Factors that affect the on the-job training of


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Factors that affect the on the-job training of

  2. 2. Chapter I The Problem and Its Background
  3. 3. Introduction Education has been regarded as a means toward economic stability and progress. The increases productivity of the workforce is due mainly to the increase in the education and training of the people. The success and development of the country would greatly depend in the productivity of its human resources – which is considered as one of the vital asset of the nation. And to have a good and competent man power resources, quality education and intensive training is necessary for the students to become skilled and productive workers when they become part of the labor force. It is said that education is primarily concerned with the opening out to the world of the students so that he can choose his interests and mode of living, and his career. On the other hand, training is primarily concerned with the preparing the participants from certain lines of action, which are delineated by technology and by the organization in which he works. Education is not only limited to the degree an individual can attained however it must be accompanied by character, attitude, behavior and values that would significantly affects or influence his performance and productivity.
  4. 4. The most effective method to develop the competence and skills of students is trough hand – on training – the on-the-job training. This process exposes the students to the different fields and learned. Moreover, it allows the students to become familiar and made known with the actual operation of the business and the state-of-the-art of the facilities, equipment and technology used. Many opportunities for development can be found on-the-job. Trainees are able to learn as they contribute to the goals of the firm. Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those individuals that employ a sound OJT program. As per required by the CHED, graduating students of different majors of the College of Business Administration undergo on-the-job training with required time of one hundred hours. Perhaps this would be a stepping stone for the practicumers to develop themselves to become professionals in their own field of specialization and acquire new learning through gained experiences during trainings. It is very essential component of the learning process, geared towards preparing students future career. However, practicumers along the way encountered uncertainties and problems that would one way or another will affect their on-the-job performances. Some would feel disappointed and dissatisfied to the on-the-job training they receive. Many factors are to be considered that the on-the-job training was properly managed.
  5. 5. Statement of the Problem The main purpose of the study is to assess the factors that affect the on-the-job training of the BSBA practicumers of the University of Manila. Specifically it sought to answer the following sub – problems: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following variables: 1.1 Age 1.2 Gender 1.3 Civil Status 1.4 Course major 1.5 Venue of Practicum 2.How does the practicumers assess the different factors of-the-job training such as: 2.1 Work Attitude 2.2 Work Habit 2.3 Competence 2.4 Personality and Appearance 2.5 Linkage 2.6 Cooperating Firm 2.7 Benefits and Incentives 2.8 Training Evaluation 2.9 Problems Encountered 3.Is there any significant difference as how the students rate the extent of the factors that affects their on-the-job training in terms of its demographic profile? 4.What are the problems encountered by the practicumers during the on-the-job training? 5.What factor/s of the on-the-job training should need/s improvement?
  6. 6. Significance of the Study The researchers of this undertaking desire to make significant contribution to the better improvement and further development of the on-the-job training program. To the students who are enrolled in their practicum course this will give them brighter understanding and deeper awareness to the different factors that would affect their on-the-job training performance. The results of this study will help practicumers improve specific areas among themselves to become professionals. To the academe, this would provide insights and recommendations on how to help the practicumers on-the-job training effectively properly managed. To the professors and on-the-job training coordinators it would also provide information regarding the status of the practicumers that would encourage them to help the students by giving prompt, specific and helpful feedback. To the cooperating firms, industries and companies who accepts student trainees this would guide them how to handle and supervised praticumers. Furthermore, the findings of this study can serve as resources among researchers undertaking related field.
  7. 7. Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study was conducted at the University of Manila and limited only to the currently enrolled students of the College of Business Administration in their practicum course. The range of the study was from Nov. 2010 to March 2011. This study will be limited only to assess the factors that affect the on-the-job training of the students.
  8. 8. Operational Definition of Terms The following terms are defined operationally to have clearer understanding of the study: Assessment . It means to examine the significance and value of the factors that affects the on-the-job training of the practicumers. Benefits and Incentives . This refers to the rewards, privileges, payment and allowances receive by the practicumers during their on-the-job training. Competence . It pertains to the job knowledge, comprehension and professionalism of the respondents. Cooperating firm . This refers to the industry, company or agency that partners the school for the actual training of the practicumers. Course Major . This refers to the specialization in the College of Business Administration such as operations management, marketing management and financial management. Linkage . It is the collaboration made between the school and the cooperating firm in the on-the-job training program. On – the – job training . This term refers to the program conducted by the cooperating firm, company or industry, sponsored by the school in order to expose the students to actual training.
