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Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1
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Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1

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  • 1. Researching Emerging Technologies
    Photonic Computing: Light Speed Data
     
    Stuart Wiltshire, SKE cohort, Keele University, Staffordshire, England
  • 2. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Photonic computing can be split
    Into three distinct categories…
  • 3. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    1…Development of a photonic transistor
    Invented by John N. Hait 1989 U.S. patent 5093802
    Operating speed of 833,333.3 GHz
    Photonic computing can be split into three distinct categories…
  • 4. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    2…Optical computing and quantum
    computing
    Quantum computer comprising of purely
    photonic components
    Driven by single-photon lasers
    and photodetectors
    Photonic computing can be split into three distinct categories…
  • 5. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    3…Silicon Photonics
    “build in silicon all the functions necessary for optical
    Transmission and reception of data”
    Paniccia, et al. 2004
    Photonic computing can be split into three distinct categories…
  • 6. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Of the three technologies, only Silicon
    Photonics currently offers tangible devices
    that we can analyse and discuss…
    …let us look at this in more detail
    Silicon Photonics
  • 7. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Silicon Photonics
    Why Photonics?
    Copper wiring and traces around motherboard reaching
    Physical limits
    Bandwidth of 10 Gbps becoming very difficult
    Unable to maintain speed over distance
    Answer: Transmit data over fiber optic cable
    Data transmit speed not compromised by distance
    Multiplexed capabilities over single fiber
    Fibers are thin, light and flexible
    However, current optical signaling equipment expensive
    Silicon Photonics
  • 8. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Silicon Photonics will deliver on a silicon platform
    all the components necessary to facilitate the
    transmission and reception of data.
    Why?
    Because, standard CMOS silicon-based fabrication techniques
    can produce high-volume, low-cost silicon components
    CMOS fabrication can integrate components
    at the manufacturing stage, removing need for manual or
    automated, expensive assembly of devices
    Silicon Photonics
  • 9. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    What’s required to achieve silicon photonic
    communication?
     
     
     
     
     
    1…Transmit
    2…Encode
    3…Receive /
    Decode
    Hybrid Silicon Laser
    (September 2006)
    Silicon Modulator
    (40Gbps July 2007)
    Photodetector
    (40Gbps August 2007)
    …lets look more closely at each component
    Silicon Photonics
  • 10. Indium Phosphide
    Holes
    (+ve)
    Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Silicon
    Waveguide conduit
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Electrons
    (-ve)
    Hybrid Silicon Raman Laser
    1…Layer of Indium-phosphide
    generates photon stream when an electrical charge is applied.
    2…Photon passes down into the
    silicon waveguide below, where
    It is contained and directed
    Silicon
    Oxide
    Laser light
    Indium phosphide is fused to silicon wafer with a layer of oxygen gas (oxide) 25 atoms in thickness
    Silicon Photonics – Hybrid Silicon-Indium Phosphide Raman Laser
  • 11. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    High-speed silicon modulator
    ...based on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer, capable of determining the relative phase shift between two collimated laser beams,
    emanating from a coherent source…
    …two integrated phase-shifters are utilised to generate constructive and destructive interference, realised by altering the wavelength of light as it passes through the device…
    Silicon Photonics – High-speed Silicon Modulator
  • 12. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Phase Shifter Off
    Stuart Wiltshire
    High-speed silicon modulator
     
    LASER
     
     
     
     
    Phase Shifter Off
    Light is split
    Into two paths
    Constructive
    Interference
    Binary “1”
    …to create a binary state of “1”, light passing through the modulator is unaffected by the phase shifters,
    generating ‘constructive’ interference
    Silicon Photonics – High-speed Silicon Modulator
  • 13. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Phase Shifter On
    Stuart Wiltshire
    High-speed silicon modulator
     
     
    LASER
     
     
     
     
     
