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ABC_WhaleShark

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Transcript

  • 1. Management and Trade of Whale Shark in Taiwan
    • Ting
    • 2009/Apr/16
  • 2. Biology of Whale Shark
    • Ontogenetic allometry
      • a. 56 cm foetus
      • b. 700 cm subadult
    Martin, 2007
    • Aggregating at seasonal plankton blooms and invertebrate mass spawning.
  • 3. Distribution
  • 4. PADI Whale Shark Awareness
    • PADI specialty course
    • 8900 THB, 1 day, 2 dives
  • 5. Taiwan’s Shark Fishery
    • Catched by
      • harpoon
      • set net
    • Sold as
      • (smoky) shark meal
      • shark fin
  • 6. FAO s International Plan of Action for Sharks
    • Sustainable catches
    • Assess threats, and protect critical habitats
    • Attention to vulnerable stocks
    • Effective consultation
    • Minimize incidental catches
    • Protection of biodiversity and ecosystem
    • Minimize waste and discards from shark catches
    • Encourage full use of dead sharks
    • Species-specific catch and landings data
    • Reporting of species specific biological and trade data.
  • 7. Conservation Status
    • IUCN’s Red List
    • CITES
      • Appendix I
    • The Bonn Convention
      • The convention of the migratory species of wild animals
      • Appendix II: unfavourable conservation status
    • UN fish stocks agreement
  • 8. Taiwan’s regulatory framework
    • The Fisheries Law
      • Limit or prohibit harvest, sale, fishing gear and fishing in certain grounds or periods
    • The Wildlife Conservation Law
      • According to CITES
    • The Foreign Trade Act
      • Restriction of exports and imports
    • Monitory system
  • 9. Monitory system
    • Ban harvesting
      • Whale shark
    • Report after catch
      • Basking shark
      • Megamouth shark
      • Great white
  • 10. Methods
    • Analysis of catch and trade data
      • compared with TRAFFIC-India data
    • Trade and market survey
      • 85 marketplaces
      • 1600 retail seafood stalls
      • Restaurants => Telephone surveys
      • DNA analysis
    • Literature review and interview
  • 11. Results
  • 12. Catch data
    • Whale shark Size around Taiwan(Jan 2000 - Mar 2002) and Veraval(1999 - 2000)
  • 13. Catch Data(cont.)
    • Landing by county
    • Jan 2001-Mar 2002
  • 14. International Trade
    • Volume exports and imports, Taiwan 1996-2001
  • 15. Newspaper reports
    • No. of Whale Shark items in Taiwan’s major newspapers, by topic, Jan 1996 - Nov 2001
  • 16. Market Survey
    • Whale Shark meat distribution
  • 17. Landing Price for whole sharks
    • Landing and price records of whole Whale Shark found in the Taiwan press
  • 18. Whale shark products
    • Fin
      • of poorer taste, and harder to prepare, than the expensive Basking Shark fin
      • USD 12.83/kg
    • Meat
      • USD 13.93/kg by 1997
    • Smoked meat
      • USD 9.26/kg
  • 19. Taipei’s wholesale market and prices
    • Wholesale records for Whale Shark, Feb 1998 - Aug 2001
  • 20. Discussion
  • 21. Catch data
    • Apparent decline in catch could be attributable to a reduction in Whale Shark numbers.
    • Whale Sharks harvested around Taiwan < 7 m in length and averaged 4.65 m (average 7.7 m at maturity). (Fowler, 2000)
  • 22. Market data
    • Market having grown significantly since the mid-80s.
    • Localized availability
    • need to process and sell quickly owing to rapid build up of ammonia
  • 23. Comparing market and catch data
    • approximately 27 t of meat could be obtained from this catch
    • Taipei sold a total volume of 42 t of Whale Shark between Jan and Aug 2001
      • Imported illegally from India and Philippines.
      • Current political situation between China and Taiwan
      • Whale Sharks caught near Taiwan have tender meat
  • 24. Conclusions
  • 25. Recommendations
    • Investigate the claims that imported Whale Shark meat is entering Taiwan through unofficial channels and, if necessary, introduce measures to address this
    • Review the merits of alternative uses of Whale Shark, such as ecotourism, by conducting a feasibility study
    • Promote international co-operation, for example, tagging
  • 26. Reference
    • Martin, R. A. (2007). &quot;A review of behavioural ecology of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus).&quot; Fisheries Research 84(1): 10-16.