History of Misamis OrientalThe name Misamis is said to have been derived from theSubano word kuyamis, a local variety of sweet coconut and aNegrito staple. It is also said to have been derived from theSpanish word misa meaning “mass.” Native converts usedto shout Misa! Misa! upon the arrival of a priest.The earliest known settlers of the territory wereNegritoes. Centuries later, Malay colonists fought the nativesfor control of the rich Cagayan River coastal plains. Thestruggle for possession was finally won by the native Visayansover the Bukidnons.
Spanish missionaries first landed near Cagayan de Oro in1622 and a triangular fort called San Jose was built on thebeach. The coastal settlements they founded sufferedfrequent Moro raids.Misamis used to be a part of the province of Cebu.In 1818, it became a corregimiento comprising four partidos ordivisions: Misamis, Cagayan, Dapitan and Catarman.During the later part of the 19th century, Misamis was one ofthe six districts of Mindanao and later, one of the sevendistricts of Mindanao and Sulu at the close of the Spanish erawith Cagayan de Misamis (now Cagayan de Oro City) ascapital.
During the Philippine-American War, Filipino forces led byNicolas Capistrano, Clemente Chacon and Apolinar Pelayoclashed with American forces in Cagayan de Oro.On June 4, 1900, outnumbered and ill-equipped Filipinoforces under Maj. Apolinar Velez scored a major victory overvastly superior American forces at Macahambus Cave.During World War II, Gen. Douglas MacArthur and his partyfrom Corregidor landed in Macabalan Port on his way toAustralia.On May 3, 1942, Japanese forces landed in Cagayan deOro. The city was liberated by the U.S. 40th Infantry Divisionon May 10, 1945.
Legislative Act No. 3537, approved November2, 1929, divided the province of Misamis into two provincesdue to lack of geographical contiguity. However, it was notuntil 10 years later that the division was implemented by anamendment Act No. 3777, adopted on November 28, 1939.
Misamis OrientalMisamis Oriental is one of the five provinces of NorthernMindanao, Philippines. Its strategic location, numerousfactories and large international seaports make it theregional business center.Capital: Cagayan de Oro, a charted city, i.e., having anadministration separate from that of Misamis Oriental, buthas a wide economic influence on the province and the rest ofthe region.Land area: 316,730 hectares.
Location: Between eight degrees, twenty eightminutes, thirty eight seconds, five hundred sixteen latitude(8º28’38”516 Lat.) and one hundred forty two degrees, thirtyeight minutes, thirty five seconds, two hundred thirty fivelongitude (142º38’35”235 Long.). Bounded on the north byMacajalar Bay, on the west by Iligan Bay, on the east byAgusan del Norte and Gingoog Bay, and on the south andsouthwest by the provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao delNorte.Political division: Has three cities-- Cagayan de Oro, Gingoogand El Salvador -- and 23 municipalities.
Geography of Misamis OrientalLand area: Misamis Oriental occupies 3,570.01 squarekilometers. Claveria, the only landlocked municipality, is thelargest (894.90 square kilometers); Binuangan the smallest(30 square kilometers).Topography. Generally rugged, with 70 percent mountainsand hills. The rest are coastal plains and valleys traversed bybrooks and rivers that provide adequate underground water.On the eastern portion of the province are two inactivevolcanoes -- Mt. Balatucan, which at 2,560 meters, is thehighest peak; and Mt. Lumot.
Soil: Dominantly clay, alluvium, shale, sandstone, corallineand limestone.Climate: Relatively stable, since the province is outside thetyphoon belt and earthquake faults. January is coldest;August, hottest. Dry season is November to April; wet seasonis May to October. Average temperature is 27 Celsius.Land use: Forest land occupies 47 percent of landarea, alienable and disposable lands 53 percent. In 1996, theDepartment of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR-10) reported forest land occupied only 62.43 squarekilometers.
