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  1. 1. Management and Trade of Whale Shark in Taiwan <ul><li>Ting </li></ul><ul><li>2009/Apr/16 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Biology of Whale Shark <ul><li>Ontogenetic allometry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. 56 cm foetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. 700 cm subadult </li></ul></ul>Martin, 2007 <ul><li>Aggregating at seasonal plankton blooms and invertebrate mass spawning. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Distribution
  4. 4. PADI Whale Shark Awareness <ul><li>PADI specialty course </li></ul><ul><li>8900 THB, 1 day, 2 dives </li></ul>
  5. 5. Taiwan’s Shark Fishery <ul><li>Catched by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>harpoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set net </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sold as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(smoky) shark meal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shark fin </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. FAO s International Plan of Action for Sharks <ul><li>Sustainable catches </li></ul><ul><li>Assess threats, and protect critical habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to vulnerable stocks </li></ul><ul><li>Effective consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize incidental catches </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of biodiversity and ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize waste and discards from shark catches </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage full use of dead sharks </li></ul><ul><li>Species-specific catch and landings data </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting of species specific biological and trade data. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conservation Status <ul><li>IUCN’s Red List </li></ul><ul><li>CITES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bonn Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The convention of the migratory species of wild animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix II: unfavourable conservation status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UN fish stocks agreement </li></ul>
  8. 8. Taiwan’s regulatory framework <ul><li>The Fisheries Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit or prohibit harvest, sale, fishing gear and fishing in certain grounds or periods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Wildlife Conservation Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to CITES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Foreign Trade Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction of exports and imports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitory system </li></ul>
  9. 9. Monitory system <ul><li>Ban harvesting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whale shark </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Report after catch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basking shark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megamouth shark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great white </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Methods <ul><li>Analysis of catch and trade data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compared with TRAFFIC-India data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade and market survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85 marketplaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1600 retail seafood stalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurants => Telephone surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literature review and interview </li></ul>
  11. 11. Results
  12. 12. Catch data <ul><li>Whale shark Size around Taiwan(Jan 2000 - Mar 2002) and Veraval(1999 - 2000) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Catch Data(cont.) <ul><li>Landing by county </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 2001-Mar 2002 </li></ul>
  14. 14. International Trade <ul><li>Volume exports and imports, Taiwan 1996-2001 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Newspaper reports <ul><li>No. of Whale Shark items in Taiwan’s major newspapers, by topic, Jan 1996 - Nov 2001 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Market Survey <ul><li>Whale Shark meat distribution </li></ul>
  17. 17. Landing Price for whole sharks <ul><li>Landing and price records of whole Whale Shark found in the Taiwan press </li></ul>
  18. 18. Whale shark products <ul><li>Fin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of poorer taste, and harder to prepare, than the expensive Basking Shark fin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USD 12.83/kg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USD 13.93/kg by 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smoked meat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USD 9.26/kg </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Taipei’s wholesale market and prices <ul><li>Wholesale records for Whale Shark, Feb 1998 - Aug 2001 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Discussion
  21. 21. Catch data <ul><li>Apparent decline in catch could be attributable to a reduction in Whale Shark numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Whale Sharks harvested around Taiwan < 7 m in length and averaged 4.65 m (average 7.7 m at maturity). (Fowler, 2000) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Market data <ul><li>Market having grown significantly since the mid-80s. </li></ul><ul><li>Localized availability </li></ul><ul><li>need to process and sell quickly owing to rapid build up of ammonia </li></ul>
  23. 23. Comparing market and catch data <ul><li>approximately 27 t of meat could be obtained from this catch </li></ul><ul><li>Taipei sold a total volume of 42 t of Whale Shark between Jan and Aug 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imported illegally from India and Philippines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current political situation between China and Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whale Sharks caught near Taiwan have tender meat </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusions
  25. 25. Recommendations <ul><li>Investigate the claims that imported Whale Shark meat is entering Taiwan through unofficial channels and, if necessary, introduce measures to address this </li></ul><ul><li>Review the merits of alternative uses of Whale Shark, such as ecotourism, by conducting a feasibility study </li></ul><ul><li>Promote international co-operation, for example, tagging </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reference <ul><li>Martin, R. A. (2007). &quot;A review of behavioural ecology of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus).&quot; Fisheries Research 84(1): 10-16. </li></ul>