Nanobeam implantation


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  • Silicon Accelerators is the term for a new technology. It is also the name of the corporation. This presentation a conceptual view of technology, but we will touch on the business side. The Silicon Accelerator is a new invention, the patent was issued in 2011. Since that time, research has focused on engineering development and applications. The first prototypes are under development. A Silicon Accelerator controls charged particles. Charged particles include electrons, protons, sub- atomic particles, ions, and electrically charged molecules.
  • The presentation aims to provide answers to basic questions. The underlying science includes plasma physics, IC processes, electric field analysis, and classical mechanic Specific applications requires nuclear physics and quantum mechanics.
  • The popular image of particle accelerators is that of large scientific accelerators. The Large Hadron Collider is the world's most powerful synchrotron, made famous by the discovery of the Higgs particle. It is the most powerful accelerator in the world, hurling protons to 3.5 Teravolts. The particles build gain energy as they circle through the track. Powerful super-cooled magnet hold the particles within the track. The Stanford Linear Accelerator is the world's longest-- familiar to commuters passing over on the 280 freeway. The SLA accelerates electrons to Gigavolts along what has been called the world's straightest line. All particle accelerators are either a linear accelerator or a synchrotron. There are approximately 10,000 accelerators installed worldwide. The three major segments using accelerators are scientific, medical, and manufacturing. For the most part, the accelerators are customized and manufactured one at a time. The underlying technology of the installed accelerators is primarily vacuum tube amplifiers, discrete semiconductor components, and electromagnets. A relatively small commercial particle accelerator is the about the size of a refrigerator.
  • A silicon accelerator is a miniaturization of linear accelerators based on an advanced integrated circuit technology called 3D stacked IC. The 3D SIC process is based on making electrical connections from the front to the back of the chip using micron diameter holes. Through Silicon Via (TSV) VIA processing is recently entered volume production and is available from several of the major foundries, including TSMC and IBM. For a pitch of 10 microns, a centimeter chip can have a 1 million TSV. The area surrounding the TSV contain the transistors circuits of the Integrated Circuit. The full range of IC can be integrated: microprocessors, memories, logic, analog, etc. Ina Silicon Accelerator, the TSV, left open, form the pipes to contain charged particles. The charged particles can controlled and manipulated electric fields present in the metal layers of a proprietary Analog IC design.
  • Just advances in IC density enabled putting a computer on a chip---the Microprocessor, 3D SIC enabled the invention of the Silicon Accelerator. It takes it place as a fundamental invention, improving with time, aka “Moore's Law”, continuing to find new applications, and creating new market opportunities.
  • The invention is covered by broad patent coverage. There are 20 claims. As the first claim states, the patent covers any IC based particle accelerator.
  • We now present an overview of the internal operation of the silicon accelerator.
  • The breakthrough was in orienting the path of the particles perpendicular to the surface of the IC. IC are limited to in size by yield to a few square centimeters. Previous attempts to build IC based particle accelerators were severely constrained by IC size and processing. The novel architecture leads to precise control of matter at the nanometer range.
  • Electrically charged particles, enter the accelerator from left. Electric fields are switched on between electrodes when the particles are present. As the particles transverse the gap, they experience a force proportional the voltage between the electrodes. Rather than increase the lengths to compensate for the increased particle speed, digital logic adjust the timing of the fields. Variable timing allows the same 3D SIC to be used in all stages. Digital controls also accommodates particles of differing mass and charge.
  • In a 3D IC, Through Silicon Via (TSV) are holes which are etched from the front to the back side of a silicon chips. When the chips are stacked, the holes in the chips are aligned. The aligned holes become the pipes through which the particles can pass. Some of the TSV can be filled with conducting material to create electrical connections. The design can be optimized by combining digital processes and analog processes.
  • The accelerating electrodes are formed using the metal layers of the active layers. The electrodes are connected to high voltage transistors. The diameter of the pipes are 5 microns on a pitch of 10 microns. This image is not to scale as an actual IC contains 1 million pipes.
