Model Project of Bauhaus Dessau Foundation: Favela Jacarecino, Rio de Janeiro, 2000-2004
A quarter of the world´s population today is living in "slums" or "squatter" settlements. Most built on illegallyoccupated land. The people have no claim on "their" plots and on regular urban supply of water and power.The slums, apparently inevitable elements of urban agglomerations, became one of the largest problems of the present withunpredictable political and social risks.
In 2000 the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation was invited by the city administration of Rio de Janeiro, to develop a project withinthe context of the Favela Bairro program. The goal was to turn one of the misery accomodation boroughs into a model project for oneof the 500 Favelas in the Brazilian metropolis. This international cooperation on a Favela project represented an innovation.
Favelas - outside of urban control and established on mostly illegaly occupied ground. Today approx. 1,2 million people in Rio deJaneiro are living in Favelas. For the past 10 years Rio de Janeiro has been operating on a new policy with the Favela Bairro for theintegration of Favelas into the total urban connection. Besides a legalization of the ownership and opening the Favelas, the programintroduces new infrastructures and urban services into the disadvantaged quarters and places.
Rio de Janeiro with Jacarezinho, the second largest favela and the interventions concerning town construction in poverty areas
The Favela Jacarezinho is a "city within the city", which increased in the last 70 years to today 58,000 inhabitants. The 35hectars large area is limited by industrial sites and railway lines.
Public attention Jacarezinho has been added to the land register of Rio de Janeiro as late as in the 1990’s.
Blackplan for the aproxx. 350 by 1000 m large Favela - with 58.000 inhabitants, only about 6qm are available to each inhabitant.Only few constantly passable roads exist, so that urban services, such as rescue, fire brigades and police remain hopelessly stuck ina tangle of lanes.
A vital city culture and a complex and almost autonomously city mechanism, has developed from these condition with acomprehensive and informal service structure. There are business quarters, bars, restaurants, dentists, attorneys, shops, churchesand schools.
Borders and entrances - town development within walls. Trade and business are concentrated along the entrances and thefew drivable ways. There is hardly any public area and open spaces. Approx. 50% of the inhabitants are less than 30 years old. Nomore building possibilities are available for coming generations.
Housing conditions: looking at the extreme residential density, Jacarezinho brings out completely unique compensationforms. Rhe roofs replace free space, playgrounds, street cafes or also gardens, stables and storages. Roofs serve at the same timeas development land in the informal property market in the Favela.
How to plan, if the concern is to improve housing conditions, open new building options and economic perspectives for theinhabitants and to open the "city" for an exchange with the metropolis?
The draft and planning work was preceded by artistic ideas and actions, developed within the 1. international BauhausKolleg ComplexCity in 2000 during a visit in Jacarezinho. The group - media artists, architects, computer scientists, designers andhistorians was influenced by the prejudice of the Favela as a dangerous and criminal place. It was not its only concern to develop anarchitectural and townplaning concept in the sense of a spatial and infrastructural integration into the entire town. above all stood thebeginning of an integration process to realize experimental interventions and actions which could open the Favela for communication.
Building “recording” in the broadest sense: interviews document the living situation of the inhabitants. For the presentationand discussion a storage hall was coverted into a media workshop and information center for Jacarezinho.
Art and communication workshops with children, young people and also adults opened new communication levels andrevealed the large interest in education of the inhabitants.
Transformation of art and architectural elements in the city center / downtown.
Labyrinth - sketching play with the relations between public and private space as well as the attempt to develop a new quality outof this labyrinth-like urban structure
Virtual architecture – an "observation tower" made the view into the metropolis possible - and for the first time on the owntown. It was a sign of the presence and the self consciousness of the inhabitants of Jacarezinho. The art actions led to a discourse,not only with and among the inhabitants of the neigbourhood, but also between them and the metropolis. Jacarezinho was noticed forthe first time positively by the broad public and as place with its own qualities and specific potentials. From this experiences ideas fordrafting and the transformation of the architectural-spatial structures were developed.