Provincial Land Use HectaresAlienable and Disposable (Production) 173,944.80Forest Land (Production and Protected) 168,846.70Built-up or Protected 10,786.50Industrial 3,432.00 Source: PPDO, 1995 Provincial Profile
People of Misamis OrientalPopulation in 2000: 1.126million, the largest among the fiveprovinces in Northern Mindanao.Languages: Local dialect isCebuano but majority can speakand understand Tagalog andEnglish. Most Chinesedescendants speak Fookien. Thereare Korean and Japanesemigrants, very few German. Otherdialects are Maranaw, Higaunon(the language of the originalsettlers), Ilongo, and Waray.
Religion: Almost 80 percent of the population are RomanCatholics. The rest are either liberal or conservativeProtestants, such as Baptists, Seventh Day Adventists, TheChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Iglesia NiKristo, and Philippine Independent Church. There is a smallbut growing population of Muslims. Fewer are Buddhists andHindus.Average annual family income and expenditure in2003: Php 89,640.00 and PhP 70,989.00, respectively.
Labor force: Misamis Oriental is the educational center ofNorthern Mindanao, with major schools concentrated inCagayan de Oro. Young, highly skilled workforce is available.A survey by the National Statistics Office in January 2008gives the following data:Labor force: 2,615,000Employed: 2,476,000Unemployed: 139,000Employment rate: 94.7 percentUnemployment rate: 5.3 percentIn Cagayan De OroPopulation in 2000: 461,660 (41 percent of the population ofMisamis Oriental)Average annual family income and expenditure in 2003: Php176,552.00 and Php 132,237.00, respectively.
Resources in Misamis OrientalCrops, Livestock andPoultryCoconut vendor inOpol, Misamis Oriental.The province is one ofthe countrys majorproducers of coconut.
Crops: Misamis Oriental is self-sufficient in some crops.Forty-three percent of the land is cultivated with cereals, fruittrees, vegetables, root crops, and industrial, non-food plants.The top five agricultural products arecoconut, banana, corn, rice, papaya and cassava.The province is one of the countrys major producers ofcoconut. This explains the presence of coco-based factoriessuch as Pilipinas Kao, Inc., Fiesta Brands, IndoPhil OilMills, Limketkai and Sons Milling Corporation, and PacificActivated Carbon Company.
Livestock and poultry: Hog population remains highestamong livestock. Poultry production is increasing because ofthe entry of leading multi-national food processors -- like SanMiguel Corporation, Swifts Corporation and Purefoods -- thatpromote contract-growing schemes.To support its expansion, Swifts Corporation has constructedthe biggest dressing facility in Mindanao at the PHIVIDECIndustrial Estate.
Economic Profile, Products and Industries in Misamis OrientalWith modern infrastructure facilities, Misamis Oriental hasbecome a preferredlocation for investments in the region. Itis home to the 3,000 hectare PHIVIDEC Industrial Estate inTagoloan town which host a modern container terminal. Thisis in addition to the busy port of Cagayan De Oro. Soon theprovince will have an international airport once the one beingconstructed in Laguindingan town is finished.
Agricultural production of Misamis Oriental in 2007 are asfollows (figure in thousand metric tons, rank among 79provinces) Product Metric Ton Rank Palay 25.8 70 Corn 84 20 Banana 140 12 Mango 11.4 25 Coconut 494 9 Fish 19 42
Animal inventory of Misamis Oriental in 2007 are as follows(figure in thousand, rank among 79 provinces) Chicken 2,791 15 Hog 197 21 Cattle 22.8 38 Source: NSCB
History of Cagayan De OroAccording to Dr. Lawrence Reid, a linguist at the University ofHawaii, the name "Cagayan" is derived from a lost, ancientsound that evolved into "kagayan", "karayan", "kalayan", andothers. These derivatives all mean "river".There are three places in the Philippines namedCagayan, namely: Cagayan Province in NorthernLuzon, Cagayan Islands in the Sulu Sea and Cagayan de OroCity (formerly Cagayan de Misamis) located in NorthernMindanao.People usually confuse Cagayan de Oro with CagayanProvince or vice versa, hence it is important to emphasize "deOro" and "city" to distinguish Cagayan de Oro from otherCagayan places.
