Autism Defined, Autism Prevalence and Primary Characteristics
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  • 1. The Basics of AutismSpectrum Disorders Training Series Regional Autism Advisory Council of Southwest Ohio (RAAC-SWO) Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders Task Force
  • 2. Adult Training Series Modules Module One: Autism Defined, Autism Prevalence and Primary Characteristics Module Two: Physical Characteristics of Autism Module Three: Cognition and Learning in Autism Module Four: Autism and Sensory Differences Module Five: Communication and Autism
  • 3. Adult Training Series Modules Module Six: Behavior Challenges and Autism Module Seven: Understanding Behavior in Persons with Autism Module Eight: Functional Behavior Assessment Module Nine: Autism and Leisure Skills to Teach Module Ten: Special Issues of Adolescence and Adulthood Module Eleven: Safety and Autism
  • 4. Autism Spectrum Disorder Defined An Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a brain-based or neurobiological disorder of development. ASD causes differences in the way the brain processes ASD affects understanding and use of language to interact and communicate with people.
  • 5. Big IdeaASD is a brain-based disorderthat results in differences in theway individuals understand andinteract with their world.
  • 6. Effects of ASD on IndividualsASD affects:• the way a person relates to people, events, and objects in the environment.• the way a person responds to sensory stimuli such as pain, hearing, taste, smell, etc.• the way a person learns and thinks.
  • 7. Different Types of ASD
  • 8. Autistic DisorderBiggest Challenges: • Difficulties with social interaction. • Difficulties with communication. • Restricted interests and activities that they like to do over and over again. • Repetitive behaviors, such as rocking or arm flapping.
  • 9. Autistic Disorder ContinuedOther Characteristics: • Usually behaviors can be seen by three years of age. • Some children develop regularly the first years, then begin to lose their learned skills.
  • 10. Asperger SyndromeBiggest Challenges: • Difficulty with social interactions. • Individuals appear to understand directions even when they don’t. For example, we may think they are being uncooperative. • Individuals like to talk a lot about things that really interest them.
  • 11. Asperger Syndrome ContinuedOther Characteristics: Intelligence ranges from average to well above average, so they may appear really smart, but cannot do everyday things independently.
  • 12. PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified) Diagnosis often made when a person does not meet the criteria for a specific diagnosis (i.e. Autism, Asperger).• There is generally an overall impairment in communication, social interactions, and individuals may have restricted interests.
  • 13. Who Gets ASD? All races, nationalities and socioeconomic groups Boys are more likely to be diagnosed with ASD More common within families
  • 14. Prevalence of ASDLeukemia 1 in 25,000Muscular Dystrophy 1 in 20,000Pediatric Aids 1 in 8,000Childhood Cancer 1 in 7,000Polio (1952 peak rate) 1 in 4,000Hearing Impairment 1 in 900Visual Impairment 1 in 800Down Syndrome 1 in 800Juvenile Diabetes 1 in 500Cerebral Palsy 1 in 400Autism (per Centers for Disease Control (CDC) March 1 in 1102011)
  • 15. Why are more people diagnosed today?  Better rules for diagnosis  Asperger Syndrome added to ASD in 1994  Increased awareness of ASD  People believe there are more services for an individual if the person has a diagnosis of ASD.  Wrong diagnosis
  • 16. There are no two persons with autism exactly alike “If you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met one person with autism.” Stephen Shore, Adult with Autism
  • 17. Quick Facts about Autism Autism is the most common developmental disability, affecting 1 in 110 births … most recent March 2011 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) study. A decade ago the rate was thought to be 4-5 in 10,000. 4 children with autism are born in the USA every hour … 35,000 per year. Autism is 4 times more common in boys than in girls. Autism is often under-diagnosed in children – typically diagnosed by age 3-7.
  • 18. Autism Facts Continued Autism is the fastest growing serious developmental disability in the US, growing 10-17% per year. Cost of autism is estimated at $35-$90 billion – 90% of that is spent on adult services. Recent estimate (by Harvard) is that cost is $3.2M/person over their lifetime. The costs are expected to more than double in the next decade. For more information, see: or “The greatest underserved disability group”