Researching Emerging Technologies<br />Photonic Computing: Light Speed Data<br /> <br />Stuart Wiltshire, SKE cohort, Keel...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Photonic computing can be split <br />Into three distinct c...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />1…Development of a photonic transistor<br />Invented by Joh...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />2…Optical computing and quantum <br />computing<br />Quantu...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />3…Silicon Photonics<br />“build in silicon all the function...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Of the three technologies, only Silicon<br />Photonics curr...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Silicon Photonics<br />Why Photonics?<br />Copper wiring an...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Silicon Photonics will deliver on a silicon platform<br />a...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />What’s required to achieve silicon photonic <br />communica...
Indium Phosphide<br />Holes<br />(+ve)<br />Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Silicon <br />Waveguide conduit<br />...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />High-speed silicon modulator<br />...based on a Mach-Zehnde...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Phase Shifter Off<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />High-speed silicon modulator<br /> <...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Phase Shifter On<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />High-speed silicon modulator<br /> <b...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Avalanche Photodetector<br />2…Hole (+ve)  travels to top o...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />With the addition of a multiplexor / demultiplexor, fiber <...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />The complete silicon photonics link<br />Photo Detector<br ...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />What purpose does it serve?<br />…speed up network and Inte...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Tera-scaling Data<br />…by increasing the number of channel...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Who are the players?<br />…Intel Corporation have developed...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Check out these videos…<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Craig...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Please read my accompanying dissertation<br />Photonic Comp...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Journal Articles and White Papers<br />BARRETT, S.D. and KO...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Journal Articles and White Papers<br />LEE, H., KOK, P., WI...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Web Sites<br />GANAPATI, P., 04/02/2010, 2010-last update, ...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Web Sites<br />KOEHL, S., 17/09/2007, 2007-last update, 40G...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Web Sites<br />NASA, 2001-last update, Fire Photon Torpedoe...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Web Sites<br />ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH CENTER, 2011, 2011-l...
Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Video<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Craig Barrett Shows Mod...
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Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1

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Photonic Computing Presention V 2.1

  1. 1. Researching Emerging Technologies<br />Photonic Computing: Light Speed Data<br /> <br />Stuart Wiltshire, SKE cohort, Keele University, Staffordshire, England<br />
  2. 2. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Photonic computing can be split <br />Into three distinct categories…<br />
  3. 3. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />1…Development of a photonic transistor<br />Invented by John N. Hait 1989 U.S. patent 5093802<br />Operating speed of 833,333.3 GHz<br />Photonic computing can be split into three distinct categories…<br />
  4. 4. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />2…Optical computing and quantum <br />computing<br />Quantum computer comprising of purely<br />photonic components<br />Driven by single-photon lasers <br />and photodetectors<br />Photonic computing can be split into three distinct categories…<br />