    Phase Shifter On
    Light is split
    Into two paths
    Destructive
    Interference
    Binary “0”
    …to create binary state “0”, the phase shifters are engaged and alter the frequency of light (colour), resulting in ‘destructive’ interference
    Silicon Photonics – High-speed Silicon Modulator
  • 14. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Avalanche Photodetector
    2…Hole (+ve) travels to top of device
    and is collected, whilst electron
    moves down into silicon
    1…Germanium layer absorbs photon,
    Creating an electron-hole pair
    Optical Fiber
    1010101010101010101010
    Silicon modulator
    Germanium
    Voltage
    Silicon Multiplication Region
    3…Avalanche effect occurs
    within silicon, eventually
    leading to generation of
    electrical signal…Light signal
    has been decoded into
    electrical signal
    Oxide
    Silicon
    Oxide
    Silicon
    Layer of Germanium is fused to silicon wafer with oxide,
    similar to technique used in hybrid laser
    Silicon Photonics – Avalanche Photodetector
  • 15. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    With the addition of a multiplexor / demultiplexor, fiber
    coupling and a silicon platform, these components can be
    manufactured as a single high-speed silicon photonic
    data communication device…
    …capable of transmitting and receiving data at 50 Gbps
    (50,000,000,000 bits-per-second)
    …that’s a single DVD film every second or
    approximately 1,000 MP3 music tracks
    Silicon Photonics – The Complete Silicon Photonics Link
  • 16. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    The complete silicon photonics link
    Photo Detector
    Hybrid Laser
    Modulator
    Photo Detector
    Hybrid Laser
    Modulator
    Fiber
    Optic
    Multiplexer
    Demultiplexer
    Photo Detector
    Hybrid Laser
    10101010101010101010101010
    10101010101010101010101010
    Modulator
    Photo Detector
    Hybrid Laser
    Modulator
    Incoming electrical data stream
    Reproduced electrical data stream
    Four channels, encoding and decoding photonic data at 12.5 Gbps each = 50Gbps
    Laser light, modulation and photonic detection all occurring on a silicon platform
    Silicon Photonics – The Complete Silicon Photonics Link
  • 17. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    What purpose does it serve?
    …speed up network and Internet
    communications massively
    …increase communication between discrete
    devices within computer (CPU, graphics, sound, etc.)
    …through cloud computing, access to super-computer
    processing will become available globally
    …meet the demands of future technologies,
    such as ultra HDTV
    Silicon Photonics – The Complete Silicon Photonics Link
  • 18. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Tera-scaling Data
    …by increasing the number of channels on the device and developing the
    capacity of the individual components, silicon photonic devices will be
    capable of achieving massive data communication capacity over time.
    One terabit is equal to 1,000,000,000,000 bits-per-second communication…
    Silicon Photonics – The Complete Silicon Photonics Link
  • 19. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Who are the players?
    …Intel Corporation have developed this device
    …other major companies involved in development include…
    NEC Electronics Corporation
    Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd
    Freescale Semiconductor Inc.
    Hewlett-Packard
    International Business Machines
  • 20. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Check out these videos…
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Craig Barrett Shows Modulator at IDF (Video).http://blip.tv/file/969015/edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Explosion in Silicon Photonics (Video).
    http://blip.tv/file/962734edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Inside Intel’s Silicon Photonics Lab (Video).
    http://blip.tv/file/962721/edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Modulator Breakthrough (Video).
    http://blip.tv/file/959769edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. The Raman Effect and Overcoming Two Photon
    Absorption (Video).
    http://blip.tv/file/959759edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
  • 21. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Please read my accompanying dissertation
    Photonic Computing: Light Speed Data
    Available at:
    http://dl.dropbox.com/u/12872311/Researching%20Emerging%20Technologies%20-%20Photonic%20Computing.pdf
  • 22. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Journal Articles and White Papers