In 1622, when the first Spanish Missionaries arrived, thepeople of Cagayan had tributary relation to Kudarat, theMuslim Sultan of Maguindanao Empire. Yet the people hadnot fully embraced Islam. With the encouragement of FriarAgustin, the local natives finally settled down in the areawhat is now Saint Augustine Cathedral and Gaston Park.On February 27, 1872, the Spanish Governor General issued adecree declaring Cagayan the permanent capital of SegundoDistrito de Misamis. All Spanish politico-military Governors ofMisamis Province, who were all Lieutenant Colonels, lived atthe Casa Real de Cagayan (now the City Hall). During thisera, the town was known as Cagayan de Misamis.
After the 1898 Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines tothe United States. In 1899, conflict between the FilipinoGovernment led by General Emilio Aguinaldo and theAmerican colonizers erupted with the Philippine-AmericanWar (Philippine Insurrection).On March 31, 1900, the Americans invaded Cagayan deMisamis. Resistance fighters had already organized beforethe attack, but only retaliated only on April 7, 1900, led byGeneral Nicolas Capistrano. The fighting erupted in the towncenter. This was followed by the Battle of Agusan Hill, led byCaptain Vicente Roa, who was killed with his men.
After years of resistance, the Americans finally colonized thetown. Decades of peace and progress ensued. This howeverwas broken when World War II erupted. In 1942, the Japanesedetachment from Iloilo sailed to Cagayan and burned most ofthe town leaving few important buildings. In 1945, Cagayanwas liberated by the Americans but suffered heavybombardment.After the war, the town started rebuilding. Through theefforts of Congressman Emmanuel Pelaez,the town ofCagayan de Misamis became a city on June 15. 1950. Thetown name was changed to Cagayan de Oro.Congressman Pelaez appended "de oro" to Cagayan inrecognition of gold mining activities in the hinterlandbarrios known to Spanish explorers.
Cagayan De OroTopography: Mainly flat coastal plain along Macajalar Bay.Highland areas are separated by steeply inclined slopes.Lowland is dominantly flat; elevation is not more than 10meters above sea level. The highlands, consisting ofplateaus, terraces, hills, mountains, canyons and gorgesbound the city in the south from east to west.Soil: Clay is abundant especially in Bulua, where a potteryindustry is flourishing. Sand, loam to clay loam are alsopresent.
Climate: In Cagayan de Oro, rains are evenly distributedthrough out the year. There is more rain from June to October(wet season) and less from November to May (dry season).Land area: 412.80 square kilometersPopulation: 553,966Cagayan de Oro Local CultureCagayan de Oro is a small developing city. It still has aprovincial atmosphere where most people are laidback, casual and a bit conservative.Religion affects all aspects of Filipino life.Festivities, gatherings and beliefs are centered on it. This isone reason why Filipinos (especially in rural areas) aresuperstitious.
Most Kagayanons are from the conservative Roman Catholicfaith. There is a growing number of Protestants and Muslimscoming mostly from Lanao migrating to the city. Unknown tomany, there is a Buddhist community thriving in the city butis quite reclusive.The city has a young population with a median age of 22years old. One would not be surprised to see many childrenand teenagers around, most of which are influenced byAmerican or Western culture. The mixture of Asian andWestern influence has created a unique culture amongKagayanons and Filipinos in general.
Kagayanons dress casually in almost all occasions. Howeverin formal affairs such as weddings (if you are part of theentourage), executive meetings, inductions or highgovernment affairs, a "Barong Tagalog" is appropriate. Youcan also use a Polo Barong which is basically a morecasual, less expensive than the Jusi and Piña type Barong. Youcan buy ready-to-wear Barong at most shopping centers.Unless you are an actress with bodyguards, women shouldnot wear clothing that reveals too much skin or cleavage. Thisis to avoid unnecessary attention and sexual advancementfrom local men. Also dress appropriately in Churches andMuslim areas of the city.