  5. 5. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />3…Silicon Photonics<br />“build in silicon all the functions necessary for optical <br />Transmission and reception of data” <br />Paniccia, et al. 2004<br />Photonic computing can be split into three distinct categories…<br />
  6. 6. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Of the three technologies, only Silicon<br />Photonics currently offers tangible devices<br />that we can analyse and discuss…<br />…let us look at this in more detail<br />Silicon Photonics<br />
  7. 7. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Silicon Photonics<br />Why Photonics?<br />Copper wiring and traces around motherboard reaching <br />Physical limits<br />Bandwidth of 10 Gbps becoming very difficult<br />Unable to maintain speed over distance <br />Answer: Transmit data over fiber optic cable<br />Data transmit speed not compromised by distance<br />Multiplexed capabilities over single fiber<br />Fibers are thin, light and flexible<br />However, current optical signaling equipment expensive<br />Silicon Photonics<br />
  8. 8. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Silicon Photonics will deliver on a silicon platform<br />all the components necessary to facilitate the<br />transmission and reception of data.<br />Why?<br />Because, standard CMOS silicon-based fabrication techniques<br />can produce high-volume, low-cost silicon components<br />CMOS fabrication can integrate components<br />at the manufacturing stage, removing need for manual or<br />automated, expensive assembly of devices <br />Silicon Photonics<br />
  9. 9. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />What’s required to achieve silicon photonic <br />communication?<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />1…Transmit<br />2…Encode<br />3…Receive / <br />Decode<br />Hybrid Silicon Laser<br />(September 2006)<br />Silicon Modulator<br />(40Gbps July 2007)<br />Photodetector<br />(40Gbps August 2007)<br />…lets look more closely at each component<br />Silicon Photonics<br />
  10. 10. Indium Phosphide<br />Holes<br />(+ve)<br />Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Silicon <br />Waveguide conduit<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Electrons<br />(-ve)<br />Hybrid Silicon Raman Laser<br />1…Layer of Indium-phosphide<br />generates photon stream when an electrical charge is applied.<br />2…Photon passes down into the<br />silicon waveguide below, where<br />It is contained and directed<br />Silicon<br />Oxide<br />Laser light<br />Indium phosphide is fused to silicon wafer with a layer of oxygen gas (oxide) 25 atoms in thickness<br />Silicon Photonics – Hybrid Silicon-Indium Phosphide Raman Laser<br />
  11. 11. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />High-speed silicon modulator<br />...based on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer, capable of determining the relative phase shift between two collimated laser beams, <br />emanating from a coherent source…<br />…two integrated phase-shifters are utilised to generate constructive and destructive interference, realised by altering the wavelength of light as it passes through the device…<br />Silicon Photonics – High-speed Silicon Modulator<br />
  12. 12. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Phase Shifter Off<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />High-speed silicon modulator<br /> <br />LASER<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Phase Shifter Off<br />Light is split<br />Into two paths <br />Constructive<br />Interference<br />Binary “1”<br />…to create a binary state of “1”, light passing through the modulator is unaffected by the phase shifters, <br />generating ‘constructive’ interference<br />Silicon Photonics – High-speed Silicon Modulator<br />
  13. 13. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Phase Shifter On<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />High-speed silicon modulator<br /> <br /> <br />LASER<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Phase Shifter On<br />Light is split<br />Into two paths <br />Destructive<br />Interference<br />Binary “0”<br />…to create binary state “0”, the phase shifters are engaged and alter the frequency of light (colour), resulting in ‘destructive’ interference<br />Silicon Photonics – High-speed Silicon Modulator<br />