    BARRETT, S.D. and KOK, P., 2005. Efficient high-fidelity quantum computation using matter qubits and linear optics. Physical Review A, 71(6), pp. 060310.
    BOYRAZ, O. and JALALI, B., 2004. Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser. Optics Express, 12(21), pp. 5269-5273.
    CHEN, H.W., SYSAK, M.N., JONES, R. and BOWERS, J.E., 2008. Photonic Integration on the Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Device Platform.
    GINGRICH, R.M., KOK, P., LEE, H., VATAN, F. and DOWLING, J.P., 2003. All linear optical quantum memory based on quantum error correction. Physical Review Letters, 91(21), pp. 217901.
    JALALI, B. and FATHPOUR, S., 2006. Silicon photonics. Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 24(12), pp. 4600-4615.
    KNILL, E., LAFLAMME, R., BARNUM, H., DALVIT, D., DZIARMAGA, J., GUBERNATIS, J., GURVITS, L., ORTIZ, G., VIOLA, L. and ZUREK, W., 2002. Introduction to quantum information processing. Arxiv preprint quant-ph/0207171, .
    KOK, P., MUNRO, W.J., NEMOTO, K., RALPH, T.C., DOWLING, J.P. and MILBURN, G.J., 2007. Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits. Reviews of modern physics, 79(1), pp. 135.
    KOK, P., WILLIAMS, C.P. and DOWLING, J.P., 2002. Practical quantum repeaters with linear optics and double-photon guns. Arxiv preprint quant-ph/0203134, .
  • 23. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Journal Articles and White Papers
    LEE, H., KOK, P., WILLIAMS, C.P. and DOWLING, J.P., 2004. From linear optical quantum computing to Heisenberg-limited interferometry. Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics, 6, pp. S796.
    NICHOLS, J. and BUCHOLTZ, F., 2011. Beating Nyquist with light: a compressively sampled photonic link. Optics Express, 19(8), pp. 7339-7348.
    PANICCIA, M., KRUTUL, V., JONES, R., COHEN, O., BOWERS, J., FANG, A. and PARK, H., 2006. A Hybrid Silicon Laser. White Paper, Intel Corporation, .
    PANICCIA, M., KRUTUL, V. and KOEHL, S., 2004. Introducing Intel’s Advances in Silicon Photonics. White Paper, .
    RONG, H., JONES, R., LIU, A., COHEN, O., HAK, D., FANG, A. and PANICCIA, M., 2005. Continuous Silicon Laser. Nature, 433(7027), pp. 725-728.
    RONG, H., JONES, R., LIU, A., COHEN, O., HAK, D., FANG, A. and PANICCIA, M., 2005. A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser. Nature, 433(7027), pp. 725-728.
  • 24. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Web Sites
    GANAPATI, P., 04/02/2010, 2010-last update, Geranium Laser Breakthrough Brings Optical Computing Closer [Homepage of Wired], [Online]. Available: http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/02/germanium-laser [05/01, 2011].
    GREENE, K., 22/01/2007, 2007-last update, Intel Speeds Up Silicon Photonics [Homepage of MIT], [Online]. Available: http://www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/18087/?a=f [05/01, 2011].
    HACHMAN, M., 28/03/2005, 2005-last update, Photonics Startup Pegs Q2'06 Production Date [Homepage of ExtremeTech], [Online]. Available: http://www.extremetech.com/article2/0,1558,1779951,00.asp [05/01, 2011].
    HAIT, J., 2009, 2009-last update, Animated Photonic Computing Basics [Homepage of Hait, J.], [Online]. Available: http://www.hait.org/photonics/animat01.htm [05/01, 2011].
    HAIT, J., 2009, 2009-last update, Programmable Lightware [Homepage of Hait, J.], [Online]. Available: http://www.hait.org/photonics/ink2.htm [05/01, 2011].
    HAIT, J., 1992. Optical computing method using interference fringe component regions. Missoula, MT, USA: .
    HUDSON, J., 10/04/2005, 2005-last update, This Laser Trick's a Quantum leap [Homepage of Wired], [Online]. Available: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2005/10/69033 [05/01, 2011].
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2011-last update, Hybrid Silicon Laser [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://techresearch.intel.com/projectdetails.aspx?id=149 [05/01, 2011].
    JOHNSON, C.R., 30/11/2010, 2010-last update, IBM debuts CMOS silicon nanophotonics [Homepage of EE Times], [Online]. Available: http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4211151/IBM-debuts-CMOS-silicon-nanophotonics [05/01, 2011].
  • 25. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Web Sites
    KOEHL, S., 17/09/2007, 2007-last update, 40G photodetector: The other end of the link [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2007/09/40g_photodetector.php [05/01, 2011].
    KOK, P., 2011-last update, Optical Quantum Computing [Homepage of Kok, P.], [Online]. Available: http://www.pieter-kok.staff.shef.ac.uk/index.php?nav=research&sub=loqc [05/01, 2011].