  9. 9. Personality and appearance . This pertains to the totality of the practicumers’ personal and social traits such as character, behavior, conduct and the like. Practicumers . This refers to the student trainees who are currently enrolled business administration students of the University of Manila in their practicum course. Problems Encountered. These are the common problems faced by the practicumers while conducting their on-the-job training. Training Evaluation . This refers to the performance rating provided by the school and where grade is accomplish by the immediate boss of the practicumers. Work Attitude . It is the characters possesses and showed by the practicumers towards training like resourcefulness, dependability and initiative. Work Habit. This refers to the acts used to be done by the practicumers in the duration of the training program such as punctuality and regularity in attendance.
  10. 10. Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter presents relevant literature and studies that helped the stand of this particular study. It includes both local and foreign studies and literature.
  11. 11. Local Literature It is important for employees to have good working habits since it gives them the drive to succeed in their careers. Establishing these habits not only improve the quality of work you put in but also it allows one to have more time for their personal life since time management is also developed. Developing good work habits provides you with the chance of being more productive and well-appreciated at work. Applying a positive attitude towards the tasks at hand can influence other people around you as well. GOPINOY.com provide a list of good work habit to develop such as: 1.) Set up a goal or a mission and apply a strong work ethic to provide you that sense of direction needed to accomplish quality tasks in the shortest time possible. 2.) Think positive. Do not think of the complexities of your job instead, consider these difficulties as a challenge. Deal with the problem, do not avoid them. You're going to have to face the same problem eventually. 3.) t is a good work habit to give importance to good attendance and punctuality. Doing so can get you off to a good start and it can be a positive asset on your part.
  12. 12. 5.) Apply neatness, orderliness and speed by cleaning up and getting organized. It allows you to work faster since it's easy to find things when the workplace is clean and sorted out properly. 6.) Plan your day ahead of time. This is one of the most important among the good work habits you should develop. List things that you should prioritize to work the next day. This could guide you whenever you get side tracked and forget what your original purpose was. 7.) Work smarter, not harder. Manage your time well; segregate activities into time wasters or maximum use of time. Time wasters such as telephone calls and dealing emails can just be kept short and on topic as well as keeping email accounts separate for personal and work use. Focus on the list of priorities you make and set limits for each task. 8.) Become self-employed psychologically. Think of yourself as your own boss. You would want to make things happen in the business, do good quality output and receive bigger income from it. Putting yourself on the situation can motivate you to do great results. 9.) Play the inner game of work. Know your purpose at work and do it with your own best innate desires and abilities. These will help you to acquire all the ideas, successful habits and best practices you will need in accomplishing tasks. 10.) Reduce procrastination by motivating yourself with rewards or punishments. Postponing or delaying one's work can cause career sabotage so be aware of its consequences and try to be more positive.
  13. 13. 11.) Give importance to rest and relaxation. Good working habits are not just about working. Our body and mind also needs a breather from all the office tasks we are doing. When we do relax and rest even for a few minutes in between, we allow ourselves to rejuvenate, think more clearly and our bodies to function properly. Working at a steady pace also helps. 12.) Use multitasking for routine tasks. Multitasking is also helpful in accomplishing more tasks at the same time. Routine tasks are simple tasks which you are anticipating on doing all the time. You can do some of these tasks all at the same time, as long as it doesn't require you to be analyzing an important detail. 13.) Bounce quickly from task to task. As you list down the tasks set up for the day, it is easier to transfer from one accomplished task to the next on queue. The quicker the transition, the more tasks are completed. 14.) Prepare time log, set time limits for certain tasks and evaluate your use of time. These help you assess if you have done either productive tasks or time wasting activities. 15.) Do away with being a cyber loafer and prioritize in doing your work. Make good use of office technology and avoid using them for personal purposes. 16.) Keep track of important names, places and things to avoid unnecessary and time consuming recalls and backtracks. It would be helpful to list or take note of them if you must.
