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Acute abdomen

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นพ.ประสิทธิ์ วุฒิเมธาวี

นพ.ประสิทธิ์ วุฒิเมธาวี

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Acute abdomen Acute abdomen Presentation Transcript

  • Acute abdomen for EP Prasit Wuthisuthimethawee Department of Emergency Medicine Prince of Songkla University
  • Male 34 years old No underlying dis. Check up at GP During took blood examination  abd pain & syncope
  • Objectives Abdominal pain pathway Critical points for assessing abdominal pain
  • Epidemiology 4-10 % of all emergency department visit 50 % have clearly diagnosis 15-30% require surgical procedure esp. elderly Acute appendicitis is the most common
  • Epidemiology Unique in Pediatric and Elderly
  • Acute abdominal pain among elderly patients 3 years, 831 cases Non-specific 22-24% Misdiagnosis (52% VS 45%), high mortality (2.8% VS 0.1%) less peritoneal signs Laurell H, Hansson LE, Gunnarsson U. Gerontology. 2006;52(6): 339-44
  • Emergency department diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in elderly patients 1 year retrospective review, 378 cases Non-specific (35.2%), acute gastritis/gastroenteritis (10.6%), and biliary tract dis. (8.2%) Non-specific; 90% dissolved, 5.4% Sx. Othong R, Wuthisuthimethawee P, Vasinanukorn P Songkla Med J vol. 28 No 1 Jan-Feb 2010
  • Predictor for an intensive care or specific treatment in the elderly patients with acute abdominal pain 1 year retrospective review, 386 cases Dyspepsia (21.8%), non-specific (17.6%) and acute gastroenteritis (8.8%) Male, BT < 38, PR >90, abnormal abd contour, and Localize tenderness or guarding Worapraatya P, Wuthisuthimethawee P, Vasinanukorn P
  • Pain pathway
  • Abdominal pain pathway 3 type; visceral, somatic, and referred pain
  • Abdominal pain pathway Visceral pain Wall or capsule of solid organs/bowel Midline, dull, archy and cramping pain Autonomic; pallor, diaphoresis, nausea, and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain pathway Somatic pain Parietal peritoneum Sharp, discrete, and localized Tenderness, guarding, and rebound
  • Abdominal pain pathway Somatic pain
  • Abdominal pain pathway Referred pain Cutaneous site distant from the diseased organ Diaphragm  C3-5: neck and shoulder pain
  • Abdominal pain pathway Referred pain
  • Critical points for assessing abdominal pain
  • Life threatening conditions Vascular disease Acute myocardial infarction Ruptured ectopic pregnancy Perforated visceral organs
  • Life threatening conditions Intestinal obstruction Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis Esophageal rupture
  • Aim Surgical or Non-surgical
  • Physical examination Accuracy 55-65% with final diagnosis Reexamination and observation Technique !
  • Physical examination Bowel sound Little diagnostic value
  • Physical examination Do not forget PR
  • Physical examination Analgesic ?
  • Analgesia on abdominal examination Effect on diagnostic efficiency of analgesia for undifferentiated abdominal pain Analgesia is safe in abdominal pain Br J Surg. 2003 Jan;90(1):5-9
  • Analgesia on abdominal examination Effects of morphine analgesia on diagnostic accuracy in Emergency Department patients with abdominal pain: a prospective, randomized trial Prospective, double-blind clinical trial Reexam in 60 minutes No differences with respect to changes in physical examination or diagnostic accuracy J Am Coll Surg. 2003 Jan;196(1):18-31
  • Analgesia on abdominal examination Analgesia in patients with acute abdominal pain Opioid improve patients comfort and does not retard decision to treat Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3): CD005660
  • Analgesia on abdominal examination Efficacy and impact of intravenous morphine before surgical consultation in children with right lower quadrant pain suggestive of appendicitis: a randomized controlled trial Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial 8-18 years old, 90 patients Morphine did not delay surgical decision, not more effective than placebo to diminishing pain Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Oct;50(4):371-8. Epub 2007 Jun 27
  • Medication on abdominal examination Buscopan ?
  • Clinical assessment Reassessment
  • Clinical assessment Patient’s quantification of pain is unreliable
  • Clinical assessment Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants
  • Clinical assessment Chronic dis.: CRF
  • Clinical assessment Fever ?
  • Clinical assessment Prior abdominal surgery
  • Clinical assessment Hernia Genitalia
  • Clinical assessment Peripheral pulse
  • Clinical assessment Menstrual history Urine pregnancy test
  • Clinical assessment WBC 30% in abdominal pain of unknown etiology
  • Clinical assessment 20% of pancreatitis have normal amylase
  • Clinical assessment 20% of pancreatitis have normal amylase
  • Clinical assessment Lactase and mesenteric ischemia 100% sensitive and 42% specific
  • Clinical assessment Film acute abdomen 10-38% confirm diagnosis
  • Gallstone Ileus
  • Portal vein gas
  • Clinical assessment USG and CT scan Angiogram Tech99m RBC scan
  • Clinical assessment Myocardial infarction, pneumonia, or pulmonary embolus can present as abdominal pain
  • Clinical assessment Psychiatric disorder The last diagnosis
  • Mamagement Bowel rest +/- decompression IV resuscitation with correct electrolyte Antiemesis ? Analgesia ? Antibiotic ? Pre-op in surgical case
  • Uncertain Diagnosis Observation Review the cause Consultation
  • Uncertain Diagnosis When in doubt, don’t send them out! Cope’s Early Diagnosis of the Acute Abdomen, 20th ed.. New York, Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Case 1 Male 34 years old No underlying dis. Check up at GP During took blood examination  abd pain & syncope
  • Case 1 At ER Sweating, looked pale V/S BP 95/60 P 112 RR 26 Abd: tenderness at RLQ, guarding ?
  • What is diagnosis ?
  • Case 2 Female 53 years old Underlying HT LLQ abdominal pain for 1 day V/S BP 140/80 P 90 RR 24
  • Case 2 Abd: LLQ pain, guarding ? CVA: tenderness Lt. UA: microscopic hematuria Diclofenac  improved Recurrent 2 times in 3 days
  • What is diagnosis ?
  • Hematuria may be seen in abdominal aortic aneurysm (30%)
  • Case 3 Female 47 years old No known underlying dis. RLQ abdominal pain for 1 day V/S BP 130/80 P 82 RR 22
  • Case 3 Abd: RLQ pain, guarding ?, CVA: not tender CBC: leukocytosis UA: WNL
  • What is diagnosis ?
  • ?
  • Clinical assessment
  • ขอบคุณครับ
  • Special sign Iliopsoas and Obturator < 10% in appendicitis
  • Special sign Fist Percussion
  • Special sign Rovsing’s Sign Only 5% of patients
  • High-Yield historical questions How old are you ? Which came first-pain or vomiting ? How long have you had the pain ? Have you ever had abdominal surgery ?
  • High-Yield historical questions Is the pain constant or intermittent ? Have you ever had this before ? Do you have a history of cancer diverticulosis ? Do you have HIV ?
  • High-Yield historical questions How much alcohol do you drink per day ? Are you pregnant ? Are you taking antibiotic or steroid ? Did the pain start centrally and migrate ? Do you have a history of CAD, HT, AF ?
  • Etiology and clinical course of abdominal pain In senior patients; a prospective, multicenter study 3 years, 831 cases Non-specific 22-24% Misdiagnosis (52% VS 45%), high mortality (2.8% VS 0.1%) less peritoneal signs Lewis LM, Banet GA, Blenda M, et al. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005