Tilapia - a global commodity
The ‘aquatic chicken’ comes of
               age

          Eric Roderick
  Executive Direct...
What is Fishgen?
A Swansea University Spin-out company,
 set up in collaboration with the UK
 government’s Department for...
What are tilapia?
   A tropical freshwater fish species originating in Africa (over 100
    species, but Nile tilapia - O...
Female Tilapia
                 mouthbrooding eggs. A
                 typical clutch varies from
                 500 to ...
Pictures from inside
one of the Stepped
pyramids in Saqqara,
Egypt.


The pyramid was
constructed in the 27th
Century B.C....
Typical tilapia pond harvest in Egypt
Tilapia production
Currently second in volume to carps
Prediction: Tilapia will become most
 important aquaculture crop ...
Tilapia Culture Systems
  Tilapia harvesting in Thailand           Ivory Coast fisherman




Intensive raceway Tilapia far...
Genetics in Aquaculture
  An embryonic science?




                (Adapted from Gjedrem, 1997)
Fishgen’s ultimate goal!
World Tilapia Production of
                    Others
                                2,348,656 mt in 2006
         Ameri...
Honduras   Malaysia
World Tilapia Production of                Costa Rica
                                                ...
Tilapia the “Green” farmed fish
 Herbivore  / omnivore, low trophic level feeder
 Algae, bacteria, and detritus (biofloc...
Global production of tilapia
                                                             Aquaculture           Fishery

 ...
According to SOFIA 2008 (State of the World’s Fisheries and
Aquaculture) released by FAO, Aquaculture produces almost
50% ...
Top Ten Seafoods (U.S.)
                                                     per capita (lbs)
       2000          2001   ...
US Consumption of tilapia from
                                           domestic and imported sources
                  ...
A major new initiative set up in July 2007 is the formation
of the American Coalition for Tilapia (ACT) made up of
produce...
Tilapia situation in Latin America
Early  in year, fresh sales from
 Central and South America increased
Late in year, s...
Tilapia situation in Latin America
Decreased   fresh sales from Ecuador
 and Peru
Increased fresh sales from Brazil,
 Ni...
Fishgen’s partner in Costa Rica, Til-Gen

                                A new totally biosecure
                        ...
Fishgen’s
partner in
Brazil –
Sta Isabel
Tilapia situation in Asia
Huge   decrease in frozen sales from
 China in early part of year due to
 winter kill
Increase...
December 18, 2008
 Government    of China proposes to ban
  use of CO for treatment of tilapia (and
  other fish and meat...
Tilapia processing
                in Hainan, China




Above – Hand
filleting to
produce the
fillets (seen
left)
Hapas and concrete tanks used for genetic studies in
Fishgen’s production centre in the Philippines
Tilapia (2008), Tesco, UK)





Tilapia – the UK market.
Early 80’s - 1 farm, ( very small production on an eel farm in Devon) then in the
late 80’s, a mu...
In 2008 all Tesco’s fish were imported from Jamaica which has historically been
the only source of whole tilapia to all th...
Fishgen’s
                     Partner in
                     Spain -
                     Valaqua




Fishgen’s USA
Part...
Demands on farmers and processors
   Demand for even more food safety, high quality,
    “organic” or “green” tilapia pro...
Developing countries improved quality control:
  Required for US, EU, and Japan markets
 Samples checked for
  bacterial ...
Improvements in packaging
IQF Fillets
in re-sealable
  packages
Industry by-products
 Formed   fish products
 Fertilizer
 Fish meal
 Leather goods and pharmaceuticals from
  skins
 ...
Organic Tilapia
There is no globally accepted Organic Certification
for tilapia, and currently only 2 farms worldwide
are ...
New product
    forms
Smoked tilapia



                 Sashimi grade
                 tilapia
Tilapia Orange Juice
Flowers made from Tilapia scales
Leather goods made from
Tilapia skin, produced in
Brazil
Global Aquaculture Tilapia Sales

For    year 2000 =US $ 1,744,045000
 (FAO FishStat 2007)

2005     sales = $ 2,457,312...
Future Trends
 Additional processing in producer countries
 Need to meet stricter food safety, quality,
 and environment...
Metric tons (000)




             1,000
             1,500
             2,000
             2,500
             3,000
     ...
Conclusions
 Global  tilapia production will exceed
  3,000,000 metric tons in 2010.
 Constantly improving production sy...
Our Fishgen tilapia come fully trained!