Block Bridge FoyerThe Bauhaus Dessau Foundation continued the plan for the model project Celula Urbana and accompanied it up to therealization. In the context of Favela Bairro a special urban development policy was pursued: spatial-social structures grown inside theFavela as well as the Favela architecture as something evolved are actually recognized and serve as basis for planning. The citydevelopment was to consider the individual life perspectives of the inhabitants. Above all it was to initiate a lasting and self-dynamicprocesses by cultural, technological and economic interaction with the urban surrounding and to create a new image for the Favela .
Renovation Public spaces New development CommunicationCore of the project is a model block, the "urban cell" , in which solutions for prototyping, for the entire Favela are suggestedwhich are applicable to city development and architectural solutions .
Block, bridge and foyer with campus formulate a new entrance, as well as the content and spacial interaction of city andneigbourhood.
An extensive set of tools of possible measurements, methods and principles, applied prototypically in the first project phasethe"Block", alowed the inhabitants, business people and institutions during a process of self organization to make punctualinterventions for the reevaluation of the residential environment and for the development of their own life perspectives - independentlyof superordinate city planning. The suggested interferences in building structure and property organization gradually stimulate aneconomic, social, building-climatic and ecological development of Jacarezinho - to an open and equal quarter of Rio de Janeiro.
One goal was also to improve, apart from optimizing the floorplans and the realising of minimum standard of space and dwellingsizes, the climatic protection. The shade-giving qualities of the dense building structures will be connected with elements for theaeration of the buildings, e.g. by openings, yards or ventilation shafts. Sun protection elements on the roof and at the front preventfrom to much heat inside the rooms. Front and roof greening produces shade and at the same time evaporation surfaces. Like thewater-storing layers on the roof, this will cool the rooms below.
Bestand Parzellenzusammenlegung Entkernung und Hofbildung Anheben der Wohnlagen und Erschließung über Gassen zum Hof und vom Hof ins HausFirst in the sense of a careful urban redevelopment a new plot structure was suggested, which permits anenlargement of the tiny plots to economic size. Each plot can be attached by this re-organization to at least one accessroad. On the one hand this makes an optimization of the floorplans possible and on the other hand it gives the chance toproduce flexible and economical units, i. e. constant service or trade uses in the ground floor. The usually bad dwellings inthe ground floor are "raised" by a separation and a misalignment of the access into the first floor level. Maisonette flats arereached from their own entrance.
Bestand Modell 1 Modell 2 Modell 3Courtyards will be inserted into the interlocked building structures by core removal. This improves the living and the tradeconditions, creates open space and contributes to enriching the urban structure.
Courtyard model 1 - public use The model presents a first prototype for the emergence of a new typology of yards inconnection with the reorganisation of the plot- and access-structure: within the deep plots core removal takes place. In favor ofgreater building units and for trade and service constantly usable, flexible groundfloor zones, plots are connected and the access isarranged again from he yard. Within the yard cultural, commercial and service functions are concentrated, which creates animportant point of attraction and communication area for Jacarezinho together with the use as place of event.
Courtyard model 2 - institutional use (as center for recreation) With this model a second prototype is presented,where an institution or also a tradesman is buying and manages a building with a connected plot within a deep plot structure, chosenfor demolishing. The owner regulates a reconciliation for the torn down flats i.e. by remuneration, by replacing buildings and/or byadding floors at the site. A sale of health and body care articles, massage, fitnessroom, swimmingpool with the attached gardenyards, is offered in the center for recreation. The peace and closed character of this area and the special climate by a wateredvertical garden, will be a counterpart to the extroverted and lively urban culture of Jacarezinho.
View on the place Praça Concordia with tribune, nucleus and the buildings at the courtyard 1
Nucleus initial project of the Celula Urbana and use as media- and information-center. An existing storagehall is supplemented around three floors. Within the building are no bearing walls. Secondary functions,loggias, access and manholes are arranged concentrating within a narrow area of the building. A buffer zoneFrom results in this layering of the outside wall on the sunny side, which prevents from heating of the roomsbehind it. Thus not only the impression of depth, but also more space variety is developed.
Nucleus interior with gallery and section of the ventilation principle
Workshop creativity center – view from the yard
Workshop example for a plot poolPartial demolishing and new building prepares the connection ofbuildings in a second building phase.
