important, 42.9% importantdepartment at leastexpertsRegional  71.4% very important;cooperationPerformance ofregional 14.3% very good, 28.6% good, 14.3% relatively poor. 14.3% poormechanisms/platformsImportance oflegislation to  85.7% very important; 14.3% importantimplement CCpolicy 29
    • Capacity to  Capacity of the government to introduce legislation:introduce CC 14.3% sufficient, 42.9% relatively sufficient, 42.9%legislation and relatively insufficient;policy  Funding of CC policies and laws: 14.3% sufficient, 14.3% relatively sufficient, 28.6% relatively insufficient; 42.9% insufficient;  Ensuring participation of stakeholders: 42.9% sufficient, 28.6% relatively sufficient, 28.6% relatively insufficient;  Private sector involvement: 42.9% relatively sufficient, 42.9% relatively insufficient.Capacity to ensure  To be understood at local level: 14.3% sufficient, 14.3% relatively sufficient, 42.9%that CC laws are relatively insufficient;adequately  To be implemented at local level: 14.3% sufficient, 42.9% relatively sufficient, 28.6%transferred to local relatively insufficient, 14.3% insufficientlevelEU ETS  Preparedness of the government: 42.9% relatively sufficient, 42.9% relatively insufficient;  Private sector: 14.3% relatively sufficient, 57.1% relatively insufficient.Awareness and  Importance of awareness and knowledge for implementation of CCknowledge policy: 50% very important, 33,3% important, 16.7% not very important.CC related Websites  100% very important;  Efficiency to reach stakeholders of the existing websites: 28.6% relatively poor, 28.6% relatively poor.Training needed  In the areas of: o Inventories o Development of strategies and laws o Development of NAMAs o Implementation of legislation o GHG projections o Access to finance o Carbon trading o others Capacities and resources to  Capacity in the country to implement Adaptation implement strategy: 14.3% relatively good, 57.1% relatively adaptation strategy week, 28.6% week;  Regional cooperation: 100% very important;  Ecosystem based approach: 57.1% very important; 42.9% important;  Climate induced natural hazards: 28.6% exist, 42.9% do not exist;  Capacity to mobilize international funding: 14.3% sufficient, 14.3% relatively sufficient, 28.6% relatively insufficient, 42.9% insufficient; 30
    • Low-emission  Importance: 100% very important; development  Political will undertake ambitious NAMAs: 14.3% high, 57.1% relatively high, 14.3% relatively low, 14.3% low;  Need for international support: 71.4% very high, 28.6% high;  National capacity to develop LEDS: 14.3% relatively sufficient, 71.4 insufficient, 14.3% insufficient.National expertise in  Strategic planning – relatively low regard to LEDS  Macroeconomic analysis - relatively low  Development of GHG inventories - low  GHG projections – very low  Prioritization of mitigation options- low  Regulatory approach/legislation - good  Regulatory approach/ standards - good  Regulatory approach/ fossil fuel subsidy removal – relatively week  Regulatory approach/ tax reform - week  Regulatory approach/directing tax revenue to support low-carbon economy - week  Sectoral measures for emission reduction – relatively good  Mobilizing investments for transition to low-carbon economy domestically – low  Mobilizing investments for transition to low-carbon economy internationally - week  Social dimensions of LED, such as poverty, green jobs, health, education and culture - week  Consideration of gender issues while developing and implementing climate change policy is still not enough  Monitoring and reporting of implementation of strategy – relatively good.Importance ofmobilization offinancial resources  Very important 85.7%, 14.3% importantFinancial recoursessufficiency  National resources: not sufficient  Existing funds: not sufficiently used  More national funds needed: 57.1% very high  Existence of tool to leverage financing for CC: very low;  Applicability of PPP: not high;  Need to introduce policy and regulatory framework that will allow greater participation of the private sector: very high.Donors  Active donors in the CC field: little;  Donor’s support: not sufficient. 31
    • Monitoring andevaluation of theimplementation of  Very important 87.5%. 14.3% important;CC policy  GHG inventory: not sufficient;  Monitoring system for policy implementation: not sufficient;  Capacity to establish MRV system: relatively sufficient;Additional important things identified by the respondents:To improve national performance is needed:  National coordination mechanism for climate change issues and LED  Strategic planning  Legislation and its implementation  Monitoring, verification, reporting  Strengthening of the statistical structures  Human capacity  Knowledge and educationRecommendations to donors:  Donors should coordinate their actions in a way to secure synergies and to avoid overlapping and duplication.  to be more in line with the governments programs  Act in response to the country needs  Focus on specific green investments, trainings, jobs, education;  Offer various alternative financing mechanisms custom-made for specific national market conditions  To target regional cooperation  To provide more fundsRecommendations to the international community:  The international community is expected to provide further support to the countries and to help them meet their development goals and  to secure clarity and rules in global climate regime  Networking Regional cooperation 32
    • Detailed information about the mapping survey could be found at:Mapping: http://desktop.websurveyor.net/analysis/generatepublicreport.aspx?esid=343779&subaccountid=92349Survey: http://desktop.websurveyor.net/analysis/generatepublicreport.aspx?esid=343776&subaccountid=92349 33