            Thank you
A global outlook for Tilapia and the potential for growth in the UK tilapia industry
A global outlook for Tilapia and the potential for growth in the UK tilapia industry
A global outlook for Tilapia and the potential for growth in the UK tilapia industry
A global outlook for Tilapia and the potential for growth in the UK tilapia industry
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A global outlook for Tilapia and the potential for growth in the UK tilapia industry

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A global outlook for Tilapia and the potential for growth in the UK tilapia industry

  1. 1. Tilapia - a global commodity The ‘aquatic chicken’ comes of age Eric Roderick Executive Director Fishgen Ltd CEFAS October 2009
  2. 2. What is Fishgen? A Swansea University Spin-out company, set up in collaboration with the UK government’s Department for International Development (DFID) and dedicated to supplying quality tilapia stocks for aquaculture worldwide We have exported to over 40 countries Identified with Genetically Male Tilapia (GMT®), a product unique to Fishgen Continuous R & D programme for development of new and better fish
  3. 3. What are tilapia?  A tropical freshwater fish species originating in Africa (over 100 species, but Nile tilapia - Oreochromis niloticus most common) and farmed by the ancient Egyptians over 4000 years ago to feed the Pharaohs.  Eggs hatched and fry reared on the International Space Station and just a few weeks ago another space launch carried tilapia fry into orbit.  Well suited to aquaculture – Hardy, adapts to a wide range of culture systems from freshwater to highly saline conditions – Easy to breed and fast growing, replacing over-fished local species – Introduced worldwide for aquaculture ranging from traditional extensive to modern intensive systems – Known as the “aquatic chicken”
  4. 4. Female Tilapia mouthbrooding eggs. A typical clutch varies from 500 to 1500 eggs, depending on the size of the female. Tilapia eggs (rich in yolk)
  5. 5. Pictures from inside one of the Stepped pyramids in Saqqara, Egypt. The pyramid was constructed in the 27th Century B.C. and the reliefs depict fishing for Tilapia using nets and bottles to store the catch.
  6. 6. Typical tilapia pond harvest in Egypt
  7. 7. Tilapia production Currently second in volume to carps Prediction: Tilapia will become most important aquaculture crop in this century (3 million Mt by 2010) Widest demand, no religious/cultural concerns, few environmental concerns More genetic potential Greatest variety of production systems
  8. 8. Tilapia Culture Systems Tilapia harvesting in Thailand Ivory Coast fisherman Intensive raceway Tilapia farm in Brazil Cage farm in Zimbabwe
  9. 9. Genetics in Aquaculture An embryonic science? (Adapted from Gjedrem, 1997)
  10. 10. Fishgen’s ultimate goal!
  11. 11. World Tilapia Production of Others 2,348,656 mt in 2006 Americas Africa Asia
  12. 12. Honduras Malaysia World Tilapia Production of Costa Rica United States 2,792,498 mt in 2008 Vietnam Others Ecuador Cuba Colombia Bangladesh Indonesia China Brasil Taiwan Thailand Mexico Egypt Philippines
  13. 13. Tilapia the “Green” farmed fish  Herbivore / omnivore, low trophic level feeder  Algae, bacteria, and detritus (bioflocs) are important food sources  Prepared feeds are mostly cereals and agriculture by-products such as rice bran.  Promoted by aid agencies and NGO’s  Disease resistant and tolerant of poor water quality. Anti-biotics and chemicals are not needed for commercial farming.
  14. 14. Global production of tilapia Aquaculture Fishery 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 Metric tons 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 2010(est) 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
  15. 15. According to SOFIA 2008 (State of the World’s Fisheries and Aquaculture) released by FAO, Aquaculture produces almost 50% of all fish eaten around the world, amounting to 52 million tonnes worth $78.8 billion. This is a massive rise from just 9% in 1980. The report also shows continuing declines in yields of capture fisheries, along with a rise of 80% in the number of fisheries that are fully or over exploited. 43.5 million people are directly employed in capture fisheries and aquaculture, with 86% of them living in Asia. Tilapia global sales for 2009 are predicted to be worth $5 billion.