Filipino Wedding. For foreigners who want to marry in thePhilippines, make sure the bride or groom is at least 18 yearsof age. Philippine laws prohibit marriage below the legalage, with or without parental consent.Depending on the region, there are different marriagetraditions in the Philippines. Among Cebuanos andKagayanons, the groom with his family goes to the brideshouse and asks the brides parents for their daughters handin marriage. Usually the groom brings something like food forthe brides parents. After the announcement, parents of bothsides will discuss plans for the wedding.Unlike western traditions, in the Philippines it is the groomthat spends for the entire wedding. However, due to difficulttimes both bride and groom share wedding expenses. APhilippine wedding has a coin bearer. The groom is supposedto give 13 gold or silver coins (currently people use gold orsilver plated coins) to the bride.
These coins are called Wedding Coins or Arras. Thissymbolizes the grooms commitment to the welfare of hiswife and children. There are no divorce laws in thePhilippines. Annulment is an alternative process but is longand meticulous.Local Language in Cagayan De OroThe Filipino greeting "Mabuhay" which means "To Live" or"Long Live..." is rarely used. This greeting is commonly usedfor tourism purposes, formal letters, political rallies or tomotivate people in a formal or government affair.The Cebuano language is influenced by Spanish. Cebuanodates, time and some numbers are in Spanish. Example: Time- 2 oclock (Alas Dos), Date - May, Monday(Mayo, Lunez), Numbers - Ten (Diez).
Cagayan De Oro Sights and Events City Events Agro-Trade Fair The trade fair showcases the different indigenous and home-made products from various parts of Northern Mindanao including Cagayan de Oro City and Misamis Oriental province. Products include woven bags, goats milk, soap, local wine, processed food and others. It is one of the core activities of the Kagayan Festival.
Kagay-an Festival in CDOThe festivity usually startsin mid August and ends onAugust 28, the feast day ofSaint Augustine, the citysPatron Saint. Highlights ofthe Kagayan Festival arethe Agro-Trade Fair, MissKagayan, Higaonon Streetdancing, Golden FloatParade and theLambaguhan fluvial parade.There are also culturalshows, competitions andconcerts.
Golden Float Parade in CDOStarted in 2007, it includesmarching bands fromdifferent city schools. It isalso participated by localgovernment departmentsand commercialestablishments. It is one ofthe core events in theKagayan Festival.
Attractions in CDOMisamis Oriental HeritageMonumentA monument honoring therich cultural heritage ofMisamis OrientalProvince. Located withinthe Vicente de LaraPark, the sculptures aredesigned and created byFilipino artist EduardoCastrillo, who is alsoresponsible for the PressFreedom Monument.
Vicente de Lara Park in CDO Formerly named MacArthur Park in honor of General Douglas MacArthur who landed in Cagayan after escaping from Corregidor enroute to Australia. The park is located in front of the Provincial Capitol Building and is now named after a Provincial Governor, Vicente de Lara. Recently renovated, it has become a favorite place for people to jog and have an evening stroll, Its obelisk monument honors the Filipino soldiers who died in Philippine wars and conflict.
White-Water Rafting in CDO Cagayan de Oro is now known as the "Whitewater Rafting Capital of the Philippines". It is the only whitewater rafting destination in the country that has a whole year round of maneuverable rafting courses and is located within the city limit. Last 2003, President Macapagal-Arroyo went whitewater rafting in Cagayan de Oro River to promote tourism in the Philippines. Since then several national competitions have been held.
Historical Sites in CDO Bonifacio Park, Plaza DivisoriaThe monument is bothdedicated to AndresBonifacio, leader of thePhilippine-Spanishrevolution and the localtown heroes. Beneath themonument are the remainsof local soldiers includingthat of Captain Vicente Roa,who died in the battle ofAgusan hill during thePhilippine-American War.
City Museum in CDOManaged by the CityGovernment, the museumis located in a renovatedwater tower built in 1922. Itis located adjacent to theArchbishops Palace in frontof Gaston Park.
Rizal Park, Plaza Divisoria in CDODedicated on June 19, 1917in perpetual memory of thecountrys national hero, Dr.Jose Rizal who wasexecuted on December30, 1896 by the Spanishauthorities. Its marblemarker is inscribed inSpanish. The monumenthas survived the ravages oftime including World War II.