Dance school view from the courtyardconnection of buildings in a second building phase
Housing and commerce connection and rebuilding of 5 buildings from theexisting structure for commercial use of the ground floor with upper level maisonetteflats, acessed from the yard.
Housing and commerce sections with acess yard and ventilation principle
Recreation Center view from the second inner court
Recreation Center building with garden yard and legal advice - core removal, newbuilding and integration of 5 existing buildings.
Recreation Center sections, views and vertical garden
Praça ConcordiaThe new entrance into the city quarter of Jacarezinho. The tribune is astaircase, a place to stay, an advertisingmedia and a name sign all at the same time. The space below the tribune can be used as a library and cafe in afurther stage of the development.
BridgeThe bridge is conceived, in the first phase, as a simple footbridge, that, if necessary, can be completed withfunction furniture and shelf carriers to be used as minimal shops, sun protection and solar modules.
Urban Modules foyer, campus and bridge are designed as "modular", autonomous urban building elements, to contribute tothe different development scenarios. The central ensemble is built with the re-used trade buildings, the rampbuilding and the bridge.
Foyer, entrance and campus of the Taba universitaria, an international center for projects in povertyareas. By setting fewer volumes, the ensemble of university, ramp, campus and school is defined as a uniqueplace. are defined. The way to Jacarezinho declares itself as an open multi-functional area of interlocked uses.
Taba universitaria Interior of the reused industrial hall
New Typologies terraced buildingThe variaties for the townplanning re-organization of the foyer, contain different emphasis in their housingtypology: this variant of the terraced building organizes combinable flat sizes around a central terrace through aconstantly commercially usable ground floor. 2 - 6 flats form a social and economic unit.
New Typologies courtyard houseThe type of the courtyard-house varies for a uniform plot module type of the single family house. The house isacessible over a small yard, also commercially usable, and covers 1-2 upper floors.
After the delivery and presentation of the planning in January 2002 as well as a further revision together with a Brazilian joint office,the core removal work for the realization of the first courtyard began in November.
First construction work at the Nucleus and laying of new infrastructure for the block in spring 2003
The Nucleus in June 2003 - Completion of the carcass
Nearly completely emptied space for the 1. Yard with the carcass of the Nucleus - June 2003 Colorsuggestion for the ground of the yard and adjacent constructions - January 2002
April 2004 - In August 2003 the opening of the Nucleus is planned as amedia- and information center with a festival of Ars Electronica.
Bauhaus Kolleg ComplexCity 1999/2000 Planung 2001/2002 Direction : Direction of the project: Prof. Dr. Omar Akbar Prof. Dr. Omar Akbar Management: Architects: Ute Lenssen Silvan Linden, Berlin Koordination: Rainer Weisbach, Dessau Neil Gagliardi together with Regina Sonnabend René Weiszbarth, Dessau Rainer Weisbach Bernhard von Oppeln, Berlin Kolleg participants: Bettina Bachem, Germany Sabine Baumann, Germany Margaretha Breil, Italy Oksana Chepelyk, Ukraine Daniela Engel Aduan, Brazil Zoran Eric, Yugoslavia Jens Fischer, Germany Alehandra Gonsebatt, Argentina Maria Marcelino, Portugal Paolo Mulatinho, Germany Susanne Müller, Germany Zoran Pantelic, Yugoslavia Carlos Petersen, Brazil Vanessa Tamieti, Brazil Ramòn Villamarin, Colombia The first concept of the Celula Urbana goes Draft back on an idea of the Direction of the project: planners Lu Petersen and Dietmar Starke, Prof. Dr. Omar Akbar City administration of Rio de Janeiro Architects : Jens Fischer, Dessau Wilfried Hackenbroich, Berlin Photo: Rainer Weisbach, Rainer Weisbach, Dessau Regina Sonnabend, together with Jens Fischer, Ilona Niebel, Dessau Dietmar Starke Sabine Schmiegel, Dessau Picture composition: Rainer WeisbachModel project of Bauhaus Dessau Foundation: Favela Jacarecino, Rio de Janeiro, 2000 -2004