  16. 16. Top Ten Seafoods (U.S.) per capita (lbs) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Tuna 3.5 Shrimp 3.4 Shrimp 3.7 Shrimp 4.0 Shrimp 4.2 Shrimp 4.1 Shrimp 4.4 Shrimp 4.1 Shrimp 4.1 Shrimp 3.2 Tuna 2.9 Tuna 3.1 Tuna 3.4 Tuna 3.4 Tuna 3.1 Tuna 2.9 Tuna 2.7 Tuna 2.8 Pollock 1.6 Salmon 2.0 Salmon 2.0 Salmon 2.2 Salmon 2.2 Salmon 2.4 Salmon 2.0 Salmon 2.4 Salmon 1.8 Salmon 1.5 Pollock 1.2 Pollock 1.1 Pollock 1.7 Pollock 1.7 Pollock 1.5 Pollock 1.6 Pollock 1.7 Pollock 1.34 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.0 Tilapia 1.0 Tilapia 1.14 Tilapia 1.19 Cod 0.8 Cod 0.6 Cod 0.7 Cod 0.6 Tilapia 0.7 Tilapia 0.8 Catfish 0.97 Catfish 0.90 Catfish 0.92 Clams 0.5 Clams 0.5 Crabs 0.6 Crabs 0.6 Cod 0.6 Crabs 0.6 Crabs 0.7 Crabs 0.68 Crabs 0.61 Crabs 0.4 Crabs 0.4 Clams 0.5 Tilapia 0.5 Crabs 0.6 Cod 0.6 Cod 0.5 Cod 0.47 Cod 0.44 Flatfish 0.4 Flatfish 0.4 Tilapia 0.4 Clams 0.5 Clams 0.5 Clams 0.4 Clams 0.4 Clams 0.45 Flatfish 0.43 Scallops 0.3 Tilapia 0.4 Flatfish 0.3 Scallops 0.3 Scallops 0.3 Scallops 0.3 Scallops 0.3 Flatfish 0.32 Clams 0.42 Tilapia 0.3
  17. 17. US Consumption of tilapia from domestic and imported sources 500,000 450,000 400,000 Tilapia (000's of kg of live weight) 350,000 300,000 250,000 Domestic Imports 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
  18. 18. A major new initiative set up in July 2007 is the formation of the American Coalition for Tilapia (ACT) made up of producers representing almost 100% of the fresh tilapia fillets currently sold in the USA. “ The unifying purpose of the group is to promote the image, benefits and quality of fresh tilapia fillets produced in the Americas.” This is a direct result of the FDA report restricting some farmed fish imports into the USA from Asia. A priority for ACT is the Carbon Monoxide used in China to enhance shelf life and fresh appearance of frozen tilapia fillets.
  19. 19. Tilapia situation in Latin America Early in year, fresh sales from Central and South America increased Late in year, severe problem with letters of credit Importers cannot borrow to buy fish Slumping exports to the US Only biggest firms with cash can continue buying
  20. 20. Tilapia situation in Latin America Decreased fresh sales from Ecuador and Peru Increased fresh sales from Brazil, Nicaragua, Honduras, Colombia, Costa Rica
  21. 21. Fishgen’s partner in Costa Rica, Til-Gen A new totally biosecure hatchery supplying broodstock to Central America. Individual fry rearing units allow different strains to be reared separately.
  22. 22. Fishgen’s partner in Brazil – Sta Isabel
  23. 23. Tilapia situation in Asia Huge decrease in frozen sales from China in early part of year due to winter kill Increased frozen sales from Indonesia and Thailand By end of year, China equaled 2007 sales volume, but large increase in value
  24. 24. December 18, 2008  Government of China proposes to ban use of CO for treatment of tilapia (and other fish and meat products).  Final decision to be made in 2009.  Production costs in China rose 20% last year. Expect 10%+ increases in coming years.
  25. 25. Tilapia processing in Hainan, China Above – Hand filleting to produce the fillets (seen left)
  26. 26. Hapas and concrete tanks used for genetic studies in Fishgen’s production centre in the Philippines
  27. 27. Tilapia (2008), Tesco, UK) 
  28. 28. Tilapia – the UK market. Early 80’s - 1 farm, ( very small production on an eel farm in Devon) then in the late 80’s, a much larger operation in Derby, utilising waste heat from Courtalls Textile Factory. Early 90’s - several new high tech indoor recirculation units built specifically to grow tilapia. Lots of early problems which are now being overcome. Today 11 tilapia farms in the UK, one UK hatchery, and 5 academic research facilities, + another 12 small buyers of tilapia fry for backyard operations or integrated aquaponics units. Total production for the UK (under optimum conditions and based on the farm sizes) should be 800 tonnes, but due to some teething troubles, actual production at the moment is nearer 300 tonnes. The previous slide gave a price of £8.99 / kilo, in early 2008. Actual price today in Tesco is £3.00 per fish (around 500g) equating to £6.00 / kilo. UK farm gate prices range from £2.34 to £4.00 per Kg for Whole Round fish depending on the volume and purchaser. Imported Chinese frozen fillets cost £1.11 landed cost!