  14. 14. 17.) Point out a problem but bring solutions. Problems you highlight to your superior without your recommended solutions merely construes as complains. So before approaching them with the problem, make sure you already thought of suggested solutions to solve it. 18.) Be nice to people. This is not just a good work habit, but also applicable to your life outside of work. It is already a common courtesy and by doing so can give you better chances of people wanting you on their team, and they tend to go out of their way to help you in time of need. You can start this off by greeting everyone with a smile. 19.) Volunteer for assignments. This could label you as a keen learner who is unafraid of hard work. But first assess on your own skills and knowledge before volunteering on an assignment. It is best to be confident about yourself when completing a volunteered task. 20.) Finish things by being decisive. Being decisive would mean having the ability to firmly decide with speed and clarity. Decision-making is oftentimes crucial, so it is better to observe and analyze all the information available and decide on the best course of action. Although there are risks for decisions to have negative results, the important thing is to learn from it and to avoid doing the same thing all over again.
  15. 15. Foreign Literature Your attitude in the workplace can be one of the most - if not the most - telling aspect of how others in the company look at you and feel about you as a coworker stated by Mueller (2006). Your attitude therefore will definitely define you. Personality according to psychology is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. Experience and academic research has shown that an individual’s personality has a strong influence on how they work within an organization. One's image in the eyes of other people is important. If one is to represent a company and indeed one's self, an image of orderliness is vital, to win confidence.
  16. 16. According to Koontz (2007) many opportunities for development can be found on-the-job. Trainees can learn as they contribute to the aims of the enterprise. However, because this approach requires competent higher – level managers who can teach and coach trainees, there are limitations to do on-the-job training. Planned progression is a technique that gives managers a clear idea of their path of development. It may be perceived by trainees as a smooth path to the top, but it really is a step-by-step approach which requires that task to be done well at each level. Trainees learn about different enterprise functions by job rotations. They may rotate through: non-supervisory work, observation assignments (observing what managers do, rather than managing themselves) and therefore has positive aspects and should benefits the trainees. “Assistant - to” positions are frequently created to broaden the viewpoint of trainees by allowing them to work closely with experienced managers who can give special attention to the developmental needs of the trainees.
  17. 17. On-the-job training is a never-ending process. Patience and wisdom are required of superiors, who must be able to delegate authority and give recognition and praise for jobs well done. Effective coaches will develop the strength and potentials of subordinates and help them overcome their weaknesses. As mentioned by on-the-job training is one of the oldest and most used types of informal training. It is considered informal because it does not necessarily occur as part of a training program and because managers or peers can serve as trainers. He further stated that if on-the-job training is too informal, learning will not occur. On-the-job training has several advantages over other training methods. It can be customized to the experiences and abilities of trainees. Training is immediately applicable to the job because OJT occurs on the job using actual tools and equipment. As a result, trainees are highly motivated to learn. There are several disadvantages in the OJT approach. Managers and peers may not use the same process to complete the task. They may pass on bad habits as well as useful skills. Also, they may not understand that demonstration, practice and feedback are important conditions for effective on-the-job training.
  18. 18. Effective OJT program include: 1. A policy statement that describes the purpose of OJT and emphasizes the company’s support for it. 2. A clear specification of who is accountable for conducting OJT. 3. A thorough review of OJT practices at other companies in similar industries. 4. Training of managers and peers in the principles of structured OJT. 5. Availability of lesson plans, checklists, procedure manuals, learning contracts and progress report forms for use by employees who conduct OJT. 6. Evaluation of employees’ level of basic skills before OJT.
  19. 19. Principles of On-the-Job Training Preparing for Instruction 1. Break down the job into important steps. 2. Prepare the necessary equipment, materials and supplies. 3. Decide how much time you will devote to OJT and when you expect the employees to be competent in skill areas. Actual instruction 1. Tell the trainees the objective of the task and ask them to watch you demonstrate it. 2. Show the trainees how to do it without saying anything. 3. Explain the key points or behaviors. (Write out the key points for the trainees, if possible.) 4. How the trainees how to do it again. 5. Have the trainees do one more single parts of the task and praise them for correct reproduction (optional). 6. Have the trainees do the entire task and praise them for correct production. 7. If mistakes are made, have the trainees practice until accurate reproduction is achieved. 8. Praise the trainees for their success in learning the task.