  • The beams are focused using electrostatic lens. The electrostatic lens are formed similar to the electrodes. This image is from a software simulator, Simon. Simon uses the Laplace equations to solve the electric field equations to high accuracy. The voltages on the lens elements can be adjusted under program control to accommodate a wide variety of particle types.
  • Each 3D SIC corresponds to a single accelerating stage. The slide shows two accelerating gaps separated by the drift tube. An electrostatic lens is positioned inside the drift tube.
  • Many stages can be concatenated to increase the power of the accelerator.
  • Its now projected that for the first time, the cost on a transistor basis may increase. The high development of advanced ICs limits innovation. Process complexity lengths production cycle time.
  • Placing a silicon accelerator in the beam of an ion implanter splits the single beam into a million separate beams.
  • A million beams provides the data bandwidth for a wafer throughput of 120 wafers an hour, competitive with the productivity of steppers
  • Openings in photo resist allow ions to penetrate the wafer. NBI directly implants transistor features without the need for photo-lithography.
  • Digital Lithography compared to photo-lithography is as film photography to digital photography. The nano sized beans from the silicon accelerator are modulated under the control of embedded digital processors.
  • The conversion to NBI maintains Moore's Law and innovation with low-cost new IC designs.
  • ICs made with NBI have greater performance, more features, lower cost.
  • In the core of stars, gravity give rise to extremely high density and temperatures necessary for fusion. Fusion converts matter to energy: E=MC 2 /
  • The National Ignition Facility is a $4 billion facility located in Livermore, Ca. The facility has been funded through the Department of Energy. The justification for the facility included research tied to the maintenance of the strategic stockpile.
  • The incoming plasma from the millions of particle beams create a plasma sphere collapsing into the target region. The collapsing plasma contains the hot plasma core region of a few hundred of nanometers.
  • The boron eleven contains 5 protons and 6 neutrons in its nucleus. The positive charge between the protons creates the repulsive Coulomb force. The kinetic energy of the fast moving particles can bring the proton within range of the attractive force of the nucleus, the Strong Force. The proton is captured by the nucleus. The addition of the proton is unstable and splits into three helium nucleus
  • Nanobeam implantation

    1. 1. Silicon Accelerators An Introduction SAI confidential
    2. 2. 2 What is It? How Does it Work? What are the Applications? The Team? Next Steps? SAI confidential
    3. 3. 3 Scientific Accelerators Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Large Hadron Collider Stanford Linear Accelerator
    4. 4. 4 Silicon Accelerator SAI confidential Stacked 3D IC
    5. 5. 5 Silicon Accelerator A Fundamental Invention SAI confidential
    6. 6. 6 Patent Issued 1. A particle controller, comprising: an input port configured to receive a particle stream; a semiconductor cell comprising a cavity through which at least a portion of the particles comprising the particle stream is directed; and one or more electrodes coupled to the cavity and configured to facilitate creation of an electromagnetic field for directing the at least portion of particles through the cavity; wherein the cell is part of a set of semiconductor cells whose cavities are aligned to form a tube through which the at least portion of particles is directed SAI confidential
    7. 7. 7 How it works SAI confidential
    8. 8. 2D Single Chip Particle Accelerator Cornell University DARPA funded project 2011 Designed by MEMS Dept. Single beam per chip Energy of 30 Kev Proves that an IC can accelerate a particle beam at high energies. Proves beam deflection~50 degrees Demonstration of high acceleration value
    9. 9. 9 Silicon Accelerator 3D particle path SAI confidential
    10. 10. 10 Silicon Accelerator – how it works Changing electric field Accelerating region in IC Drift tubes of equal lengths Frequency and phase of each stage under digital control of I.C.’s