  29. 29. In 2008 all Tesco’s fish were imported from Jamaica which has historically been the only source of whole tilapia to all the UK supermarkets. Tesco’s tilapia label today states that the fish are sourced from Indonesia, Ecuador, Honduras, Zimbabwe and the UK. In July, Fish Farming International published interviews with the three largest global tilapia production companies: Regal Springs (60,000 mt in 2008, 71,000 predicted in 2009 with farms in Honduras, Indonesia and Mexico), AquaChile (22,000 mt in 2008 with farms in Chile, Costa Rica, USA and Panama) and Tropical Aquaculture Products Inc (10,200 mt for 2008 with farms in Ecuador Costa Rica, Columbia and Brazil) and they were all increasingly targeting European markets where prices are higher than their main market in the USA. Belgium’s Vitafish, the largest recirculation farm in Europe built a few years ago at a cost of £15 million, with a target production of 4000 tonnes of tilapia, has just gone into receivership, due to massive disease issues brought about by importing cheap tilapia fry from Thailand. Importing fry caries significant risks.
  30. 30. Fishgen’s Partner in Spain - Valaqua Fishgen’s USA Partner – Til-tech
  31. 31. Demands on farmers and processors  Demand for even more food safety, high quality, “organic” or “green” tilapia products. - Reduce or eliminate use of methyl-testosterone hormone. - No anti-biotics or other chemicals - Reduce environmental impacts - More integrated, re-use water for farming crops - Re-use processing waste products  More value-added tilapia products  More demand for all forms, especially frozen meals  Rapidly increasing demand from Europe
  32. 32. Developing countries improved quality control: Required for US, EU, and Japan markets  Samples checked for bacterial and chemical contamination  Follow HACCP procedures, ISO, and EU guidelines  Many plants are using ozone dips to reduce surface bacteria
  33. 33. Improvements in packaging
  34. 34. IQF Fillets in re-sealable packages
  35. 35. Industry by-products  Formed fish products  Fertilizer  Fish meal  Leather goods and pharmaceuticals from skins  Biodiesel (Honduras farm produces 300,000 gallons annually using fish waste from the processing plant).
  36. 36. Organic Tilapia There is no globally accepted Organic Certification for tilapia, and currently only 2 farms worldwide are producing organic tilapia. HQ Sustainable Maritime Industries, a big USA company grows its 40,000 tonnes of tilapia in Hainan Island, in China and the Chinese government certify that 5000 tonnes is produced organically under the “TiLove Ya” brand. Regal Springs – another US company with tilapia production in Honduras and Indonesia markets 2% of its Honduran production as Organic, certified by Natureland and Biosuisse. Regal Springs gets 100% premium prices for its organic fish.
  37. 37. New product forms Smoked tilapia Sashimi grade tilapia
  38. 38. Tilapia Orange Juice
  39. 39. Flowers made from Tilapia scales
  40. 40. Leather goods made from Tilapia skin, produced in Brazil
  41. 41. Global Aquaculture Tilapia Sales For year 2000 =US $ 1,744,045000 (FAO FishStat 2007) 2005 sales = $ 2,457,312,000 (FAO FishStat 2007) 2010 sales >$ 5,000,000,000
  42. 42. Future Trends  Additional processing in producer countries  Need to meet stricter food safety, quality, and environmental criteria  More demands for food safety, quality assurance, improved packaging, and environmental safeguards (with little if any increase in price)  Farmers and processors will need to meet these demands by increasing efficiency, not price
  43. 43. Metric tons (000) 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 0 500 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009(est) 2010(est) 2011 (est) Future global tilapia aquaculture
  44. 44. Conclusions  Global tilapia production will exceed 3,000,000 metric tons in 2010.  Constantly improving production systems with demands for more sustainability.  More demands for food safety, quality assurance, improved packaging, and environmental safeguards (with little if any increase in price)  ISO, HACCP and NGO certifications will be a fact of life.
  45. 45. Our Fishgen tilapia come fully trained! Thank you

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