  20. 20. Local Studies Cristobal (2008), conducted a study entitled “The On-the-Job Training Program” of Urdaneta City University. The research respondents were the students enrolled in the Bachelor of Science in Commerce, Major in Management, Management accounting, Banking in finance, Bachelor of Science in accountancy and computer secretarial and who are currently enrolled in their practicum course S.Y 2007-2008. The respondent’s overall perception toward relevance and suitability along OJT are: 1.) The student’s practices weighted mean of 2.94; 2.) The problems encountered by the students in the OJT program were slightly serious as shown by the weighted mean 2.14; 3.) The problem encountered by the supervisor in the OJT program was slightly serious as evidenced by weighted mean of 1.78; 4.) The problems encountered by the instructor in OJT program were slightly serious as shown by the weighted mean of 2.11.
  21. 21. According to Cristobal the OJT program is a good program for augmenting the knowledge skills and competencies of the task and activities included in the OJT are routine that do not really require the application of the higher knowledge, skills and competencies learned in the classroom. Initially the respondents are not familiar and have difficulties in using the modern devices and equipment used in their OJT. Mendoza as cited by Bahian (2008) asserted that the students level of achievement in significantly related to the on the job training what the students learn from the classroom is what the students apply during OJT. The school provided related instruction ad related skills; the role of industries is to sharpen the student’s competencies ad activities. Thus, cooperating industries should provided the student trainees the necessary reserves needed to improve their performance level of proficiency and specific skills and field of specialization.
  22. 22. Jaso (2007), proposed on the training for automotive technology at Sorsogon State College. In his study he include the problems not by students along the in the job training. It was disclosed that non-congruence between the acquired level of competence is an automotive technology of their in job work experience. The following are the problem encountered: 1.) Lack of congruency between competencies learned in automotive. 2.) Lack of coordination between ILDO and the partner industry. 3.) No work plan clearly presented to the OJT along training requirements, expected behavior and placement. 4.) Lack of supervision on the OJT’s work performance. 5.) Lack of identified local shops and industries where OJT’s area of competencies in the areas AT-51, AT-52 and AT-53 are needed. 6.) Work assignments of OJT’s include menial and unrelated jobs. 7.) Lack of options for OJT’s to choose their work assignments in the partner industry. 8.) Financial difficulties among OJT’s. 9.) Lack of administrative support to OJT’s.
  23. 23. Another problem is the absence of work plan where training requirements, expected behavior and replacement are identified the OJT’s trainees are not always supervised in their work performance. They also disclosed that local shops are not identified where they could apply their competencies in AT-51-52 and AT-53. Some of the on the job trainees are asked to do menial jobs unrelated to their training. They do not have options wherein to choose their work assignments. Most of the OJT trainees felt the lack of administrative support in the outside school training and many experienced financial problems. From the disclosed problems among on the job training could be deduced that the objective of this training program for students in automotive technology is defeated. It means that there is a need to look into these problems for the benefit of these students. The revealed problems imply that the success of the on the job training programs depends on the collaborative efforts of the college and the partner industry where students are assigned. The solutions to these problems rest on the persons concerned for the welfare of the students.
  24. 24. Mamadra (2005), also conducted a study to find out the impact of the on-the-job training programs on the skills and values development of students in the four areas of specialization such as automotive, electronics technology, computer technology and electrical technology as well as the students’ values development in terms of work attitude, self-reliance, self-discipline, resourcefulness, honesty and patience among selected vocational-technical tertiary institutions in Mindanao. In her study it was found out that the impact of the on-the-job training program on skills and values development of the students depend on the approaches of the skilled mentors to supplement the student – trainees’ competence in the classroom as well as the concepts that both the school and the industries work together in the training of technological students as future industrial workers.