    11. 11. 11 3D SIC SAI confidential Through Silicon Via
    12. 12. 12 Silicon Accelerator Electrodes SAI confidential Front side of Chip
    13. 13. 13 Silicon Accelerator Electrostatic Lens Simon simulation SAI confidential Electric Fields
    14. 14. 14 SAI confidentialHigh voltage IC Cathode + Electrostatic lens + - Anode Single Stage High Speed IC
    15. 15. 15 Silicon Accelerator 3D SIC Digital Processor Beams SAI confidential Side View of Stacked Single Stage
    16. 16. 16 Multiple Stages SAI confidential
    17. 17. 17SAI confidential Silicon Accelerator Summary Solid State Linear Particle Accelerator Enabled by 3D SIC and TSV (through silicon via) 3D SIC per accelerating stage Each 3D SIC contains • Accelerating electrodes • Drift tubes • Electrostatic lens • Digital and Timing controls • Sensors • Scanning electrodes
    18. 18. 18SAI confidential Silicon Accelerator Nanobeam Ion Implantation A new method for Integrated Circuit manufacturing “IC's making IC's”
    19. 19. 19SAI confidential Semi Manufacturing In Crisis Fab capital cost at 14 nanometers >$10 Billion Next Generation Steppers (EUV) >$100M Mask sets approaching $10M FinFet transistors at 25 nm going to 10 nm Wafer size increasing to 450mm Consolidation of ~4 Major Fab Manufacturing at 14 nanometers IC product volume threshold >millions of units
    20. 20. 20 Nanobeam Implanter A Million Beams Current Ion Implant NBI Single Beam ~cm Bream Array Nanometer beams Silicon Accelerator SAI confidential
    21. 21. 21SAI confidential Silicon Accelerators Bandwidth Massive Beam Array: 1 cm chip at 10 micron pitch ----1 Million beams Electrostatic micron-sized lens ----Gigahertz scanning Bandwidth is million beams times Gigahertz per beam Embedded Digital processing & EDA database Fully automated and robotic wafer handling
    22. 22. 22 Nanobeam Implanter IC Doping Comparison Current implant Method NBI SAI confidential Photo-lithography Digital-lithography
    23. 23. 23 NBI Digital Lithography Photo-lithography NBI photons ions UV laser Silicon Accelerator SAI confidential Mask
    24. 24. Maskless electron beam lithography has the potential to extend semiconductor manufacturing to the sub-10 nm technology node. KLA-Tencor is currently developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) for high-volume 10 nm logic (16 nm HP). This paper reviews progress in the development of the REBL system towards its goal of 100 wph throughput for High Volume Lithography (HVL) at the 2X and 1X nm nodes. In this paper we introduce the Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) with integrated CMOS and MEMs lenslets that was manufactured at TSMC and IMEC. KLA The lenslet consists of a densely packed array of 4µm deep cylindrical holes with a 1.4 µm diameter and top spacing of only 200nm. The electron beam entering the lenslet holes is focused through a set of 4 ring electrodes. The ring electrodes can be tuned to focus the electron beams by applying static voltages up to 50V on the ring electrodes. The bottom of each hole consists of a small metal plate that can be switched by a CMOS circuitry below, either reflecting or absorbing the incoming electrons. In this way, the incoming electron beam is split into 1 million smaller beamlets, a strategy designed to enable higher throughput for the e-beam writing process through parallelization. Read more at: customized-lenslet-array-kla-tencor.html#jCp
    25. 25. 25SAI confidential NBI Market Opportunity Worldwide Semiconductors market is >$300 Billion Served by Equipment Market >$50 Billion • Fab equipment: new and upgrades • Back-end: Test and Assembly Fab Segments impacted by NBI Mask making Photo-lithography: steppers Resist: Track systems Ion Implant
    26. 26. 26SAI confidential NBI Economic Potential No Tooling cost: eliminates mask cost tooling • Small production lots • Low prototyping cost • Customized even a few chip per wafer Lower Fab Capital Cost • Smaller Fabs economical: $millions versus $billions • Better clean room utilization: smaller footprint • Lower Fab Inventory; less inventory risk • Fewer Processing Steps: higher yields