  14. 14. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Avalanche Photodetector<br />2…Hole (+ve) travels to top of device <br />and is collected, whilst electron <br />moves down into silicon<br />1…Germanium layer absorbs photon,<br />Creating an electron-hole pair<br />Optical Fiber<br />1010101010101010101010<br />Silicon modulator<br />Germanium<br />Voltage<br />Silicon Multiplication Region<br />3…Avalanche effect occurs<br />within silicon, eventually<br />leading to generation of<br />electrical signal…Light signal<br />has been decoded into<br />electrical signal<br />Oxide<br />Silicon<br />Oxide<br />Silicon<br />Layer of Germanium is fused to silicon wafer with oxide, <br />similar to technique used in hybrid laser<br />Silicon Photonics – Avalanche Photodetector<br />
  15. 15. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />With the addition of a multiplexor / demultiplexor, fiber <br />coupling and a silicon platform, these components can be <br />manufactured as a single high-speed silicon photonic <br />data communication device…<br />…capable of transmitting and receiving data at 50 Gbps <br />(50,000,000,000 bits-per-second)<br />…that’s a single DVD film every second or <br />approximately 1,000 MP3 music tracks<br />Silicon Photonics – The Complete Silicon Photonics Link<br />
  16. 16. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />The complete silicon photonics link<br />Photo Detector<br />Hybrid Laser<br />Modulator<br />Photo Detector<br />Hybrid Laser<br />Modulator<br />Fiber<br />Optic<br />Multiplexer<br />Demultiplexer<br />Photo Detector<br />Hybrid Laser<br />10101010101010101010101010<br />10101010101010101010101010<br />Modulator<br />Photo Detector<br />Hybrid Laser<br />Modulator<br />Incoming electrical data stream<br />Reproduced electrical data stream<br />Four channels, encoding and decoding photonic data at 12.5 Gbps each = 50Gbps<br />Laser light, modulation and photonic detection all occurring on a silicon platform <br />Silicon Photonics – The Complete Silicon Photonics Link<br />
  17. 17. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />What purpose does it serve?<br />…speed up network and Internet <br />communications massively<br />…increase communication between discrete<br />devices within computer (CPU, graphics, sound, etc.)<br />…through cloud computing, access to super-computer<br />processing will become available globally<br />…meet the demands of future technologies, <br />such as ultra HDTV<br />Silicon Photonics – The Complete Silicon Photonics Link<br />
  18. 18. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Tera-scaling Data<br />…by increasing the number of channels on the device and developing the <br />capacity of the individual components, silicon photonic devices will be <br />capable of achieving massive data communication capacity over time.<br />One terabit is equal to 1,000,000,000,000 bits-per-second communication…<br />Silicon Photonics – The Complete Silicon Photonics Link<br />
  19. 19. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Who are the players?<br />…Intel Corporation have developed this device<br />…other major companies involved in development include…<br />NEC Electronics Corporation<br />Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd<br />Freescale Semiconductor Inc.<br />Hewlett-Packard<br />International Business Machines<br />
  20. 20. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Check out these videos…<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Craig Barrett Shows Modulator at IDF (Video).http://blip.tv/file/969015/edn. USA: Intel Corporation. <br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Explosion in Silicon Photonics (Video). <br />http://blip.tv/file/962734edn. USA: Intel Corporation. <br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Inside Intel’s Silicon Photonics Lab (Video).<br />http://blip.tv/file/962721/edn. USA: Intel Corporation. <br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Modulator Breakthrough (Video). <br />http://blip.tv/file/959769edn. USA: Intel Corporation. <br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. The Raman Effect and Overcoming Two Photon<br />Absorption (Video). <br />http://blip.tv/file/959759edn. USA: Intel Corporation. <br />
  21. 21. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Please read my accompanying dissertation<br />Photonic Computing: Light Speed Data<br />Available at: <br />http://dl.dropbox.com/u/12872311/Researching%20Emerging%20Technologies%20-%20Photonic%20Computing.pdf<br />