    LIU, A., 18/12/2008, 2008-last update, 200 Gbps silicon photonic integrated chip [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2008/12/200_gbps_silicon_photonic_inte.php?wapkw=%28photonic%29 [05/01, 2011].
    LIU, A., 24/07/2007, 2007-last update, Announcing the world's first 40G silicon laser modulator! [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2007/07/40g_modulator.php [05/01, 2011].
    MAILONLINE, 19/09/2010, 2010-last update, Scientists develop new 'photonic' chip that could make quantum computers a reality [Homepage of MailOnline], [Online]. Available: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1312936/Scientists-develop-new-photonic-chip-pave-way-quantum-computers-future.html [05/01, 2011].
    MORSE, M., 07/12/2008, 2008-last update, Causing an Avalanche: The latest advance in Silicon Photonics [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2008/12/causing_an_avalanche_the_lates.php?wapkw=%28photonics%29 [05/01, 2011].
    MYBROADBAND, 2010, 2010-last update, Optical computer a step closer; 50Gbps experimental chip. [Homepage of MyBroadband], [Online]. Available: http://mybroadband.co.za/news/hardware/14074-Optical-computer-step-closer-Gbps-experimental-chip.html [05/01, 2011].
  • 26. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Web Sites
    NASA, 2001-last update, Fire Photon Torpedoes! [Homepage of NASA], [Online]. Available: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast27feb_1/ [05/01, 2011].
    NASA, 1999-last update, Pushing the limits of Computer Technology [Homepage of NASA], [Online]. Available: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/1999/msad18may99_1 [05/01, 2011].
    NEXTBIGFUTURE, 19/01/2011, 2011-last update, Singapore research on stem cells, MEMS, photonics, computer aided molecular design and more [Homepage of NextBigFuture], [Online]. Available: http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/01/singapore-research-on-stem-cells-mems.html [05/01, 2011].
    OSC, 14/01/2010, 2010-last update, Optical SuperComputing [Homepage of BiCi], [Online]. Available: http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/~dolev/OSC10/ [05/01, 2011].
    PANICCIA, M., 23/07/2010, 2010-last update, The 50Gbps Silicon Photonics Link [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2010/07/50g-link.php [05/01, 2011].
    PHYSORG, 27/07/2010, 2010-last update, Intel Milestone Confirms Light Beams Can Replace Electronic Signals for Future Computers [Homepage of Physorg], [Online]. Available: http://www.physorg.com/news199470370.html [05/01, 2011].
    PHYSORG, 03/09/2009, 2009-last update, First-ever calculation performed on optical quantum computer chip [Homepage of Physorg], [Online]. Available: http://www.physorg.com/news171213314.html [05/01, 2011].
    ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH CENTER, 2011, 2011-last update, The Dawning of the Light Transistor [Homepage of Rocky Mountain Research Center], [Online]. Available: http://rmrc.org/?page_id=60 [05/01, 2011].
  • 27. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Web Sites
    ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH CENTER, 2011, 2011-last update, Photonic Computing [Homepage of Rocky Mountain Research Center], [Online]. Available: http://rmrc.org/?page_id=21 [05/01, 2011].
    SASWATO, D., 18/07/2007, 2007-last update, Speed-of-light computing comes a step closer [Homepage of New Scientist], [Online]. Available: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19526136.400-speedoflight-computing-comes-a-step-closer.html [05/01, 2011].
  • 28. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data
    Stuart Wiltshire
    Video
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Craig Barrett Shows Modulator at IDF (Video). http://blip.tv/file/969015/ edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Explosion in Silicon Photonics (Video). http://blip.tv/file/962734 edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Inside Intel’s Silicon Photonics Lab (Video). http://blip.tv/file/962721/ edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Modulator Breakthrough (Video). http://blip.tv/file/959769 edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. The Raman Effect and Overcoming Two Photon Absorption (Video). http://blip.tv/file/959759 edn. USA: Intel Corporation.
    O'TOOLE, M. and KUTULAKOS, K.N., 2010. Optical Computing for Fast Light Transport Analysis (Video). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVBICVBEGVU edn. YOUTUBE.
    SBARTSTV, 2009. IBM Silicon Photonics Breakthrough In Future of Computing (Video). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8JtzQsGrg80 edn. YOUTUBE.

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