    27. 27. 27SAI confidential Performance Impact Multiple processes simplified • DRAM+Logic+Flash+Analog Mixed Technologies Practical • MEM's,LED,Laser,DLP Improved Analog • Wide materials selection for – Resistors, super-capacitors Transistor Structures • different depth and doping across wafer Advanced Technologies • Graphene transistors, magnetoresistive RAM
    28. 28. 28SAI confidential NBI Summary  New Methodology of Semiconductor Manufacturing − Nanobeam Ion Implantation (NBI)  Million beam Silicon Accelerators  High bandwidth Digital Lithography − Replaces Photo-lithography  Lower cost  Higher yields  High IC performance
    29. 29. 29 Nanofusion A safe portable clean power source SAI confidential
    30. 30. 30SAI confidential Power of the Sun
    31. 31. 31 Fusion Light elements—hydrogen—combine into helium No radioactive by products—no meltdown possible First discovered in 1930 using linear accelerator Fission splits heavy elements---Uranium ---radioactive isotopes are by products Research to develop Fusion Engine began in 1950 Fusion requires a hot dense compressed plasma
    32. 32. 32 Fusion Light elements—hydrogen—combine into helium No radioactive by products—no meltdown possible First discovered in 1930 using linear accelerator Fission splits heavy elements---Uranium ---radioactive isotopes are by products Research to develop Fusion Engine began in 1950 Fusion requires a hot dense compressed plasma
    33. 33. 33SAI confidential Fusion Why fusion been so hard to achieve? Plasmas expands: • No physical container possible: extremely hot • Reaction time ~ plasma density Hot Plasma loses energy: • The electrons radiate light when hot • Fusion energy must exceed loses How to compress plasma at >100 million degrees?
    34. 34. 34 National Ignition Facility Fusion Experiment The target chamber is hoisted by a crane and prepared for installation in the NIF target bay. c
    35. 35. 35 National Ignition Facility World's most powerful Laser system: 192 Laser beams ~2 million joules at 500 Terra-watts Inertial Confinement Fusion Millimeter diameter hydrogen fuel pellet Idea is to heat and compress fuel with laser beams Fuel failed to ignite due to: Poor beam uniformity, jitter, coupling inefficiencies NIF funding for fusion ignition dropped
    36. 36. 36l 36 Nanofusion Ion manifold Silicon Accelerators NanobeamsTarget Region SAI confidential
    37. 37. 37 NanoFusion Plasma compression Plasma compression Ignited Core SAI confidential
    38. 38. 38 Conditions for Fusion Lawson Criterion
    39. 39. 39SAI confidential Nanofusion Boron Coulomb Barrier Boron Nucleus proton Strong Force Fusion Helium Ions
    40. 40. 40SAI confidential Nanofusion Millions of beams focused into nanometer region – Uniform compression of hot plasma – Sub-picoseconds timing reduces beam jitter to nanometer – Ion energy of 100K electron volts = 160 Million degrees – Density of plasma is sum of beam densities  Fuel is hydrogen and boron – Converted to fast moving ions of helium – Energy of helium ions re-converted into electricity  Nanofusion is a portable power source – About the size of basketball
    41. 41. 41 A few Other Apps SAI confidential Nano Technology Cancer Therapy Holography Data Archive Quantum ComputingInstrumentation
    42. 42. 42 Member Role History Alok Mohan Executive Leadership NCR-VP SCO-CEO Sam Brown Technology strategy NCR—Microelectronics Alpine Semi-CEO Tom Brummet Business Development NCR---Microelectronics Silego Semi -VP Marketing Marcelo Martinex IC Design Principal Advanced Analog Design Jonathan Wurtele Technical Adviser Berkeley Professor of Physics Senior Scientist LNL Ed Pheil Technical Adviser General Dynamics Nuclear Engineer John Bryant Technical Adviser Atmel: VP Marketing
    43. 43. 43 Next Steps Printed Circuit Board Identify Semiconductor Partner Expand Team Release Analog IC Release Digital IC Nanobeam prototype Release Development Kit SAI confidential
    44. 44. 44 Confidence Factors 1. Manufacturing: Very High-Processes are In Production 2. Competition: No Direct Competitor at this Time • Strong-Broad Patents-Trade Secrets 3. Engineering: Digital IC~Block Diagram complete. Analog IC: critical circuits simulated. Need to Identify Partner 4. Theory of Operation: Proven in 2D chip 5. Market Entry: Acceptance of Development Tool-Intel's Microprocessor Model 6. First Revenues: • Now Partnership R&D Licenses • Development Systems 18 Months