  22. 22. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Journal Articles and White Papers<br />BARRETT, S.D. and KOK, P., 2005. Efficient high-fidelity quantum computation using matter qubits and linear optics. Physical Review A, 71(6), pp. 060310.<br />BOYRAZ, O. and JALALI, B., 2004. Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser. Optics Express, 12(21), pp. 5269-5273.<br />CHEN, H.W., SYSAK, M.N., JONES, R. and BOWERS, J.E., 2008. Photonic Integration on the Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Device Platform.<br />GINGRICH, R.M., KOK, P., LEE, H., VATAN, F. and DOWLING, J.P., 2003. All linear optical quantum memory based on quantum error correction. Physical Review Letters, 91(21), pp. 217901.<br />JALALI, B. and FATHPOUR, S., 2006. Silicon photonics. Lightwave Technology, Journal of, 24(12), pp. 4600-4615.<br />KNILL, E., LAFLAMME, R., BARNUM, H., DALVIT, D., DZIARMAGA, J., GUBERNATIS, J., GURVITS, L., ORTIZ, G., VIOLA, L. and ZUREK, W., 2002. Introduction to quantum information processing. Arxiv preprint quant-ph/0207171, .<br />KOK, P., MUNRO, W.J., NEMOTO, K., RALPH, T.C., DOWLING, J.P. and MILBURN, G.J., 2007. Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits. Reviews of modern physics, 79(1), pp. 135.<br />KOK, P., WILLIAMS, C.P. and DOWLING, J.P., 2002. Practical quantum repeaters with linear optics and double-photon guns. Arxiv preprint quant-ph/0203134, . <br />
  23. 23. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Journal Articles and White Papers<br />LEE, H., KOK, P., WILLIAMS, C.P. and DOWLING, J.P., 2004. From linear optical quantum computing to Heisenberg-limited interferometry. Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics, 6, pp. S796. <br />NICHOLS, J. and BUCHOLTZ, F., 2011. Beating Nyquist with light: a compressively sampled photonic link. Optics Express, 19(8), pp. 7339-7348. <br />PANICCIA, M., KRUTUL, V., JONES, R., COHEN, O., BOWERS, J., FANG, A. and PARK, H., 2006. A Hybrid Silicon Laser. White Paper, Intel Corporation, . <br />PANICCIA, M., KRUTUL, V. and KOEHL, S., 2004. Introducing Intel’s Advances in Silicon Photonics. White Paper, . <br />RONG, H., JONES, R., LIU, A., COHEN, O., HAK, D., FANG, A. and PANICCIA, M., 2005. Continuous Silicon Laser. Nature, 433(7027), pp. 725-728. <br />RONG, H., JONES, R., LIU, A., COHEN, O., HAK, D., FANG, A. and PANICCIA, M., 2005. A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser. Nature, 433(7027), pp. 725-728. <br />
  24. 24. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Web Sites<br />GANAPATI, P., 04/02/2010, 2010-last update, Geranium Laser Breakthrough Brings Optical Computing Closer [Homepage of Wired], [Online]. Available: http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/02/germanium-laser [05/01, 2011].<br />GREENE, K., 22/01/2007, 2007-last update, Intel Speeds Up Silicon Photonics [Homepage of MIT], [Online]. Available: http://www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/18087/?a=f [05/01, 2011].<br />HACHMAN, M., 28/03/2005, 2005-last update, Photonics Startup Pegs Q2'06 Production Date [Homepage of ExtremeTech], [Online]. Available: http://www.extremetech.com/article2/0,1558,1779951,00.asp [05/01, 2011]. <br />HAIT, J., 2009, 2009-last update, Animated Photonic Computing Basics [Homepage of Hait, J.], [Online]. Available: http://www.hait.org/photonics/animat01.htm [05/01, 2011]. <br />HAIT, J., 2009, 2009-last update, Programmable Lightware [Homepage of Hait, J.], [Online]. Available: http://www.hait.org/photonics/ink2.htm [05/01, 2011]. <br />HAIT, J., 1992. Optical computing method using interference fringe component regions. Missoula, MT, USA: . <br />HUDSON, J., 10/04/2005, 2005-last update, This Laser Trick's a Quantum leap [Homepage of Wired], [Online]. Available: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2005/10/69033 [05/01, 2011].<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2011-last update, Hybrid Silicon Laser [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://techresearch.intel.com/projectdetails.aspx?id=149 [05/01, 2011]. <br />JOHNSON, C.R., 30/11/2010, 2010-last update, IBM debuts CMOS silicon nanophotonics [Homepage of EE Times], [Online]. Available: http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4211151/IBM-debuts-CMOS-silicon-nanophotonics [05/01, 2011]. <br />
  25. 25. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Web Sites<br />KOEHL, S., 17/09/2007, 2007-last update, 40G photodetector: The other end of the link [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2007/09/40g_photodetector.php [05/01, 2011].<br />KOK, P., 2011-last update, Optical Quantum Computing [Homepage of Kok, P.], [Online]. Available: http://www.pieter-kok.staff.shef.ac.uk/index.php?nav=research&sub=loqc [05/01, 2011].<br />LIU, A., 18/12/2008, 2008-last update, 200 Gbps silicon photonic integrated chip [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2008/12/200_gbps_silicon_photonic_inte.php?wapkw=%28photonic%29 [05/01, 2011].