  25. 25. The study of Decena (2005), entitled “On the job training program of the two year trade Technological University in Iba , Zambales give emphasis to some items in the assessment instruments where the response of cooperating trainees ad student trainees are not different such as: a. For objectives (to enable the students to work a sophisticated equipment ad to prepare students for social ad personal). b. For the assessment instrument on linkage (Inform the head of educational institution of developments in the establishments whether positive or negative). c. For the assessment instruments on industrial policies (Help student trainees for advancement opportunities in the cooperating establishments); and (Observe general rules and regulations of the company such as filing of leave, working hours, use of uniform, good grooming, safety housekeeping). d. On monitoring of trainees (OJT coordinators meet with industrial trainer and student trainees during work site visitation); (Keeps records of all activities related to industrial training); and (Participates in the evaluation of student trainees). e. On problems encountered (tools are just enough for regular workers). f. On remedies of problems (Requested some regular workers to bring extra hand tools)
  26. 26. Foreign Studies Sony and Kim (2005) conducted study entitled “Changes in attitude toward work and workers identity in Korea”. They summarize the conceptualization of work ethic to the fact that the concept of work ethic has multiple meanings and implication, pertaining to a variety of aspects related to work, including work commitment, work value, attitude toward work, occupational value, organizational commitment, perception of career development, ad work achievement.
  27. 27. In the statistical analysis in the study of Sirota et. al (2005) showed that a level of achievement has six primary sources: 1.) Challenge of the work itself - The extent to which the job uses an employee’s intelligence, abilities and skills. 2.) Acquiring of new skills; 3.)Ability to perform – having the training, direction, resources authority, information and cooperation needed to perform well. 4.) Perceived importance of the employees’ job – the importance to the organization, to the customer and to the society; 5.) Recognition received from performance – non- financial (such as a simple “thank you” from the boss or a customer) and financial (compensation and advancement that are based on performance.); and 6.) Working for a company of which the employee can be proud – because of its purpose, its products (their quality and their impact on customers and society), its business success, its business ethics (treatment of customers, employees, investors, and community), and the quality of its leadership. The quality of interaction in organization is obviously greatly affected not just by friendliness and mutuality of interest, but also by co – workers’ competence and cooperation.
  28. 28. Chapter III Research Methodology This chapter presents the methodology and techniques used in this study. It includes research design, statistical treatment of data, respondents of the study, and tools of data analysis.
  29. 29. The researchers utilized a descriptive method of research in conducting the study. This methods is intended to find existing facts that shall serve as an information process in the study. According to Calmorin (2007) descriptive research are valuable in providing facts on which scientific judgment maybe based; providing practices, behavior, methods and procedures; playing a large part in the development of instruments for the measurement of many things; and formulating policies in the local, national or international level. This study is designed to assess the factors affecting the on – the - job training of the BSBA Practicumers of the University of Manila. Research Design
  30. 30. Statistical Treatment of Data Percentage. Frequency and percentage distribution of the profile of the respondents and the factors affecting the on – the –job training is shown in the formula below: % = f/N x 100 where % = percent f = frequency N = Number of cases Average Weighted Mean. The mean is the most frequent used in measure of central tendency because it is subject to less error. The tabulated data will be treated with the use of frequency distribution, percentage and weighted mean and it is computed below: X = ∑fx . ∑ f where X = weighted mean ∑ fx = sum of all the products ∑ f = sum of all the respondents
  31. 31. Likert Scale. The following qualitative description was adapted to quantify the responses of the respondents in every item. Scale Descriptive Rating 4 very high extent 3 high extent 2 low extent 1 very low extent Chi – Square. This statistical tool was utilized to determine the significant difference in the assessment of the respondents with regards to the factors affecting on – the – job training. The Chi – square was used to test the significant difference of two or more variables with data that can be readily transformed its frequencies (Calmorin, 2003). The formula for Chi – square ( X2 ) is shown below: X2 = ∑(O – E )2 E Where X2 = chi – square O = Observed frequency E = Expected frequency
  32. 32. Respondents of the Study This study was confined to the students under the College of Business Administration major in Operations Management, Marketing Management and Financial Management who currently enrolled in their practicum course for academic year 2010 – 2011. Sampling Plan. The researchers utilized stratified random sampling. In this design the sample was obtained by separating the population units into none over – lapping groups determined by certain characteristics. Then samples were selected within each group by simple random sampling.