<br />LIU, A., 24/07/2007, 2007-last update, Announcing the world's first 40G silicon laser modulator! [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2007/07/40g_modulator.php [05/01, 2011].<br />MAILONLINE, 19/09/2010, 2010-last update, Scientists develop new 'photonic' chip that could make quantum computers a reality [Homepage of MailOnline], [Online]. Available: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1312936/Scientists-develop-new-photonic-chip-pave-way-quantum-computers-future.html [05/01, 2011].<br />MORSE, M., 07/12/2008, 2008-last update, Causing an Avalanche: The latest advance in Silicon Photonics [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2008/12/causing_an_avalanche_the_lates.php?wapkw=%28photonics%29 [05/01, 2011].<br />MYBROADBAND, 2010, 2010-last update, Optical computer a step closer; 50Gbps experimental chip. [Homepage of MyBroadband], [Online]. Available: http://mybroadband.co.za/news/hardware/14074-Optical-computer-step-closer-Gbps-experimental-chip.html [05/01, 2011].<br />
  26. 26. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Web Sites<br />NASA, 2001-last update, Fire Photon Torpedoes! [Homepage of NASA], [Online]. Available: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast27feb_1/ [05/01, 2011].<br />NASA, 1999-last update, Pushing the limits of Computer Technology [Homepage of NASA], [Online]. Available: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/1999/msad18may99_1 [05/01, 2011].<br />NEXTBIGFUTURE, 19/01/2011, 2011-last update, Singapore research on stem cells, MEMS, photonics, computer aided molecular design and more [Homepage of NextBigFuture], [Online]. Available: http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/01/singapore-research-on-stem-cells-mems.html [05/01, 2011].<br />OSC, 14/01/2010, 2010-last update, Optical SuperComputing [Homepage of BiCi], [Online]. Available: http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/~dolev/OSC10/ [05/01, 2011].<br />PANICCIA, M., 23/07/2010, 2010-last update, The 50Gbps Silicon Photonics Link [Homepage of Intel Corporation], [Online]. Available: http://blogs.intel.com/research/2010/07/50g-link.php [05/01, 2011].<br />PHYSORG, 27/07/2010, 2010-last update, Intel Milestone Confirms Light Beams Can Replace Electronic Signals for Future Computers [Homepage of Physorg], [Online]. Available: http://www.physorg.com/news199470370.html [05/01, 2011]. <br />PHYSORG, 03/09/2009, 2009-last update, First-ever calculation performed on optical quantum computer chip [Homepage of Physorg], [Online]. Available: http://www.physorg.com/news171213314.html [05/01, 2011]. <br />ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH CENTER, 2011, 2011-last update, The Dawning of the Light Transistor [Homepage of Rocky Mountain Research Center], [Online]. Available: http://rmrc.org/?page_id=60 [05/01, 2011]. <br />
  27. 27. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Web Sites<br />ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH CENTER, 2011, 2011-last update, Photonic Computing [Homepage of Rocky Mountain Research Center], [Online]. Available: http://rmrc.org/?page_id=21 [05/01, 2011].<br />SASWATO, D., 18/07/2007, 2007-last update, Speed-of-light computing comes a step closer [Homepage of New Scientist], [Online]. Available: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19526136.400-speedoflight-computing-comes-a-step-closer.html [05/01, 2011]. <br />
  28. 28. Photonic Computing:Light Speed Data<br />Stuart Wiltshire<br />Video<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Craig Barrett Shows Modulator at IDF (Video). http://blip.tv/file/969015/ edn. USA: Intel Corporation.<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Explosion in Silicon Photonics (Video). http://blip.tv/file/962734 edn. USA: Intel Corporation.<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Inside Intel’s Silicon Photonics Lab (Video). http://blip.tv/file/962721/ edn. USA: Intel Corporation.<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. Modulator Breakthrough (Video). http://blip.tv/file/959769 edn. USA: Intel Corporation.<br />INTEL CORPORATION, 2010. The Raman Effect and Overcoming Two Photon Absorption (Video). http://blip.tv/file/959759 edn. USA: Intel Corporation.<br />O'TOOLE, M. and KUTULAKOS, K.N., 2010. Optical Computing for Fast Light Transport Analysis (Video). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVBICVBEGVU edn. YOUTUBE.<br />SBARTSTV, 2009. IBM Silicon Photonics Breakthrough In Future of Computing (Video). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8JtzQsGrg80 edn. YOUTUBE. <br />

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