  33. 33. Tools of Data Analysis The major instrument used to gather data was the survey - questionnaire, unstructured interview, observation and documentary materials were also utilized to supplement information. The survey – questionnaire was designed to seek information in order to assess the factors affecting on – the – job training of the students. The researchers also employed unstructured interviews to gather first – hand data and information that would be relevant in the study. There was no outline to follow nor fixed questions asked. Selected respondents were interviewed in casual conversation and their answers were delivered directly in the form of comments, opinions and suggestions based on their observations and experiences. This study makes use of documentary material to provide supplemental facts such as evaluation form and journals. Lastly, the researchers further make observations; it is one of the earliest methods for acquiring knowledge. In this method the researchers watches closely the next behavior of the subjects under investigations in various natural setting.
  34. 34. Survey Questionnaire Form
  35. 35. Q U E S T I O N N A I R E DIRECTIONS: PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWER OR PUT A CHECK ON THE SPACE PROVIDED IN EACH ITEM. Name: _____________________ Gender: ( ) Male ( ) Female Civil Status: ( ) Single Age: ( ) 19 and below Course Major: ( ) Operations Mgt. Venue of OJT: ( ) Married ( ) 20 - 24 ( ) Marketing Mgt. ( ) private owned ( ) separated ( ) 25 - 29 ( ) Financial Mgt. ( ) government owned ( ) Widowed ( ) 30 and above Read the following and use it to provide feedback about the on-the-job training you have received. Fill in the space provided with a check ( / ) that you feel most accurately describes your reaction to the statement. Please be honest. Use the following descriptive scale: 4 – very high extent 3 – high extent 2 – low extent 4 – very low extent         6. Always taking initiative.         5. Work harmoniously with the officemates.         4. Deal with supervisor and others with courtesy.         3. Open to constructive criticism.         2. Patience and diligence in performing assigned task.         1. Interest and enthusiasm in performing the task assigned         A. Work attitude 1 2 3 4 Extent of Factors that affect the on-the-job training
  36. 36.         6. Being resourceful         5. Cooperate with all other members of the organization.         5. Showing strength and stability         3. Usually came up with sound suggestions.         2. Perform the tasks even the supervisor is not around.         1. Readily understands instructions         C. Competence         5. Performed assigned task within the assigned time.         4. Always see to it that the works and reports are neat, presentable and correct.         3. Utilize office hours to do school assignments, reports, projects etc.         2. Observe proper break time period.         1. Always came to office on time,         B. Work Habit
  37. 37.         4. There is OJT coordinators to serve the link between the school and the cooperating firm.         3. There is an orientation of the practicumers to the cooperating firm.         2. The ojt program of the school is open to the industry or company.         1. There is direct linkage of the school and the office or industries where you conduct practicum.         E. Linkage         4. Have the knowledge of the job assigned t         4. Showing self-confidence         3 .Posse’s emotional maturity always         2. Report to office properly attired.         1 .Report to office neatly and well-groomed.         D. Personality and Appearance
  38. 38.         4. T hey offer part time job to deserving practicumers.         3. They pay extra service rendered by the practicumers.         2. The firm provides free snack and meal.         1. The firm provides allowance.         G. Benefits and Incentives         9. The practicumer is free to ask questions to my trainer whenever it is necessary.         8. The trainer sets a positive example to follow.         7. The trainer has a good working relationship with the practicumer.         6. Required to render over time at the expense of the academic.         5. The firm environment is exclusive for learning.         4. Task that is not related to the course should not be given.         3. Support should be given by the immediate boss.         2. The training method is efficient..         1. The facilities and equipment used in the place of OJT are modernized.         F. Cooperating Firm
  39. 39.         5. There is a risk of accident in the place.         4. Inadequate knowledge regarding the task assigned to me.         3. The distance of the cooperating firm is too far from school or my home.         2. Time conflicts between classes and on the job training schedule.         1. Lack of self – confidence.         I. Problems Encountered         2. The practicumer should be aware of the different aspects to be evaluated by the immediate boss.         1. The system of grading used for the OJT.         H. Evaluation System
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